Op-16-Z                                                                                                   S E C R E T
 
                                                                                                                 Copy No.  ____ of 46
 
     
 
NAVY DEPARTMENT
 
 
OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF NAVAL OPERATIONS
 
 
WASHINGTON
 
     
     
 
Final Report - G/Serial 37
 
 
 
REPORT ON THE
 
 
INTERROGATION OF SURVIVORS FROM U-1059
 
 
SUNK 19 MARCH 1944
 
     
     
     
  DISTRIBUTION:  
          BAD  
          BUORD  
          BUSHIPS  
          BUSHIPS (Code 515)  
          BUSHIPS (Code 815)  
          COMINCH (F-21)  
          COMINCH (F-4253)  
          COMINCH (F-45)  
          COMINCH (FX-40)  
          COMINCH (FX-43)  
          COMASDEVLANT  
          COMNAVEU  
          DNI (Ottawa)  
          G-2 (Col. Sweet)  
          Op-16-1 via Op-16-1-F  
          Op-16-FA-4  
          Op-16-P  
          Op-16-1-V  
          Op-16-W  
          Op-16-G  
          Op-16-C  
          SONRD  
          Lt. Cdr. V. R. Taylor  
          C.O. Naval Unit, Tracy, Calif.  
          Lt. J. I. Eiband (CSDIC, AFHQ)  
          Lt. S. R. Hatton (CSDIC, AFHQ)  
          Lt. J. T. Rugh, Jr. (JICA ME)  
          Lt. (j.g.) R. J. Mullen (4th Fleet)  
     
          14 June 1944  
 
 
 
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
     
 
       
Page
CHAPTER
I.
  INTRODUCTION
1
 
   
 
II.
  DETAILS OF U-1059
4
 
   
 
III.
  EARLY HISTORY OF U-1059
21
 
   
 
IV.
  FIRST AND ONLY PATROL OF U-1059
28
 
   
 
V.
  SINKING OF U-1059
31
 
   
 
VI.
  CREW OF U-1059
35
 
   
 
VII.
  REMARKS OF GENERAL INTEREST
38
 
   
 
VIII.
  OTHER U-BOATS
46
         
ANNEX
  CREW LIST OF U-1059 AND U.S. EQUIVALENTS OF GERMAN NAVAL RANKS
         
         
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
     
Facing Page
Plate I.   Compartmentation of Type VII-F U-Boats. 6
         
  II.   Saddle Tanks on Type VII-F 14
         
  III.   Naxos G.S.R. Aerial. 16
         
  IV.   First and Only Patrol of U-1059. 28
         
  Va.   Walter Boat. 42
         
  Vb.   Details of Stern of Walter Boat. 42
 
     
 
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CHAPTER I.  INTRODUCTION
 
     
          On 19 March 1944 at 0826 U-1059, under the command of Oberleutnant z.S. Gunter Leupold, was sighted by a TBF and a FM from Commander Task Group 21.16 in position 13.10 N. - 33.44 W.  The U-boat was fully surfaced and lying dead in the water.  Her captain and a number of crew members were taking a morning swim.  After 2 strafing runs by the fighter plane and an extremely effective depth-charge attack by TBF, the submarine broke her back and sank stern first within a minute and a half.  
     
          Of some 15 or 16 original survivors seen struggling in the oily water only 8, including the captain, were found alive when U.S.S. CORRY arrived to pick them up.  All were wounded or injured except 1 seaman who was transferred later to U.S.S. BLOCK ISLAND.  They were all subsequently brought to the United States for interrogation and treatment.  
     
          The details of U-1059 are of particular interest inasmuch as she was a Type VII-F U-boat of 1100 tons surface displacement, the first of this type from which prisoners have been taken.  The Germania Yards, Kiel built 4 U-boats in this series:  U-1059, U-1060, U-1061, and U-1062.  The first to be commissioned was U-1059 on 1 May 1943.  
     
          Type VII-F differs from the 500-ton Type VII-C U-boat in that a small supply and bunk-room 2 maters long has been added directly aft of the control room, and directly aft of that a larger supply-compartment 10 meters long, called the Torpedo  
     
 
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  Storage Room (Torpedolagerraum).  As a maximum the latter compartment could carry 22 torpedoes, but on her only patrol U-1059 had just 11 torpedoes stowed there in addition to 16 others stowed in the forward compartment, the aft compartment, the upper deck containers, and in the tubes.  The rest of the space in the storage compartment was taken up by boxes of machine-parts, radio parts, provisions.  
     
          The increased length of Type VII-F also made possible a greater fuel capacity:  260 cubic meters as opposed to 136 cubic meters on Type VII-C.  
     
          The comments of U-1059's survivors indicate that Type VII-F is unsatisfactory in several respects.  The Commanding Officer says his boat was unbelievably awkward, extremely hard to handle in a rough sea, in short "a piece of cheese".  The petty officer prisoner, a coxswain, is more restrained in his comments but points out that U-1059 vibrated severely at 16 knots or faster, a defect he didn't find on the 2 Type VII-C boats he served on formerly.  He thinks, furthermore, that the Torpedo Storage Compartment is not strong enough and would invariably be the first part of the pressure-hull to give way in any sustained attack.  
     
          U-1059 was on her way to the German U-boat base at Penang, and her commander had originally expected to make the whole voyage without further fuel or supplies.  The plan was later changed, however, and he theoretically would have met a supply U-boat near the 13th parallel north on or about 23 March, i.e., 4 days after the sinking.  
     
          At the base in Penang the U-boat was to deliver the  
     
 
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  machine-parts and some of her torpedoes.  (O.N.I. Note:  Presumably the 8 electric torpedoes and 3 air-driven torpedoes carried as cargo in the Torpedo Storage Compartment.  Her schedule called for 1 operational patrol in the Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf, a return to Penang, and then a long cruise to her prospective base at Bordeaux, where she would have joined the 12th Flotilla.  
     
          Another Type VII-F U-boat, U-1062, under command of Oberleutnant z.S. Albrecht, a Reservist, was also expected to attempt a similar run to Penang, but it was stated that intercepts of her radio reports to Control had abruptly ceased about 17 March 1944, leading to the belief that she had perhaps been lost.  U-1061, on the other hand, may possibly have reached Penang by mid-May 1944.  
     
          Still another of the four VII-F U-boats, U-1060, was stated to be engaged in delivering torpedoes from Kiel to Narvik, having already made 2 such trips by March 1944.  The number of torpedoes delivered was estimated to be about 40 each trip, with the Torpedo Storage Compartment filled to its capacity of 22.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
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CHAPTER II.  DETAILS OF U-1059
 
     
  TONNAGE.  
     
          1100 tons displacement on surface, 1300 tons submerged.  (In the sense that all Type VII U-boat are classed as 500-ton boats, Type VII-F U-boats are sometimes likewise classified by the Germans as 500-tonners.)  
     
  TYPE.  
     
          VII-F, a modification of VII-C.  
     
  BUILDING YARD.  
     
          Germania, Kiel.  First of the series U-1059, U-1060, U-1061, U-1062, with yard numbers G-693, G-694, G-695, G-696, respectively.  
     
  FLOTILLA.  
     
          To be attached temporarily to the branch of the 12th Flotilla at Penang, later to the 12th Flotilla proper at Bordeaux.  
     
  FIELD POST NUMBER.  
     
          M-43973.  
     
  PATRON.  
     
          None.  
     
  CODE NAME.  
     
          None.  
     
  CALL LETTERS.  
     
          XYG.  
     
 
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  INSIGNIA.  
     
          Fighting cock with up-raised foot on 3-cornered shield.  Fitted to either side of conning-tower but removed the day before sailing on patrol.  Worn, however, on caps of crew members.  
     
  DIMENSIONS.  
     
          (a)  Length overall approximately 260 ft.  or 12 meters longer than VII-C boats.  
     
          (b)  Beam approximately 26 ft. or 2 meters greater than VII-C boats.  
     
          (c)  Draft approximately 16 ft. aft, 15 ft. 3 in. forward.  
     
  CAMOUFLAGE.  
     
          None other than her paint color:  dark or bluish gray above water and grayish brown below water.  
     
  CONSTRUCTION.  
     
          (a)  Pressure Hull.  
     
                  (1)  18 mm. thick; conning tower and end-plates 23 mm. thick.  
     
                  (2)  Approximately 183 ft. long  
     
                  (3)  Diameter of pressure hull same as in VII-C boats, except that the new torpedo storage compartment had an oversized pressure hull said to be about 19 ft. in diameter, tapering off to normal size forward in the radio room and aft in the galley.  
     
          (b)  Complementation same as VII-C except for two additional compartments;  
     
 
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Click this text to view Plate I:  Complementation of Type VII-F U-boats

     
 
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                  (1)  A small Petty Officer room (Kleiner U-raum) 2 meters long abaft the control room, containing 2 bunks, a head, one of the two distillation units, an ice-box, the boat's store of flour, sugar, coffee and other provisions.  
     
