The extract of the US Army Technical Manual below was transcribed from the original filed with the Op-16-Z records at the U.S. National Archives facility at College Park MD.  You can view the current US Army Field Manual on Intelligence Interrogation (FM34-52) at the GlobalSecurity.org website
     
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  (Extract from TM 30-210 Dept Army Technical Manual "Interrogation Procedures")  
     
  8.  PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH TO INTERROGATION  
     
          (a)  General.  One important aspect of interrogation is the "approach."  Without proper contact successful questioning of a POW may never materialize, and the situation may get out of control and degenerate into an argument.  The decision as to what approach to employ depends on the interrogator's psychological evaluation of the POW and on the personality of the interrogator.  Each interrogator is expected to develop his own techniques and acquire proficiency from experience.  The skilled interrogator selects his approach on the basis of his knowledge of techniques and his ability to apply them to individual cases in accordance with his evaluation of that case, always keeping interrogation mission foremost in mind.  
     
          b.  General Psychology.  Psychology is the study of human behavior and its causation.  Interrogators must conscientiously strive to increase their knowledge of human behavior in order to be able to accomplish their mission.  A basic knowledge of practical psychology will enable the interrogator to better evaluate his subjects.  The following are examples of human behavior which may be useful to the interrogator:  
     
                  (1)  Human beings tend to be talkative, especially after harrowing experiences.  
     
                  (2)  Human beings tend to be deferential when confronted by superior authority, and are therefore inclined to be cooperative with persons demonstrating power.  
     
                  (3)  Human beings seek opportunities to rationalize acts about which they feel guilty.  
     
                  (4)  Human beings, under pressure, tend to forget what they have been taught, especially if such lessons have not been practiced to the point of becoming habitual.  For example, instructions received on resisting interrogation beyond the name-rank-serial number and date of birth catechism are unlikely to be lived up to.  In the excitement and strain of capture, resistance to interrogation usually becomes an individual performance dictated by habit, conditioned responses, and circumstances at the time of interrogation.  
     
                  (5)  Human beings tend to attach less importance to their own information when someone else demonstrates that he too possesses the same, or related, information.  
     
                  (6)  Human beings tend to appreciate flattery and exoneration from guilt.  
     
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                  (7)  Human beings resent the belittling of cherished individuals or ideals, and may be aroused to the extent of sharp verbal defense.  
     
                  (8)  Human beings are likely to respond to kindness and understanding, especially under severe and unfamiliar conditions.  
     
                  (9)  Human beings tend to liberalize rules in the light of the particular situation in which they find themselves, rather than to follow their instruction literally.  Few interrogees will stop talking after they have once stated their name, rank, date of birth, and serial number.  Having begun talking, the tendency is to continue.  
     
          c.  Applied Psychology.  Applied psychology is merely the application of such tendencies as those given above to interrogation techniques.  The interrogator applies his knowledge of human behavior, for example by purposely avoiding certain questions, during interrogation and substituting other questions, or by assuming certain moods or attitudes because he thinks they will be more productive of results.  Since the variables in any interrogation situation are many, no simple hard and fast rule can be set down for the application of psychological techniques.  
     
          d.  Types of Approach.  Numerous devices mat be effectively employed by the interrogator to establish mental contact or rapport with an interrogee.  At the outset it should be emphasized that the objective of an interrogation is seldom, if ever, to obtain an admission or a confession.  The subject is interrogated for accurate and reliable information.  The use of physical or psychological duress in this type of situation is generally unproductive and an indication of frustration  and lack of ability on the part of the interrogator.  Several types of interrogation approaches are listed below.  There are many others: in fact, the variety of approaches is limited only by the initiative, imagination, and ingenuity of the interrogator.  The approach should be tailored to suit each individual case, and may be combined with other methods to suit special requirements.  
     
                  (1)  Direct approach.  In this method the interrogator seemingly "lays the cards on the table," apparently making no attempt to hide the purpose of the questioning.  This approach should be used only in cases where the interrogator assumes or knows that the person interrogated will not refuse to give information.  It is especially suitable for questioning persons who have little security training.  The advantage of this method is that important information can usually be obtained in the minimum of time.  An oversimplified direct approach may employ the following order of questions, leading directly to the pursuit of the information desired.  
                          (a)  Name?  
                          (b)  Rank?  
                          (c)  Serial Number?  
                          (d)  Unit?  
     
