COPY No.
     
 
This book is invariably to be kept locked up when not in use and is not to be taken outside the ship or establishment for which it it issued without the express permission of the Commanding Officer
 
     
     
     
 
C.B.  4051 (31)
 
   
     
 
 
 
"U 570"
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interrogation of Crew
 
 
 
     
     
     
     
 
 
     
 
October, 1941
 
 
 
 
 
     
     
     
 
 
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

 

 
 

   
 
     
     
     
     
     
     
   
     
     
     
     
 
SECRET
 
     
          This book is the property of His Majesty's Government.  
     
          It is intended for the use of the recipients only, and for communication to such Officers under them (not below the rank of Commissioned Officer) who may require to be acquainted with its contents in the course of their duties.  The Officers exercising this power will be held responsible that such information is imparted with due care and caution.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
 
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

 

     
     
     
   
   
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
C.B.  4051 (31)
 
     
     
 
 
 
"U 570"
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interrogation of Crew
 
 
 
     
     
     
     
 
 
     
 
October, 1941
 
 
 
 
 
     
     
     
 
     
     
     
     
  NAVAL INTELLIGENCE DIVISION,  
  ADMIRALTY, S.W.1.  
     
  N.I.D. 08409/43.  
     
     
     

 

     
     
 
   
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
          The following report is compiled from information derived from prisoners of war.  The statements made cannot always be verified; they should therefore not be accepted as facts unless they are definitely stated to be confirmed by information from other sources.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

 

     
     
 
iii
 
     
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
_______
 
 
 
       
Page
I.
  Introductory Remarks
1
II.
  Remarks on Crew of "U 570"
1
III.
 
Early History of "U 570"
2
IV.
  First and Last Cruise of "U 570"
5
V.
  Capture of "U 570"
6
VI.
  Details of "U 570"
8
 
(i)
  General Remarks
8
   
(ii)
  General Construction of the Boat
8
   
(iii)
  Construction of the Pressure Hull
8
   
(iv)
  Construction of the Conning Tower
9
   
(v)
  Telegraph Orders, Powers and Speeds
9
   
(vi)
  Underwater Sound Apparatus
10
   
(vii)
  Detector or S-Gear
10
VII.
  Diesel-Electric Propulsion
11
VIII.
  Degaussing
11
IX.
  Other U-Boats
11
   
(i)
  "U 15"
11
   
(ii)
  "U 17"
12
   
(iii)
  "U 19"
12
   
(iv)
  "U 37"
13
   
(v)
  "U 48"
13
   
(vi)
  "U 59"
13
   
(vii)
  "U 69"
13
   
(viii)
  "U 79"
14
   
(ix)
  "U 82"
14
   
(x)
  "U 84" and "U 87"
14
   
(xi)
  "U 85"
14
   
(xii)
  "U 101"
14
   
(xiii)
  "U 123"
15
   
(xiv)
  "U 124"
15
   
(xv)
  "U 126"
16
   
(xvi)
  "U 132"
16
   
(xvii)
  "U 141"
16
   
(xviii)
  "U 143"
16
   
(xix)
  "U 147"
16
   
(xx)
  "U 201"
16
   
(xxi)
  "U 203"
16
   
(xxii)
  "U 204"
17
   
(xxiii)
  "U 205"
17
   
(xxiv)
  "U 206"
17
   
(xxv)
  "U 332"
17
   
(xxvi)
  "U 373"
17
   
(xxvii)
  "U 402"
17
   
(xxviii)
  "U 431"
18
   
(xxix)
  "U 432"
18
   
(xxx)
  "U 433"
18
   
(xxxi)
  "U 451"
18
   
(xxxii)
  "U 452"
18
   
(xxxiii)
  "U 502"
18
   
(xxxiv)
  "U 503"
18
   
(xxxv)
  "U 504" and "U 505"
18
   
(xxxvi)
  "U 552"
19
   
(xxxvii)
  "U 567"
19
   
(xxxviii)
  "U 568"
19
   
(xxxix)
  "U 569"
19
   
(xl)
  "U 571"
19
   
(xli)
  "U 572"
19
   
(xlii)
  "U 573"
19
   
(xliii)
  "U 652"
19
   
(xliv)
  "U 701"
20
   
(xlv)
  "U 752"
20
   
(xlvi)
  "U 753"
20
   
(xlvii)
  "U.A."
20
   
(xlviii)
  "U.B."
20
   
(xlix)
  "U.D.1"
20
   
(l)
  "U.D.3"
20
   
(li)
  "U.D.4" and "U.D.5"
20
   
(lii)
  Unidentified U-Boats
21
 
     
  (C43009)                                                                                                                       B*  
     
     

 

     
     
 
iv
 
     
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS - continued.
 