                  (2)  The principal feature of Type VII-F is the torpedo storage compartment, 10 meters long, abaft the small P.O. room (see above, also see Plate I).  Instead of carrying a capacity load of 22 torpedoes in this room, U-1059 carried 11 torpedoes plus provisions, ammunition, spare parts, and cargo for the German U-boat base at Penang.  The cargo, in part consisted of 4 boxes of machine-parts, each box about 6-1/2 ft. x 4 ft. x 4 ft., and some radio equipment.  Altogether, it was stated there was enough material to build a complete U-boat except for the engines.  
     
          (c)  Watertight bulkheads were 5 to 6 mm. thick.  The only pressure-proof bulkheads were at either end of the control room and were 18 mm. thick.  Plywood bulkheads at forward end of galley and of officers' quarters.  
     
          (d)  Distance between deck and pressure hull:  estimated at 1 meter directly astern of conning tower, 1-1/2 meters aft, 2 meters forward.  
     
          (e)  Ribs estimated to be spaced 2 meters apart in control room and torpedo storage compartment, as opposed to 1.5 meters apart in forward and aft compartments.  
     
 
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          (f)  Usual hatches plus a torpedo hatch for the torpedo storage compartment with a diameter of 68 cm.  
     
          (g)  Periscopes standard.  
     
          (h)  Very unseaworthy.  (See Introductory Remarks.)  The radius of her turning circle was given as 80 meters at dead slow speed, 100 meters at slow speed, 150 meters at 3/4 speed, and 180 meters at emergency speed.  
     
  DIVING.  
     
          (a)  Although not tested in Kiel beyond the pressure equivalent of 460 ft., U-1059 was claimed by her builders to be able to withstand dives of 984 ft.  The deepest dive actually made was stated to be about 650 ft.  This was a practice dive near Bergen, Norway.  
     
          (b)  Crash diving time:  38 to 40 seconds to depth of 20 meters, with a diving angle of 15° to 35°.  An angle of 45° is dangerous although U-1059 once successfully came out of a dive of 48°.   
     
  GUN PLATFORMS.  
     
          Platforms I and II.  
     
  ARMAMENT.  
     
          Guns:  
     
                  (1)  Two machine-guns to be mounted on bridge "MG-81".  
     
                  (2)  Two twin-mount 2 cm. on Platform I, "C-38".  Elevation, 90°.  Depression estimated at 30°.  Two of four guns chrome-plated, other two partially chrome-plated.  
     
 
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  Two spare 2 cm. guns carried, not chrome-plated.  
     
                  (3)  One fully automatic 37-mm. on Platform II, "SK-C43" (Schnellfeuerkanons C43).  Elevation, 90°.  Depression estimated at 35°.  One spare barrel carried and 4 boxes of spare parts.  Barrels marked "583".  
     
                  (4)  Ten Mauser 7.65 pistols.  
     
                  (5)  Twenty hand-grenades, stowed in torpedo storage compartment.  Said to have an explosion delay of 35 to 0 seconds.  
     
                  (6)  One Belgian carbine and one double-barreled shot-gun.  
     
          Ammunition:  
     
                  (1)  For 2-cm. a total of 12,000 rounds carried, of which 500 were in 2 pressure-proof lockers on Platform I, at least 1500 in the control room, additional drums in the officers' room and 8,000 rounds in the torpedo storage compartment packed in boxes of 100 rounds each.  The four types of 2-cm. ammunition were loaded in this sequence:  1.  HE with tracer; 2. & 3. HE without tracer; 4. AP with phosphorous; 5. AP without phosphorus.  
     
                  (2)  For 37-mm. a total of 3,600 rounds, of which 270 were in 3 pressure-proof lockers on Platform II, 130 or more in the control-room, and the rest in the magazine in the officers' room.  A prisoner estimated this  
     
 
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  "Minenmunition" to have a range of 6,500 meters and said it was all tracer, but that every second projectile ceased glowing at about 4,000 meters.  
     
                  (3)  For the machine-guns 18,000 rounds in the torpedo storage room.  
     
                  (4)  For the pistols 2,800 rounds.  
     
                  (5)  For the carbine 250 rounds.  
     
          Torpedo Tubes:  
     
                  Five steel tubes, 4 forward and 1 aft.  
     
          Torpedoes:  Total carried, 27.  
     
                  (1)  Two T-5 torpedoes:  1 in tube 2 forward, 1 in tube 5 aft.  
     
                  (2)  Seven G7A torpedoes:  4 in upperdeck containers, 3 in torpedo storage compartment.  
     
                  (3)  Eighteen G7E or T-3 torpedoes:  8 in torpedo storage compartment 3 in forward tubes, 4 below floor plates forward and 2 above and 1 in stern compartment.  
     
  SPLINTER SHIELDS AT 37-MM. GUN.  
     
          Stated to be 15 mm. thick.  
     
  SCUTTLING CHARGES.  
     
          None set, but it was known that some were carried in the ammunition store in the officers' room.  
     
  S.B.T. (Submarine Bubble Target).  
     
          S.B.T.tube fitted in stern compartment, port side, but it was stated that no charges were carried.  
     
 
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  D.C.P. (Depth-charge plotter).  
     
          No depth-charge plotter fitted.  Unknown by prisoners.  
     
  PROPULSION.  
     
          (a)  Diesels.  
     
                  (1)  Two 6-cylinder Germania Diesels, marked "Krupp GW".  Non-reversible.  
     
                  (2)  R.P.M. normal for GW Diesels.  
     
                  (3)  Speeds at given r.p.m. slightly less than in VII-C U-boats.  Dead slow at 180 r.p.m. gave a speed of 6 knots; Emergency Speed at 480 r.p.m. gave 17.4 knots.  
     
          (b)  Auxiliary Diesels.  
     
                  None.  
     
          (c)  Fuel Oil Capacity.  
     
                  U-1059 carried 260 cubic meters of fuel oil for her Diesels, over 100 cubic meters more than Type VII-C U-boats.  
     
          (d)  Fuel Oil Consumption.  
     
                  Orders for the patrol provided for a daily average consumption of 1.6 cubic meters of fuel.  These orders were adhered to except for two or three stormy days, when the consumption rose to 2.2. cubic meters a day.  
     
          (e)  Lubricating Oil.  
     
                  An estimated 40 to 50 cubic meters carried.  
     
          (f)  Motors/Generators.  
     
                  (1)  A.E.G. equipment; 2 motor/generators.  
     
                  (2)  Motor speeds submerged:  
     
 
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Telegraph Speeds R.P.M. Speed
       
K.F. (Dead Slow)
60
  1.5 knots
 
   
L.F. (Slow)
114
  2.0 knots
 
   
H.F. (Half Speed)
160
  3.8 knots
 
   
G.F. (Full Speed)
250
  4.6 knots
       
A.K. (Emergency Speed)
295
  6.0 knots
 
     
                  (3)  Diesel-Electric Propulsion.  
     
                          The term "Marschfahrt (March Speed) was employed to designate an average speed of 8 knots, using one Diesel and one motor/generator.  This propulsion was frequently used; in rough weather, however, both Diesels were used when charging batteries, otherwise just one.  
     
          (h)  Propellers.  
     
                  Two propellers, standard, 3 blades.  
     
  BATTERIES.  
     
          Standard for all Type VII U-boats.  
     
  HYDROPLANES.  
     
          The following is a translation of some remarks by a petty officer prisoner:  "Operation of hydroplanes on VII-F is and remains the same procedure as on VII-C, except that I can couple both forward and aft planes together. . . and operate both simultaneously from either control.  Should these controls fail, there is in the control room a small box from which again I can serve both hydroplanes electrically.  The procedure is again the same."  
     
 
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  COMPRESSORS.  
     
          One standard Junkers Diesel Compressor and one standard electric compressor fitted.  One extra Junkers Compressor stowed in stern compartment.  
     
  COMPRESSED AIR SUPPLY.  
     
          (a)  Group I, 2 flasks at 205 atmospheres, aft above stern compartment.  
     
          (b)  Group II, 2 flasks at 205 atmospheres, in stern compartment.  
     
          (c)  Group III, 1 flask at 30 atmospheres, in Diesel room.  
     
          (d)  Group IV, 2 flasks at 205 atmospheres, in large petty officers' room.  
     
          (e)  Group V, 2 flasks at 205 atmospheres, forward (one in forward compartment and one in bow buoyancy tank).  
     
  PUMPS.  
     
          (a)  Main ballast pump, in control room, 200 liters a minute.  
     
          (b)  Auxiliary ballast pump, in control room, 100 liters a minute.  
     
          (c)  Two hydraulic oil pumps, in control room, for periscopes.  
     
          (d)  Fuel oil pump, in Diesel room.  
     