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                  (2)  Stressing the futility of withholding information.  With this approach the interrogator attempts to convince the POW that security considerations are no longer valid.  Various bits of information must be selected to fit the facts of the situation.  It is essential that the interrogator be well informed about the general and specific situation and any physical, social, political, economic, psychological, or moral weaknesses of the enemy which may be exploited to advantage.  Following are some of the more common ideas which can be subtly employed in connection with this approach.  
           
                          (a)  Withholding of information is futile, since defeat is already inevitable for the subject's country, force, or unit.  
     
                          (b)  The information no longer has any significance, since the situation under discussion has already culminated.  
     
                          (c)  Comrades have already given all the important information.  
     
                          (d)  Uncooperative persons receive less consideration in detention camps.  Withholding of information means prolonging the war, with more eventual casualties among his relatives and "buddies".  
     
                  (3)  Rapid fire questioning.  This method consists of a rapidly delivered series of questions which keeps the POW constantly on the defensive and off balance thereby weakening resistance an/or his determination to give evasive answers.  When this approach is employed the POW often loses patience, becomes angry, offended, or confused, and begins to talk in self defense.  Once the POW has begun to talk, he tends to become more involved and perhaps more angry, to the point where his judgment is adversely affected and he inadvertently reveals more than he had intended.  The interrogator who uses this approach should vary the subject matter of his questions.  He should ask non-military as well as military questions in rapid succession.  This change of procedure sometimes enables the interrogator to ferret out the topics most sensitive to the POW and create an opening for further exploitation.  This approach is difficult to control and should not be attempted by unskilled interrogators.  
     
                  (4)  Emotional approach.  This approach consists of playing upon the emotions of a person in order to bring out the required information.  When using this approach, the interrogator creates an atmosphere of emotional confusion designed to reduce security consciousness.  The emotional approach utilizes hate, revenge, fear, jealousy, sadness, pity, and similar emotions.  It also exploits religious and patriotic feelings, sense of social duty, and other concepts based on emotional reactions.  Two examples of techniques are - -  
     
                          (a)  The first, and by far the easiest method, is to take advantage of the POW's personal problems.  After determining his personal problems, the interrogator paints a harrowing word picture of the POW's situation.  A clever interrogator, using this method, can sometimes bring a sensitive person to the point of tears and despondency within a very short time.  Interrogation becomes comparatively easy after this point has been reached.  
     
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                          (b)  The second and more difficult, method of utilizing the emotional approach is for the interrogator himself to stimulate a temperamental outburst for the purpose of creating an acute feeling of insecurity and anxiety in the POW.  Once such emotional pressure is applied, the POW should not be given an opportunity to recover his composure.  The interrogator may raise his voice and pound the table, storm up and down and generally conduct himself in such a manner as to alarm the POW to a point of talking to relieve his apprehension.  This approach is most difficult to achieve and can only be utilized by an interrogator with experience and psychological insight, as well as the ability to play a role.  
     
                  (5)  Trickery.  This approach has an almost limitless number of variations.  Its purpose is to cause the POW to divulge information without being aware of it, or without a conscious or wilful choice in the matter.  Trickery may vary from the simple device of telling a group of interrogation prospects to answer by name when the number of their regiment is called to elaborate systems involving monitoring equipment and informers within an enclosure.  The numerous variations within this approach are a constant challenge to the ingenuity of the interrogator.  He must, of course, choose that form of trickery which will fit a particular set of circumstances, his personality, and the personality and intelligence of the person interrogated so as to make him more susceptible to future interrogation.  It is important therefore, that the method be successfully handled each time it is attempted.  It is further important that a POW never become aware of the fact that he has been or is being tricked.  Where time is limited, trickery is especially advantageous and useful since important information can sometimes quickly be obtained thereby from high-ranking or security conscious POWs.  The more elaborate forms of ruses, designed to obtain continuous and complete information, are not suited to lower command levels.  
     
                  (6)  Variations.  Any of the usual approaches may be varied in many ways.  Here are some variations which might fit into any of the categories of the approaches already discussed.  
     
                          (a)  Sympathy.  The interrogator adopts a sympathetic manner assuring the person interrogated that justice and good treatment will be accorded him.  In some instances the interrogator, or a collaborator, will associate informally with the POW prior to interrogation.  This friendly attitude may enable the interrogator to elicit identifications, locations, and other information which would be refused during formal or direct interrogation.  
     
                          (b)  Sternness.  As the term implies, the interrogator appears particularly grim and uninviting.  With youthful or frightened persons, a very stern but just attitude is often useful.  Some people are most susceptible to an interrogator who inspired awe by means of a very severe attitude.  
     