          (e)  Hand-operated ballast pump, in control room, 10 liters a minute.  
     
          (f)  Two hand-operated expelling pumps, for heads in  
     
 
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  small petty officers' room and chief petty officers' room respectively.  
     
  SADDLE TANKS ON TYPE VII-F.  
     
          In addition to the various tanks on Type VII-C boats, U-1059 had fuel oil tanks I a, starboard and port, and II a, starboard and port.  (See Plate II.)  Their combined capacity was stated to be about 100 cubic meters.  The regulating and Reserve Fuel Oil Tank I, starboard and port, had a greater capacity than in Type VII-C.  (O.N.I. Note:  The figure of 100 cubic meters possibly is meant to include the extra capacity of the enlarged tanks, for saddle tanks with an average capacity of 25 cubic meters would be surprisingly large.)  
     
  WORKSHOP.  
     
          No real workshop.  A vise and a few tools by starboard Diesel.  
     
  GERMAN ASDIC.  
     
          Not fitted.  
     
  EQUIPMENT IN RADIO ROOM.  
     
          (a)  Standard Lorenz D/F gear, type L1ä6, graduated from 2100 to 2600 kilocycles.  
     
          (b)  "Main" receiver incorporating six RV12P2000 tubes and one "Stabilvolt" (voltage rectifier) tube.  
     
          (c)  Teletype.  ("Schreibender Max.")  
     
          (d)  Chronometer.  
     
          (e)  200-watt short-wave transmitter.  
     
 
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Click this text to view Plate II:  Saddle Tanks on Type VII-F U-boats

     
 
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          (f)  150-watt long-wave transmitter.  
     
          (g)  Long-wave receiver (mounted above long-wave transmitter).  
     
          (h)  EBG (remote control panel).  
     
          (i)  Radio receiver.  Disconnected (it use was prohibited).  
     
          (j)  Radione receiver.  
     
          (k)  Switchboard.  
     
          (l)  Antenna selector panel.  
     
          (m)  Enigma machine.  
     
  EQUIPMENT IN LISTENING ROOM.  
     
          (a)  Multi-unit hydrophone cabinet by Elag.  
     
          (b)  Wanz G-2.  
     
          (c)  Borkum.  
     
          (d)  Naxos.  
     
          (e)  Special 5-tube, 6-band short-wave receiver.  
     
          (f)  40-watt emergency short-wave transmitter.  
     
          (g)  All-wave receiver.  
     
          (h)  Speed indicator.  
     
          (i)  Rudder position indicator.  
     
  FURTHER RADIO EQUIPMENT.  
     
          (a)  Drum-shaped aerial for Wanz and Borkum.  
     
          (b)  Usual radar mattress in housing port side of conning tower, aft.  Dipoles 40 cm. long.  
     
          (c)  Two sloping figure 8 dipoles on back of radar mattress.  
     
 
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          (d)  During trials U-1059 was fitted with Metox G.S.R. with cross-type aerial.  
     
          (e)  Six or eight standard Naxos aerials were carried on board in reserve.  
     
          (f)  "Fliege".  Although prisoners from U-1059 were the first to mention the existence of the special "Fliege" (Fly) or "Biene" (Bee) serial with parabolic reflector, little use was made of this aircraft detection equipment on their U-boat.  
     
  DETAILS OF THE "FLEIGE".  
     
          In place of the portable rod aerial for Naxos, U-1059 carried a new type of directional Naxos aerial mounted into the D/F ring.  The aerial consisted of a semi-circle of wire netting of the same type as that surrounding the base of the drum-shaped aerial.  From the center of this projected a brass rod, below which was mounted a small box containing the tuning coil.  This was the same as the box mounted on the old-style Naxos rod aerial.  At right angles to this was mounted a cube of transparent plastic on each side of which were two diamond-shaped brass plates.  (See sketch of Naxos G.S.R. Aerial, Plate III.)  
     
          The whole was supported by a rod (or as was stated on another occasion by two rods) which fitted into a special socket in the base of the D/F ring in such a manner that when the ring was revolved, the aerial turned with it.  
     
          This new aerial had to be unshipped every time the boat submerged.  A flexible cable led down through the conning tower into  
     
 
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Click this text to view Plate III:  Naxos G.S.R. Aerial U-1059

     
 
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  the listening room.  The Radione set was in the radio room connected to the Naxos which was as usual in the listening room.  The Radione was directly next to the D/F cabinet and a special operator (not a radioman) was assigned to turn continually the wheel revolving the D/F ring.  If anything was heard on the radione, the chief radioman was notified.  
     
          Although the Naxos was manned whenever U-1059 was surfaced on her sole patrol, nothing was ever heard on it.  
     
  RADIO TRAFFIC ON U-1059.  
     
           Only one signal was sent, and this was to report position and stock of fuel when passing 20° W.  They were due to make another such report just about the time they were sunk.  The Goliath transmitter was received submerged to a depth of 20 meters in the Rosengarten on the D/F ring.  
     
          It was said that careful watch on radio receivers was kept at 0500-0600, at 1700-1800, and to some extent at 1100-1200.  
     
          It is very unlikely that a signal of the sinking was dispatched to Control.  
     
  R.D.B.  (Radar Decoy Balloons).  
     
          Two boxes of R.D.B. called "Aphrodite" by the Germans, were stored in the torpedo storage compartment.  The boxes were painted blue and marked with a "V" in green and were about 75 x 50 x 25 cm.  Each contained approximately 20 balloons.  After being filled by a radio petty officer from hydrogen flasks on deck near  
     
 
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  the conning tower, the balloons were said to measure 60 cm. in diameter.  Several strips of silver-paper were suspended 2 to 3 meters below the balloon.  On the one occasion in the North Atlantic when 8 or 10 of them were released, no audible outlet for the gradual escape of hydrogen was noticed.  The weight at the bottom of the cable is called "Telleranker" (literally, "plate anchor").  
     
  HYDROGEN FLASKS.  
     
          Four in all, each 1.1 to 1.2 meters high.  Upright.  Two set in deck where conning tower meets Platform I, two where latter meets Platform II.  
     
  ECHO-SOUNDER.  
     
          80 charges carried, in control room and magazine.  
     
  CHARTS.  
     
          A total of 1400 navigational charts carried.  
     
  AIR PURIFICATION.  
     
          (a)  Seven flasks of oxygen were carried:  3 in the control room, 2 in the Diesel room, 2 in the stern compartment.  Pressure about 110 atmospheres.  
     
          (b)  An estimated 180 potash cartridges carried.  Tin boxes 8 x 25 x 35 cm.  Contents said to be covered with a layer of carbon.  
     
 
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  ESCAPE LUNGS AND LIFE JACKETS.  
     
          58 to 60 standard escape lungs carried.  An equal number of aviator-type life jackets.  
     
  RUBBER BOATS AND RAFTS.  
     
          60 rubber 1-man rafts carried.  
     
          2 medium sized collapsible boats, for 12 to 14 men each.  4 meters long, 1.5 meters wide.  In torpedo storage compartment.  
     
          1 large collapsible "work boat", large enough for 25 men.  10 m. long, perhaps 2.5 m. wide.  Upper deck.  Could possibly be used to transfer torpedoes at sea.  
     
  AIR RAID SHELTERS.  
     
          In September 1943 two shelters were built on the bridge of U-1059.  They were protected all around by steel plate 12 to 15 mm. thick.  The smaller one was mainly for the captain and would hold 2 men at most; the other was large enough for 4 or 5 men.  
     
  ALARM SIRENS.  
     
          A new air-raid siren system was fitted in Kiel in December 1943 and was said to be standard now for all new U-boats.  Very loud.  On U-1059 there were black horns in each of the following places:  Forward compartment, between chief petty officers' room and officers' room, small petty officers' room, and large petty officers' room.  
     
  TROPICAL KITS.  
     
          In mid-January 1944 each man was issued a tropical kit  
     
 
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  of lightweight clothes including a brown cap with long visor like the Afrika Korps cap.  In addition, each got a leather jacket for the North Atlantic.  Their blue outfits were packed in sacks and deposited with the 5th Flotilla in Kiel.  
     
  UPPERDECK CARGO.  
     
          While 4 of the upperdeck containers were filled with torpedoes, there were 2 other containers filled with some cans of "ZDM26" grease, some spare parts for 37-mm. guns, and 400 or more bottles of cognac, wine, champagne, and liqueurs.  Special wooden frames were constructed for packing these cans and bottles.  
     
  DETAILS OF UPPERDECK.  
     
          Although the captain of U-1059 said that his boat had a wider deck than any other type of U-boat, other prisoners insisted that it was slightly narrower than that of the 750-tonners.  An arrangement of rails made it possible to transfer torpedoes from the upperdeck containers to the three torpedo hatches.  A push wagon was stowed below the upperdeck for this purpose.  One prisoner gave the width of the upperdeck at its most widest point as 8 meters.  
     
          Due to the extra length and beam of the VII-F type boat, it was found necessary during the final overhaul in Kiel late December 1943 to add 2 double bollards abaft Platform II.  
     
  FRESH WATER.  
     
          The amount of fresh water carried at beginning of patrol  
     
 
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  is unknown.  Besides the 3 drinking water tanks 2 of the torpedo compensating tanks were filled with fresh water.  The distillation unit in the control room, as well as a second one in the small petty officers' room, had a capacity of about 12 liters an hour, but they had to be shut off in rough weather.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
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CHAPTER III.  EARLY HISTORY OF U-1059
 
     
  A.  Chronology.  
     
          1.  Keel-laying:  Unknown.  Thought to have been late summer 1942.  
     
          2.  Launching:  Mid-March 1943.  
     
          3.  Commissioning:  Saturday, 1 May 1943, from 1000 to 1100.  
     
          4.  Acceptance Tests, Kiel:  3 May until about 13 May.  
     
          5.  Silent Running Tests, Sonderburg:  Two tests, 14 and 15 May.  
     
          6.  Acceptance Tests, Danzig:  17 May until 28 or 29 May.  
     
          7.  Active Service Training Group, Hela:  1 June until 22 July.  
     
          8.  Deperming, Pillau:  23 July.  
     
          9.  Torpedo Shooting, Libau:  24 July, arriving at 1930, until 15 August , leaving at 2100.  
     
          10.  Tactical Exercises, Gotenhafen:  17 August until 31 August.  
     
          11.  Call at Sonderburg:  2 and 3 September.  Another silent running test.  
     
          12.  Adjustments and Overhaul, Kiel:  4 September until 29 September.  
     
          13.  Change of Commanders:  30 September.  Oberleutnant z.S. Leupold came to U-1059 and Oberleutnant z.S. Herbert Brüninghaus left.  
     
          14.  Shooting Exercises, Travemünde:  1 October until 24 October.  
     
 
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          15.  Shooting Recess, Flensburg:  25 October until 30 October.  
     
          16.  Brief call at Gotenhafen:  1 November, 1300 - 1700.  
     
          17.  Active Service Training Group, Hela, Second Time:  1 November until 10 November.  
     
          18.  Torpedo Shooting Second Round, Pillau:  11 November until 30 November.  Actual shooting from 15 November until 29 November.  
     
          19.  Tactical Exercises, Gotenhafen, Second Time:  30 November until 12 December.  
     
          20.  Flak Shooting, Swinemünde:  13 December until 17 December.  
     
          21.  Final Adjustments and Overhaul, Kiel:  18 December 1943, until 18 January 1944.  
     
          22.  Silent Running Test, Sonderburg:  19 or 20 January.  
     
          23.  Arming and Loading, Kiel:  25 January until 30 January.  
     
          24.  Departure from Kiel:  Friday, 4 February 1944 at 0600.  
     
  B.  Incidents in Early History of U-1059.  
     
          1.  Early in January 1943 the engine-room personnel came to the boat for instruction during the final stages of construction.  They were followed 4 weeks later by the seamen.  
     
          2.  The commissioning ceremonies on 1 May 1943 were disappointing.  It was a rainy day, and after speeches by Moehle, commanding officer of the 5th Flotilla, and  
     
 
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  Brüninghaus, the first commander of U-1059, the flag was raised, and the participants went aboard the depot ship SIERRA CORDOBA for a simple luncheon.  To the keen disappointment of all concerned there were no festivities in connection with the commissioning that included alcoholic beverages.  
     
          3.  In early May 1943 U-1059 was tested in the pressure dock at Kiel for about one and one-half hours.  The pressure was said to be equal to that at a depth of 120 - 140 meters.  
     
          4.  Special training and exercises for the torpedomen of the crew were held under the Torpedo Testing Command at Kiel in early May and again in Gotenhafen in late October 1943.  The surviving second watch officer, Leutnant z.S. Karrasch, was made torpedo officer by Brüninghaus, an arrangement that was left unchanged when Leupold took over the U-boat; usually the first watch officer holds this position.  
     
          5.  When the silent running test was first held in Sonderburg in mid-May, it was unsuccessful, due mainly to the bad weather, and another test had to be held the following day.  
     
          6.  During the 7 weeks in June and July that U-1059 was in the hands of the Active Service Training Group (Agrufront) in Hela, there were 2 sections of about 10 U-boats each undergoing this training.  Section 1  
     
 
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  left Hela at 0600 each morning, returning at 1130; Section 2 left the pier at 1230, returning at 1700.  U-1059 was in Section 2.  
     
          7.  The stowing of torpedoes for the practice shooting off Libau is of some interest.  On one occasion, in order to test the Type VII-F U-boat, 22 torpedoes were stowed in the new Torpedo Storage Room.  At other times, however, during the actual shooting only 12 practice torpedoes in all were carried:  4 in the forward tubes, 4 under the floor plates and 2 above them in the forward compartment, 1 in the stern tube and 1 under the floor plates aft, none in the Storage Compartment.  When the sea was very calm, an additional 2 torpedoes were stowed above the floor plates forward.  They never carried less than 10 torpedoes at the beginning of a practice day.  At no time did they practice transferring torpedoes from the Storage Compartment to another part of the boat.  
     
          8.  U-1059 arrived in Gotenhafen at 1600 on 17 August, but she did not begin her Tactical Exercises until midnight 20/21 August.  It was stated that 8 other boats took part:  One 1200-tonner, two 750-tonners, and five 500-tonners.  The Commander, Brüninghaus, became sick about 24 August and another officer from Gotenhafen took charge of the boat until the end of the exercises.  The reputation of U-1059 was at a low ebb.  
     
 
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          9.  The period for the final overhaul of the boat at the Germania Yards, Kiel, was interrupted by the change of commanders.  On 29 September at 1700 the U-boat moved to Wik.  On the 20th Leupold came to take over command and Brüninghaus who still complained of stomach trouble came on board to turn the boat over to him, formally.  At 0430 the next morning, instead of leaving on a patrol, U-1059 headed for Travenmünde and a second period of trials and exercises.  
     
          10.  For the slightly more than 3 weeks that U-1059 was in Travemünde she served as a sort of school-boat pro tem under the auspices of the Shooting School (Schiessverband).  A number of prospective U-boat watch officers were the pupils in the torpedo shooting exercises.  Four or five 500-ton U-boats were similarly engaged there during the same period.  
     
          11.  U-1059 reported a second time to the Active Service Training Group in Hela on 1 November but remained there only 9 days.  
     
          12.  The U-boat arrived in Pillau for her second round of torpedo shooting on 11 November.  A day or two later 12 torpedoes were put on board and from 15 November until 2200 on 29 November the new commander Leupold had an opportunity to show what he could do.  He proved to be an uncanny shot, scoring 57 hits out of 58, more than 40 of his hits being amidships.  The  
     
 
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  officials congratulated him and admitted they could not have done better themselves.  
     
          13.  The second round of Tactical Exercises took place the first 10 days of December 1943 with Gotenhafen again as the base.  It was stated that 10 other U-boats took part:  Two or three 1200-tonners, one VII-F boat, one 750-tonner, and the rest 500-tonners.  
     
          14.  U-1059 arrived in Swinemünde at 2300 on 13 December 1943, but did not begin her anti-aircraft practice shooting until the 15th, finishing at 1000 on the 17th.  At that time she still had a quadruple 2-cm. on her Platform II and two single 2-cm. on Platform I instead of the automatic 37-mm. gun she carried later on Platform II and the two double 2-cm. on Platform I.  
     
          15.  The U-boat arrived back in Kiel for the final overhaul 18 December at 0400.  After she cleaned out, she entered the dry-dock 20 December 1943.  About 13 January 1944 the new 37-mm. gun was fitted, but another one with more chromium was substituted 10 days later.  The twin-mount 2-cm. guns were fitted about 16 January.  
     
          16.  After another silent running test in Sonderburg was completed satisfactorily, U-1059 began on 25 January 1944 her loading preparations for her long-delayed first patrol.  The crew members had been issued tropical kits but only the officers were told their actual  
     
 
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  destination, Penang.  
     
          17.  Shortly after 0600 on 4 February 1944 U-1059 departed Kiel.  It is unusual for U-boats to begin a patrol on Friday, and the crew of U-1059 were not too happy to be the exception.  Two minesweepers, but no other U-boats, accompanied them from Kiel.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
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CHAPTER IV.  FIRST AND ONLY PATROL OF U-1059
 
     
  DAMAGE TO 37-MM. GUN.  
     
          Soon after leaving Kiel on 4 February 1944 it was noticed that the 37-mm. gun was no longer in good order.  A week before 100 practice rounds had been fired satisfactorily near Kiel, but apparently something had gone wrong during a dive.  
     