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  When utilizing this approach, the interrogator never gives the impression that he is bluffing; once he does, he will lose control of the interrogation.  
     
                          (c)  Pride and ego.  This approach is sometimes successful with nominally security-minded commissioned or non-commissioned officers.  It may work on persons who may have feelings of inferiority.  It is a psychological stratagem designed to goad the interrogee into giving information.  A real or imaginary deficiency within the enemy army or country or a particular shortcoming in a given POW's character can provide an opening for this approach.  An example of "pride and ego" question is:  "Why did you surrender so easily when you still had plenty of ammunition to defend your position?"  If the prisoner attempts to defend or vindicate himself by offering proof that he did not surrender easily, he almost invariably provided some information which will give the interrogator his lead for the next question.  
     
                          (d)  National pride.  This approach is similar to the "pride and ego" approach, in that the interrogee is taunted into giving information.  In this case, however, the interrogator's remarks are designed to attack the POW's ideals concerning government, family, or homeland in order to tempt him to make rash statements.  A "patriotic" prisoner can almost always be drawn into conversation in this manner.  
     
                          (e)  Face saving.  Some POW's will talk if they can be made to feel that it will not subject them to the ridicule or public condemnation of others.  Orientals, particularly are susceptible to this treatment.  A hint that he write the answer and leave it in his quarters if he will not tell you, or that the subject may be classified as to disclosure to civilians, but surely not between military men, may have astonishing results.  
     
                          (f)  Bluff.  THis approach can be very effective, but can be easily abused.  If an interrogator decides he wants to bluff, he must be very sure of his ground.  Once the POW determines the interrogator is guessing or lying, the interrogator may lose control, and the interrogation may have to be turned over to another interrogator.  A good example of a purely psychological bluff at tactical level would be to place several deserters, or similarly vulnerable prisoners who are reluctant to talk into a vehicle and give them the idea that they are to be returned to their own lines.  Such individuals would of course be most unwilling to be turned over to their own forces as deserters and if the bluff is not called, and it seldom is, it would undoubtedly result in successful interrogation.  
     
                          (g)  Fear.  Play on apprehension, superstition, and fear of a POW may be effective if used under appropriate circumstances.  
     
                          (h)  Drawing attention away from the real object.  No interrogator worth his salt will let a prisoner know what he, the interrogator, is really after.  The questions should be asked in random sequence, minor points (especially if the POW is reluctant to discuss them) may be stressed to draw his attention away from the true target and cause him to inadvertently reval important facts.  This "jumbling" of questions should include "dummy" questions which are of no  
     
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  importance, to keep him from learning the importance of a desired bit of information and putting his uninterrogated comrades on their guard.  
     
                          (i)  Threat and rescue.  This approach technique combines the "stern approach" with the "kindness and sympathy" approach as discussed above.  It is one of the rarer techniques of interrogation where the use of two interrogators is recommended.  One interrogator is very stern and blustery acting, very antagonistic.  The other interrogator is sympathetic, giving the impression that he wants to help the POW.  After the "mean" interrogator leaves the POW in disgust, the "friendly" interrogator goes to work.  
     
                          (j)  Concealed identity.  In this approach the interrogator insists that the POW is not the person he purports to be.  Since proper identification is important to any captive, he will offer circumstantial proof of his identity, incidentally revealing some useful information such as his unit, locations, names of officers, and other pertinent data.  
     
                          (k)  "We know all".  This is one of the basic approaches.  In this, as in all interrogation approaches, the interrogator familiarizes himself with all available data on the POW and his unit or whatever subject is being explored.  He asks questions to which he already has the answers and scornfully answers them himself when the POW hesitates.  He is striving to convince the POW that he already knows all the POW does so that resistance is wasted effort.  When the prisoner starts giving correct information and answers freely, a few "mystery" questions can be slipped in.  Dummy questions should still be used from time to time to test the POW, to conceal from him the fact that he is giving new information, and to prevent him from realizing that he is "spilling the beans".  
     
                          (l)  Stupid interrogator.  In this approach the interrogator pretends to be a stupid individual with very little understanding of military or other matters.  This device may have the desired effect of disarming the person interrogated.  The POW is required to "explain" everything (Even inconsequential items) because the interrogator is so "stupid."  
     
                          (m)  Other variations.  Other attitudes which the interrogator may employ are - -  
     
                                  1.  Officer of a winning army to solider of a defeated one.  
                                  2.  Officer to enlisted man.  
                                  3.  Friend to friend.  
                                  4.  One soldier to another, one musician to another, one religious faith to another, etc.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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