  CALL AT KRISTIANSAND.  
     
          U-1059 put into Kristiansand at about 0900 on 6 February and remained there until 9 February at 1400.  Many hours were spent working on the 37 mm. but with unsatisfactory results.  
     
  CALL AT BERGEN.  
     
          The U-boat arrived in Bergen 10 February at 0800, remaining until 12 February at 1200.  The 37 mm. was taken on shore, and the specialists there were able to complete the conditioning of the gun.  One prisoner has expressed the opinion that this type of gun will never be reliable for undersea craft unless it can be made much sturdier and hence better able to withstand the effects of diving.  
     
  ARCTIC CIRCLE, FAROES, ROSENGARTEN.  
     
          From Bergen U-1059 set her course approximately 340° until a few miles north of the Arctic Circle.  She then turned on course 220° to 230° through the area of the Rosengarten at one time close to the Faroes.  For two or three days the weather was stormy, the temperature dropped to about 15° above zero Fahrenheit, and the bridge watches had an extremely difficult duty.  Type VII-F  
     
 
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Click this text to view Plate IV:  First and Only Patrol of U-1059

     
 
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  U-boats are said to be difficult to manage at best, and no less than two crew members of U-1059 had broken arms by the time of the sinking.  During all this part of the patrol U-1059 proceeded at slow speed on the surface at night and at 1-1/2 to 2 knots submerged during the day.  Several aircraft were sighted, although they were not picked up on the U-boats radar or search receiver.  
     
  SHIP SIGHTINGS.  
     
          A point thought to be roughly 52 N. - 24 W. the U-boat sighted late in February three fast ships traveling without escort.  Contrary to her orders, U-1059 pursued the ships for a short time and wasted a little of her precious fuel.  On another occasion the listening room personnel detected what they took to be a destroyer, but it was never sighted.  
     
  PAST THE AZORES.  
     
          In early March near the Azores, U-1059 had considerable trouble with her compressors.  The Ju-compressor and E-compressor both failed, and when the emergency Ju-compressor was rigged up it also broke down.  In all three there was a period of 4 days when the U-boat was unable to dive for lack of compressed air.  
     
          Also in early March a message was intercepted from another U-boat nearby reporting a convoy west of the Azores.  Another message about 16 March reported casualties and damage aboard a U-boat to the south of U-1059.  (O.N.I. Note:  This was U-801, sunk 17 March.)  
     
          In spite of this evidence of the need for caution, Leupold  
     
 
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  began to allow his men more and more to enjoy the fresh air on the bridge and upperdeck.  His ship's doctor would usually be the one to suggest that the men needed something for their morale.  Concerts were given on deck, there were several chess games, and on three occasions the crew members were allowed to swim near the boat.  No less than 25 men were topside.  
     
  PRACTICE AIR ALERT.  
     
          On 18 March 1944, during next to the last swim, there was a practice air alarm.  In the opinion of the survivors this did more harm than good, for when the gunfire alarm came the following morning, many valuable seconds were lost before it was taken seriously.  U-1059 was then west of the Cape Verde Islands.  
     
  CHANGE OF COURSE.  
     
          Shortly before daybreak on 19 March the command was suddenly given to change course 160° to course 270°, much to the surprise of the crew members, who did not know they were to meet a supply U-boat in the area.  They were four days ahead of schedule.  After sailing due west a few miles, they stopped for the third and last swim.  
     
          (See Plate IV for the course of U-1059, including the proposed course to Penang.)  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
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CHAPTER V.  SINKING OF U-1059
 
     
  A.  From U.S.S. BLOCK ISLAND report of 31 March 1944:  
     
          Task Group 21.16 had destroyed U-801 in latitude 16.42 N. - longitude 30.28 W. at 1325 on 17 March 1944, recovering the majority of its crew.  
     
          Again the commander of the task group plotted the probable position of other subs in the suspected refueling area and search operations for the morning of the 19th were moved southwesterly in accordance.  
     
          Within 10 minutes after sunrise, 19 March, at 0826Z, a TBF and an FM returning from the first leg of their early morning search, sixty miles south of the ship, sighted a fully surfaced submarine lying dead in the water, latitude 13.10 N. - longitude 33.44 W.  The fighter pilot's impression was that it was a 740-tonner.  
     
          The fighter plane first strafed the surprised U-boat, with the TBF following to deliver a perfect depth-charge attack.  Almost before the plumes had died down the fighter strafed again and this time reported seeing a bright flash aboard.  Broken by the explosion, the sub sank stern first within a minute and a half.  
     
          One minute later the TBF which had executed the kill spun into the water a half mile ahead of the submarine, while making a tight turn.  
     
          The fighter pilot counted 15 to 116 survivors struggling  
     
 
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  in the oil and debris that marked the sinking.  None of them had life belts.  Alongside the spot where the plane had crashed, he saw a pilot in a life raft.  A shark was circling in the area.  
     
          An hour and a half later relief planes could count only 8 survivors from the submarine.  A couple of floating torpedoes had been sighted.  
     
          U.S.S. CORRY arrived,lowered a boat to start picking up survivors, and scouted the area for sound contacts.  She recovered one of the torpedoes and destroyed the other.  
     
          Five Germans were found clinging to the wreckage or swimming in the middle of the oil slick where the sub had gone down.  A nude body was floating nearby.  The pilot of a relief TBF dropped his own liferaft near that of the wrecked pilot, who was joined by three Germans, including their commanding officer, Leupold.  
     
          The position given by CORRY for the picking up of survivors was 13.14.1 N. - 33.26.9 W.  
     
  B.  From interrogation of the 8 survivors:  
     
          The 3rd watch under the command of the quartermaster, Hartmann, had been on duty since 0600 German time.  At about 0920 Hartmann announced throughout the boat that the sunrise was unusually beautiful, and a minute or two later the commanding officer, Leupold, issued permission for a 10-minute swim, but added, "Watch out for planes in this fine weather!"  The engines were then stopped.  Besides Leupold, those in the water included the 2nd watch officer, Karrasch, the chief engineer,  
     
 
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  Kamphausen, the doctor, Adomeit, and machinist's mate, Krietsch, who was even allowed to leave his duty in order to swim.  In all, about 18 men were swimming.  
     
          At about 0930 German time Leupold shouted ,"Flieger!" ("Flyers!").  All the swimmers returned to the boat except one of the survivors, Bohnsack, who elected to swim away from the boat.  The engineer officer and the doctor went below, and the 2nd watch officer, Karrasch, improved his chances for survival by remaining in the conning tower instead of helping the men who were manning the guns.  
     
          Both officer prisoners, Leupold and Karrasch, say that the engines were started and that the boat was moving by the time the first plane made a strafing attack, but other testimony is unanimous to the effect that no general alarm was sounded in the boat and that the machines were never started at all.  The quartermaster was waiting for all the men to return to the boat, and he waited too long, for he himself was one of the first to be felled by the plane's bullets.  Leupold too was severely wounded on the head and knee.  
     
          The second plane dropped two bombs, which the prisoners did not think could have been depth-charges, for one exploded aft on deck and the other scarcely below the surface on the starboard side, near the torpedo storage compartment.  
     
          The U-boat returned fire but in no great volume.  One drum (18 rounds) of 2-cm. shells was fired and one or two clips (5 rounds each) from the 37-mm. gun.  A prisoner who served  
     
 
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  the latter gun is convinced that he hit and shot down the second plane.  
     
          Fire broke out in one of the ready ammunition lockers, the whole boat seemed to crack, the the stern settled quickly, and a few minutes later U-1059 was out of sight.  Most of the survivors owe their lives to the fact that the explosions blew them clear of the boat.  
     
          An underwater explosion a few seconds after the disappearance of the boat was thought by two prisoners to be a battery explosion.  There was no likelihood that scuttling charges were set off, and any torpedo explosion would have been much more violent.  
     
          Oil pouring from the tanks made a hissing sound, and the large oil slick impeded swimming.  One of the prisoners clung to a floating torpedo.  Another, who had been clinging to the American pilot's raft, developed severe leg cramps after 2-1/2 hours and was about to give up when the destroyer appeared.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
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CHAPTER VI.  CREW OF U-1059
 
     
          The total complement of U-1059 was 55, of whom 4 were considered supernumerary.  These 4 consisted of the ship's doctor, the extra watch officer Ehrlich, torpedoman's mate 1 cl Deckert, and one other crew member.   A torpedoman's mate 3 cl, however, had left the boat in Kiel in mid-January, so that the normal complement was considered 52.  
     
          The commanding officer Oberleutnant z.S. Gunter Leupold of the October 1938 term, served on U-355 under Kapitänleutnant La Baume for almost two years.  He expected to assume command of U-355, which had sunk only one ship in 2-1/2 years of Arctic operations, but was suddenly in late September 1943 called to U-1059 instead.  His record in shooting torpedoes during the working-up period in the Baltic was phenomenal.  He is very proud of this record and likewise of his youth, 23, and of his nickname "Baby".  He is anti-Nazi, very sensitive by nature, talkative to the point of being garrulous, and his enthusiasm for America knows no bounds.  His crew regarded him as a likable officer but much too irresponsible and naive for a wartime command.  Several prisoners expressed the opinion that if he could be brought before a court-martial in Germany today, Leupold would be stripped of his commission and probably imprisoned because of the swimming parties that led to the loss of his boat.  
     
          The former commanding officer of U-1059, Oberleutnant z.S. Herbert Brüninghaus of the October 1937 term, is a "Volksoffizier",  
     
 
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  i.e. commissioned from the ranks.  He served as warrant quartermaster under Korvettenkapitän Heinrich Liebe, did one patrol as prospective commander, and early in 1943 was given command of the first type VII-F U-boat.  Although he was well-liked by his crew, the record of U-1059 was not good during the first working-up period, and Brüninghaus had to leave the boat before the end of the tactical exercises due to a stomach ailment.  
     
          The first watch officer, Kurt Wichmann, a reserve ensign who had served formerly on passenger ships of the Woermann Line, was the most popular officer on board, and the surviving second officer, Karrasch, along with the doctor, the least popular.  Leupold went so far as to say that, of all his officers it was a pity that only the coward Karrasch had been saved.  He served on board both as radio officer and as torpedo officer.  
     
          The engineer officer, Kurt Kamphausen, a reserve ensign, had served as prospective engineer officer on the schoolboat U-7.  He was very well liked by the crew members.  
     
          The ship's doctor, Adomeit, of rank equivalent to lieutenant, was said to have been formerly a surgeon in Berlin.  He was held in low esteem by the crew, who blamed him perhaps even more than Leupold for the swimming parties, concerts on deck, and other frivolous activities.  
     
          Karrasch ordered the seaman 2 cl Göpel to conceal the fact from his captors and interrogators that Göpel had had radio duties on board, but this deception was soon abandoned.  
     
          The lack of experience on the part of the crew is shown  
     
 
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  clearly by the fact that except for the officers, only 5 crew members were said to wear the U-boat Badge denoting 62 days or more at sea in a U-boat.  Only 9 including the officers had the Iron Cross 2nd Class, only the Iron Cross 1st Class.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
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CHAPTER VII.  REMARKS OF GENERAL INTEREST
 
     
  NEW STANDING ORDERS FOR U-BOATS.  
     
          U-1059 left on her final patrol from Kiel 4 February 1944.  Prior to her departure Leupold had an interview with Korvettenkapitän Oskar Moehle, commanding officer of the 5th U-boat Flotilla.  In the course of issuing orders for the patrol, Moehle transmitted to Leupold specific oral orders from the Admiral Commanding U-boats that if any ships were sunk all survivors were to be exterminated.  When the commanding officer of U-1059 expressed surprise and indignation at such an order, Moehle told him that this was a positive order from the Commander-in-Chief and was a part of the total war that was now being waged. Before leaving Leupold had occasion to discuss this order with other U-boat commanders, who all shared his indignation at such a policy and all stated that, order or no order, they had no intention of complying.  
     
  CONTACT-KEEPER SMOKE BUOYS.  
     
          Two prisoners gave some details concerning the contact-keeper smoke buoys ("Fübos" or "Fühlungshalternebelbojen").  U-1059 had taken 18 of the buoys on board for practice during her tactical exercises in the Baltic in August 1943, but when one of them went off prematurely in the stern compartment, no further use was made of them either then or on the attempted patrol to Penang.  
     
          The better informed of the two prisoners, a coxswain, stated that the buoys were either thrown overboard from the bridge or expelled from a torpedo tube (or possibly from the S.B.T. tube)  
     
 
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  and were designed as smoke signals or markers for use in pursuing convoys.  The other prisoner offered as a conjecture that they were to be used for the purpose of throwing up a smoke screen between enemy craft and the U-boat and were expelled through the S.B.T. tube at the moment of firing torpedoes.  
     
          The coxswain, who had helped bring the buoys on board U-1059 in Gotenhafen described the apparatus as follows:  a red cylinder about 60 cm. long, 15 cm. diameter, very light in weight, packed in cans with the marking "FüHB".  One end had a bulb indicating the color of the smoke, the other end a place for screwing in a rod, which in turn is attached to the rod of the 25-lb. weight.  The two rods have a combined length of about 1-1/2 meters.  After the weight is attached the bulb is then removed, a cord attached to it inside the cylinder is pulled, a pin or button on the side of the  
 
cylinder is pressed, and then it is ready for the water.  The same prisoner stated that 8 to 10 minutes were required for the generation of the smoke, but the other prisoner thought the period was much shorter
 
        The smoke generated by mistake in the stern compartment of U-1059 was made up of a red dust or powder with an extremely unpleasant odor (resembling that of artificial fog or smoke used in smoke screens).  This dust caused headaches and other discomfort to the crew and has an injurious effect upon their clothes.
 
        Besides the red smoke, several other
 
     
 
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  colors are stated to exist, with white being mentioned as one.  None of the buoys were carried by U-1059 on her sole patrol.  
     
  BASES, FLOTILLAS, ETC.  
     
  A.  Hela.  
     
          During most of 1943 Korvettenkapitän Kühne was commanding officer of the 20th Flotilla at Hela.  The former commander of U-1059, Oberleutnant z.S. Herbert Brüninghaus was appointed harbor captain of Hela in early October 1943.  The floating dock in Hela was sunk June or July 1943.  (For Walter-boat activity in Hela see section on Walter-boats, below).  
     
  B.  Libau, Estonia.  
     
          Some time after U-1059 did her first round of torpedo shooting at Libau in July and August 1943, the 25th Flotilla became inactive there, although Libau continued as a base for three or four older type torpedo-boats.  There had been no depot ships in Libau; the U-boat crews had lived in structures resembling blockhouses.  In the summer of 1943 there were usually 8 or 10 U-boats in Libau.  The town itself was badly shot up.  When crew members were allowed on land, they were told to carry pistols.  
     
  C.  Swinemünde.  
     
          At the time U-1059 did anti-aircraft practice, i.e. about 15 December 1943, there were 6 or 7 other U-boats in Swinemünde for the same purpose.  
     
 
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  D.  Pillau.  
     
          The torpedo shooting flotilla at Pillau, the 26th Flotilla, was joined in 1943 by Kapitänleutnant Werner Schulz (as commanding officer or possibly as an instructor).  A school-boat flotilla at Pillau, perhaps the 21st, had as its commanding officer for a while Fregattenkapitän Büchl, but he gave up the post by summer 1943 in order to assume command of a 1200-ton U-boat.  
     
  WALTER-BOATS.  
     
          The following information is based on the incidental observation and hearsay knowledge of a Seaman 1 cl:  
     
          The prisoner, who served as quartermaster rating on U-1059, paid particular attention to the complicated stern arrangement of the Walter-boat when he had the opportunity of seeing one out of the water in Kiel in September 1943.  He also questioned at some length a friend of his who had worked in the Germania Yards at the time two of the craft were being built there.  The prisoner knows of no other yard that has built boats of this type.  He estimates the building time as three months.  The two Walter-boats built by Germania had been started about February 1943.  When the informant returned to Kiel in September 1943, one of the boats had been hauled on land by means of a crane, a camouflage net had been thrown over it, and it was partially hidden from view by a board fence.  The following details are based upon estimates, not measurements or blue-prints:  
     
 
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  Tonnage:  70 to 75 tons.  
     
  Length overall:  25 maters.  
     
  Greatest beam:  6 meters.  
     
  Diameter of pressure hull:  5 meters.  
     
  Height of conning tower:  1.8 meters.  
     
  Thickness of pressure-hull:  28 to 30 mm.  
     
  Thickness of conning-tower:  32 or 33 mm.  
     
  Thickness of end-plates of pressure-hull:  32 or 33 mm.  
     
  Saddle Tanks:  project 50 cm. beyond pressure hull on either side.  
     
  Propeller guards:  4; each 2 to 2.5 meters long, 4 cornered, 10 cm. x 10 cm., pointed at after ends.  
     
  Propeller:  single screw 1.6 meters high, 4 blades, each 35 cm. wide.  
     
  Speed:  38 to 40 knots on surface, 10 to 12 knots submerged.  
     
  Diving Depth:  "very deep, perhaps 300 meters or still deeper."  
     
  Forward hydroplanes:  see Plate V, (a) and (b).  
     
  Torpedo tubes:  2 forward, same size as on other U-boats.  
     
  Torpedoes carried:  2 in tubes.  
     
  Shooting depth:  thought to be able to shoot T-5 torpedoes at considerable depth, "perhaps in connection with sound bearings."  
     
  Paint:  above water bright blue, upper deck black; below water the usual grayish-brown.  
     
  Engine:  "turbines".  
     
 
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Click this text to view Plate Va:  Walter Boat

Click this text to view Plate Vb:  Details of Stern of Walter Boat

     
 
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  Fuel:  a solid substance, acid, from which gas is generated.  
     
  Guns:  2 machine guns.  
     
  Hatches:  conning-tower hatch seen; no torpedo hatch seen.  
     
  Periscope:  none seen; one thought likely.  
     
  Crew:  8, consisting of C.O. who also serves as quartermaster, 1 radio P.O., 2 P.O.'s for engines, 1 torpedo P.O., 3 seaman branch P.O.'s  
     
          The other of the two Germania-built Walter-boats, the prisoner thinks, is the one he saw in Hela in June or July 1943.  She lay tied up and camouflaged alongside a severely damaged stone pier. (see figure 2 on Plate V (b)).  Three medium sized buildings were being erected nearby.  
     
          It is the prisoner's belief that the Walter-boats are still in the experimental stage.  He states that they were designed to operate with 1600-ton U-boats as mother ships.  Otherwise they could operate only a very short time.  
     
          The prisoner differentiated between the Walter-boat and the "under-water speed-boat" with plexi-glass in the forward part of the conning tower.  (See sketches in the Final Report on U-172, G/Serial 29).  
     
  Addendum:  
     
          The two officer prisoners stated that they saw a Walter-boat moving slowly towards the dock in Hela in November 1943.  The upper deck both forward and aft was visible.  In their opinion the size is 150 to 200 tons.  The torpedoes are said to be smaller than usual.  Propulsion is said to be by means of an explosive gas  
     
 
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  (KNALLGAS) made from hydrogen of sea-water.  
     
          The prisoner says that there is a special repair yard for Walter-boats at Hela.  Also a rather large tank resembling an oil-tank for the new fuel.  
     
  U-BOAT LOSSES.  
     
          An officer prisoner gave as his belief that Germany had lost 450 U-boats since the start of the war.  Of these losses two or three a month were said to be operational losses in the Baltic.   
     
  U-BOAT DIESELS.  
     
          Since early 1943 the Diesels on U-boats built by Germania, Kiel, and possibly by other yards as well, have not been reversible.  This shortened the time required for building a U-boat by four weeks or more.  
     
  INSIGNIA.  
     
          Although the older U-boats may be allowed to keep their conning-tower insignia now, it is thought to be forbidden for the new boats going on patrol.  Furthermore, the colors used are now so poor in quality that they are not recognizable after a few dives.  
     
  TORPEDO SHOOTING BY HYDROPHONE BEARING.  
     
          Korvettenkapitän Heinrich Liebe was said to have sunk two ships in 1941 using the G.H.G. for a bearing.  This was never attempted during the trials of U-1059.  
     
 
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  ROCKETS ON U-BOATS.  
     
          One prisoner had heard rumors to the effect that rocket guns would later be fitted on U-boats.  
     
  ACTIVITY AT GERMANIA, KIEL.  
     
          The Germania yards at Kiel did not seem busy in January 1944.  Only some 7 or 8 new 500-ton U-boats were being actively completed on the ways.  Of some 3 or 4 that had already been launched, 2 or 3 were soon finished and began their trials in late January.  One 1600-ton supply U-boat was having some work done on her upper deck.  G.W. Diesels for U-boats were still being built.  One old-type destroyer was undergoing repairs, and several small old patrol boats were being worked on.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
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CHAPTER VIII.  OTHER U-BOATS
 
     
 
U-355         Still commanded by La Baume, although he has sunk only one ship in 2-1/2 years of Arctic operations.  It was said that he has kept his command only because of his wife, who is influential in naval circles.  His first watch officer, Leupold, was expected to take over U-335 but was given command of U-1059 on 30 September 1943.  Prisoners believed that La Baume's second watch officer, Iversen, who has gone to C.O. school, would succeed to command of U-355.
   
U-437         Insignia of U-437 was the head of an elephant in red.
   
          A prisoner joined U-437 then commanded by Kapitänleutnant Werner Schulz in St. Nazaire on the 3rd of June 1942 for U-437's third patrol which began on the 6th of June 1942.
   
          On her second patrol, U-437 had been on a special mission going out to meet and escort an inbound blockade runner.  This blockade runner was sunk in the Bay of Biscay.  (O.N.I. Note:  This must have been April or May 1942).
   
  The third patrol of U-437 was to the Caribbean.  They sighted two ships passing each other in opposite directions, and fired four torpedoes.  They believe both ships were of 10,000 tons and both were sunk.
 
     
 
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  Subsequently, U-437 was subjected to a seventeen-hour depth-charge attack.  Damage was slight, although there was a moderate water entry in the Diesel room and sundry instruments were smashed.  Subsequently, they damaged 15,000 ton liner which, however, was able to make Port au Prince.  They waited two days outside of port, coming up to periscope depth at regular intervals hoping the ship would come out again, but finally decided to leave as the area was getting dangerous.  They then got a 2,500-ton ship in their sights and were just ready to fire torpedoes when the ship blew up.  She had been torpedoed by a submarine commanded by Niko Clausen (probably U-129).  On this patrol they were supplied three times, twice by Wilamowitz-Mollendorf (U-459 ?) and once by another U-boat.
   
          U-437 returned to St. Nazaire 15 August 1942.  Left port September 1942.  On the way out in the Bay of Biscay seventeen contacts were obtained on the Metox G.S.R.  The patrol area was off Newfoundland and on down to the latitude of New York.  The patrol line consisted of six or seven boats.  By end of October, the group was again off Newfoundland Banks and on 2, 3 and 4 November 1942, attacked a convoy of seventy-two ships.  U-437 sank one 8,000 ton ship and subsequently suffered a very severe depth-charge attack.  Damage was considerable.  One Diesel flange was torn off.  There were water entries
 
     
 
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  in the control room and the forward compartment.  Both periscopes were broken off.  The stern torpedo tube was stove in.  U-437 was practically out of control and went down to 236 meters, very heavy by the stern.  By using their motors at utmost speed and blowing all tanks, they were able to bring the boat up to twenty-five meters depth, only to find themselves directly under the convoy.  Just as soon as the convoy passed over them, they surfaced immediately and made for St. Nazaire where they arrived November 1942.  At the end of October, just before this convoy attack, they were supplied by Schnoor (U-460 ?).  After this patrol, Werner Schulz and the prisoner left the boat.  Schulz had become night blind in the tropics and went to the Torpedo Firing Flotilla at Pillau as an instructor.  Nevertheless, the prisoner had heard that he was to go to sea again in the summer of 1944 as C.O. of a 1200-ton boat.  U-437 was sunk late May or early June 1943.  She had left St. Nazaire about mid-May 1943 to attack a Gibraltar Convoy.  She was attacked and damaged on the way out and returned to St. Nazaire for short repairs.  She left again after a few days and was sunk while attacking the convoy.
   
U-478         Apparently an Arctic U-boat.  500-ton, VII-C.  Seen in Bergen 10 to 12 February 1944.  She was badly damaged and the quadruple 2-cm. had been torn out and lost,
 
     
 
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  and there was other damage due to a severe storm.  The first watch officer was also lost.  The U-boat had been on patrol for 4 weeks and claimed the sinking of 2 destroyers.
   
U-587         A prisoner from U-1059 served on U-587 from the beginning and through her first patrol.  She was commissioned September 1941.  She left Kiel on her first patrol 6 January 1942, together with U-588, with whom she had been all through her trials.  On 20 January 1942 the prisoner was swept overboard during a terrific storm and by miraculous good fortune, was swept back on board by the next wave.  He suffered slight skull fracture, broken arm, broken ribs, etc.  He was taken to the hospital when U-587 arrived at St. Nazaire on 1 February 1942.  U-588 arrived at Brest about the same time.  U-587 and U-588 did not put into any Norwegian port on the way out.  U-588 was sunk in July 1942, while attempting to enter the port of Philadelphia and just after sinking a munitions ship.  U-587 was sunk about the same time a little south of latitude of Philadelphia and had sunk three ships totaling 42,000 tons which were at anchor off Philadelphia just before being sunk herself.  (O.N.I. Note:  Prisoner has perhaps confused Philadelphia with St. Johns, Newfoundland.)
   
U-870         A 1200-ton, Type IX-D-2, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Jürgen Oesten.  At tactical exercises with U-1059
 
     
 
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  and U-871 early December 1943.  Had an accident during exercises described as not serious.
   
U-871         A new 1200-ton U-boat, Type IX-D-2 commanded by Fregattenkapitän Büchel.  On tactical exercises with U-1059 and U-870 early December 1943.
   
U-1060         Commanding Officer was said to be "Schuby" Brammer, formerly of the merchant marine now an active officer.  Has Iron Cross, 1 cl.  (O.N.I. Note:  Apparently Oberleutnant Herbert Brammer of the October 1937 term, formerly first watch officer on U-118.)  This Type VII-F U-boat had made at least two trips from Kiel to Narvik, delivering about 40 torpedoes each time.  She returned from the first Narvik trip about 23 December 1943 and was met again by U-1059 between Bergen and Kristiansand on her way back to Kiel 9 February 1944.  She was expected to depart from Kiel again early March 1944.  She was nicknamed "Furlough Steamer", since 3 or 4 infantry men were brought home from Narvik.  Unlike U-1059, she had not replaced the quadruple-mount 2-cm. with a 37-mm.  One prisoner thought that the torpedoes delivered were T-5's and G7R's; another prisoner, on the other hand, felt sure that only G7A's and G7E's were taken.  U-1060 was reported to have had a battery explosion during trials in the Baltic.  Call letters XYH.
 
     
 
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U-1061         Commanding Officer stated by the two officer prisoners to be a reserve officer named Hinrichs.  Another prisoner insisted, however, that Hinrichs is a regular naval officer and wears battleship insignia.  He is thought to have the rank of Oberleutnant, but his first name was unknown.  The pressure hull and conning tower of U-1061 were said to have been damaged in an air raid attack on Kiel, about 14 May 1943.  Final overhaul was at Germania, Kiel, January 1944.  She was to sail on a patrol to Penang about 20 February 1944 and may have reached there by mid-May.  Call letters:  XYI.
   
U-1062         Commanding Officer a reservist, Oberleutnant Albrecht.  Sailed from Kiel about 20 December 1943 on first patrol.  Attacked by a/c, conning tower repaired in Bergen from late December 1943 until mid-January 1944.  Had reached the Capetown area, presumably on her way to Penang, whenU-1059's intercepts of her radio reports abruptly ceased 16 or 17 March 1944.  Several prisoners assumed that U-1062 had been lost.  Call letters:  XYK.
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
     
 
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U-BOAT COMMANDERS
 
     
 
BIELFELD         Said to be in command of a 1200-ton U-boat.
   
VON DER ESCH         Confirmed as commanding officer of a new Atlantic U-boat.
   
JENSEN         When U-355 was on reconnaissance patrol in the North Atlantic in May 1943 a loud explosion was heard in the vicinity of U-JENSEN and the boat was not heard from again.  (O.N.I. Note:  This is apparently Olt. Kurt JENSEN, reportedly casualty May 1943.)
   
KAISER, Caesar         THis U-boat officer had not been reported since early March 1944 and was presumed lost with his U-boat.  (O.N.I. Note:  Olt. d.R. Caesar KAISER was executive officer in U-267.  It is possible though that he later had a boat os his own.)
   
SCHUHART         This officer is said to have been in command of a 120-ton U-boat doing tactical exercises with U-1059 early December 1943.  He is said to be detested as a disciplinarian and a "pig of a Prussian".  His boat had had a minor accident during the exercises.  (O.N.I. Note:  Apparently Schuhart left the boat before her patrol as he became commanding officer of a Flotilla.
 
     
 
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STUDT         The commanding officer of a 750-ton U-boat which was expected to supply U-1059 about 23 March, 1944, was variously given as STUT, STUTT and STUDER.
   
WEINGAERTNER         This officer is said to have been in command of a new 1200-ton, IX-D-2 U-boat doing tactical exercises in the Baltic late in 1943.  (O.N.I. Note:  Recent information indicated Weingaertner commands U-850.)
 
     
 
UNIDENTIFIED U-BOAT
 
     
          A 500 ton VII-C U-boat was attacked by a bomber in the Kattegat mid-December 1943.  The commanding officer, one other officer, and 14 others were killed.  The U-boat was brought into Kiel by a tug-boat.  She had been on her way out for a patrol, probably her first.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
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                                             ANNEX.  CREW LIST OF U-1059 AND U.S.  
                                                              EQUIVALENTS OF GERMAN NAVAL RANKS.  
     
 
  Name Rank U.S. Equivalent Age
         
    Fregattenkapitän Commander  
    Korvettenkapitän Lieutenant Commander  
    Kapitänleutnant Lieutenant  
         
  SURVIVORS:      
         
  Leupold, Günter Oberleutnant z. S. Lieutenant (j.g.)
23
  Karrasch, Horst Leutnant z. S. Ensign
21
  Hollender, Georg Bootsmaat Coxswain
22
  Bohnsack, Walter Matrosenobergefreiter Seaman 1cl.
20
  Bub, Gernot Matrosenobergefreiter Seaman 1cl.
19
  Grünewald, Bgen Matrosenobergefreiter Seaman 1cl.
21
  Göpel, Horst Funkgefreiter Seaman 2cl.
19
  Spitzer, Otto Matrosengefreiter Seaman 2cl.
19
       
  CASUALTIES:  
Approx. Age
       
  Wichmann, Kurt Leutnant d.R. Ensign
32
* Ehrlich, Oberfähnrich (B) Sr. Midshipman
21
  Kamphausen, (Kurt?) Leutnant (Ing.) d.R. Ensign
22
  Adomeit, (Karl-Heinz) Stabsarzt Lieutenant M.C.
28
  Hartmann, Peter Obersteuermann Warrant Quartermaster
28
  Bobe, Karl Heinz Oberfunkmeister Radio Electrician
26
  Noak, Herbert Obermaschinist Machinist
28
  Kuschke, Werner Obermaschinist Machinist
24
  Salewski, Richard Maschinenobermaat Machinist's Mate 2cl.
20
  Harrmann, Paul Maschinenobermaat Machinist's Mate 2cl.
25
  Pauli, Kurt Maschinenmaat Fireman 1cl.
23
  Mass, Uli Maschinenmaat Fireman 1cl.
21
  Rindert, Willi Maschinenmaat Fireman 1cl.
24
** Krietsch, Herbert Maschinenmaat Fireman 1cl.
24
  Deckert, Mechaniker Torpedoman's Mate 1cl.
25
  Bender, Heinz Mechanikersmaat Torpedoman's Mate 2cl.
22
  Heide, Rolf Funkmaat Radioman 3cl.
20
  Biber, Alois Bootsmaat Coxswain
24
  Förster, Fritz Bootsmaat Coxswain
25
  Hans, Günter Mechanikersobergefreiter Seaman 1cl.
21
  Schupp, Karl Mechanikersobergefreiter Seaman 1cl.
20
  Moog, Walter Mechainkergefreiter Seaman 2cl.
20
  Kahlenberg, Willi Mechainkergefreiter (A) Seaman 2cl. (Artillery)
19
  Otto, Karl Heinz Maschinenobergefreiter Fireman 2cl.
22
  Schell, Hubert Maschinenobergefreiter Fireman 2cl.
22
  Muller, Karl Heinz Maschinenobergefreiter Fireman 2cl.
23
  Petersen, Heinz Maschinenobergefreiter Fireman 2cl.
21
  Buhlinger, Otto Maschinenobergefreiter Fireman 2cl.
20
 
 
 
 
S E C R E T
 
     

 

     
 
S E C R E T
 
   
 
  Name Rank U.S. Equivalent        Approx. Age
       
  König, Kurt Maschineobergefreiter Fireman 2cl.
22
  Scheulen, Helmut Maschineobergefreiter Fireman 2cl.
23
  Dörr, Helmut Maschinengefreiter Fireman 3cl.
20
  Gehwinhart, Erwin Maschinengefreiter Fireman 3cl.
21
  Ferfers, Heinz Maschinengefreiter Fireman 3cl.
20
  Schuster, Karl Heinz Maschinengefreiter Fireman 3cl.
20
  Tillmann, Fritz Maschinengefreiter Fireman 3cl.
20
  Kothek, Fritz Maschinengefreiter Fireman 3cl.
20
  Meiners, Willi Funkobergefreiter Seaman 1cl.
21
  Gerstner, Werner Funkgefreiter Seaman 2cl.
19
  Strubel, Heinz Matrosenobergefreiter Seaman 1cl.
20
  Schäfer, Wilhelm Matrosenobergefreiter Seaman 1cl.
23
  Werner, Erwin Matrosenobergefreiter Seaman 1cl.
20
  Burth, Walter Matrosenobergefreiter Seaman 1cl.
21
  Ludt, Kurt Matrosengefreiter Seaman 2cl.
19
  Klostermann, Heinz Matrosengefreiter Seaman 2cl.
20
  Hille, Henry Matrosengefreiter Seaman 2cl.
18
  Schäfer, Heinz Matrosengefreiter Seaman 2cl.
20
  Wandelt, Erich Matrosengefreiter Seaman 2cl.
21
       
     
Total
55
 
    *  (B) after rank denotes "Beamtenlaufbahn" (career of administrative official).  
  **  Buries at sea from U.S.S. CORRY 19 March 1944.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
 
 
S E C R E T
 
     

 


 

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