_______
 
 
 
       
Page
X.
  U-Boat Construction
21
 
(i)
  Blohm & Voss, Hamburg
21
   
(ii)
  Howaldt Yard, Hamburg
21
   
(iii)
  Vulkan Yard, Vegesack, Bremen
21
   
(iv)
  Wilhelmshaven Yard
21
   
(v)
  Germania Yard, Kiel
21
   
(vi)
  Deutsche Werke, Kiel
21
   
(vii)
  Schichauwerft, Danzig
22
   
(viii)
  U-Boat Series in C.B. 4051 (29), Section VIII (viii)
22
XI.
  Third U-Boat Flotilla
22
XII.
  U-Boat Executive Officers
23
XIII.
  U-Boat Bases and Depôt Ships
23
   
(i)
  Gotenhafen
23
   
(ii)
  Trondheim
23
   
(iii)
  Lo Fjord
24
   
(iv)
  Naval Convalescent Homes
24
 
(v)
  La Pallice
24
XIV.
  Co-operation between U-Boats and Focke-Wulf Kondor Aircraft
24
XV.
  U-Boat Secret Orders
25
XVI.
  General Remarks regarding U-Boats
28
   
(i)
  Allocation of Operation Areas
28
   
(ii)
  Increased Difficulties of Attack
28
   
(iii)
  Avoiding of Aircraft by U-Boats
28
   
(iv)
  Diving Angle of U-Boats
28
   
(v)
  German Depth Charges
28
   
(vi)
  Conditions of Service in U-Boats
29
   
(vii)
  Awards to U-Boat Crews
29
XVII.  
Other Ships
29
   
(i)
  Torpedo Boat "Luchs"
29
   
(ii)
  Submarine Chaser Flotilla
29
   
(iii)
  "Schwan"
30
   
(iv)
  German Hospital Ship
30
   
(v)
  "Blücher"
30
XVIII.   Miscellaneous
30
   
(i)
  Conditions of Service in the German Navy
30
   
(ii)
  Manning Divisions
31
   
(iii)
  Naval Barracks at Bustchude
31
   
(iv)
  Training of Naval Telegraphists
31
   
(v)
  Obscenity
31
   
(vi)
  A.A. Guns on Norwegian Coast
31
   
(vii)
  Norwegian and Dutch Workman
31
   
(viii)
  Interference in Industry by Party Officials
32
   
(ix)
  Air Raid Damage in German Ports
32
   
(x)
  Electrification of Berlin-Hamburg Railway
32
   
(xi)
  Services Information Bureau in Rome
32
 
     
     
 
__________________________
 
     
     
 
APPENDIX
 
 
 
 
                                                         List of Crew of "U 570"                                            33
 
     
     
     
     
     
     

 

 
 
 
1
 
 
 
 
INTERROGATION OF CREW  OF "U 570, " A 500-TON U-BOAT,
  CAPTURED ON 27TH AUGUST, 1941, IN POSITION APPROXIMATELY  
 
62° 10' N. AND 18° 43' W.
 
     
______________________
 
 
 
I.  INTRODUCTORY REMARKS
 
     
          "U 570" is the first U-Boat to be captured in this war and her sighting, capture and bringing great credit on the Navy and the Royal Air Force.   
          Since the U-Boat has now been commissioned under the name "H.M.S. "Graph" and has been examined by technical experts, it has been considered unnecessary to include in this report any detailed description of the vessel.  
          Embodied in this report is some general information obtained from prisoners from "U 501" as well as from "U 570."  
     
 
II.  CREW OF "U 570"
 
     
          The complement of "U 570" consisted of 4 officers, 3 chief petty officers, 11 petty officers and 25 ratings, making a total of 43.  
          The inexperience of this crew was most striking, the Engineer Officer, one or two petty officers and one rating being the only men to have taken part in a war cruise prior to "U 570's" first and last cruise.  The chief petty officers were men who had been in the Navy for a number of years, the Chief Quartermaster having joined in about 1926; the average length of service of the petty officers was 3-1/2 years while only one rating had more than 18 months' service; about half of the ratings, all very young, joined the Navy in April, 1940, and the other half more recently than that date.  Most of the technical ratings had done three to six months' U-Boat training, the seamen even less.  
          The chief petty officers, and to a lesser extent, some of the petty officers, expressed great concern at the inadequacy of the training and the lack of U-Boat experience, not only of the men, but also of the officers and petty officers; no attempt was made to disguise the incompetence of the crew and the officers were severely criticised by all the men.  
          The impression gained was that the morale of the ratings was high at first, as they had been filled with clever propaganda about the glammour of belonging to the crew of a U-Boat, and they had little or no realisation of active service conditions; many were helplessly seasick, and, at the first sign of real action, they gave way to panic and became useless, admitting later that they were, in point of fact, glad to be out of the war; they were somewhat childish in many ways and appeared to have forgotten their recent escape from death, as they became interested in and curious about their immediate future prospects.  The senior petty officers, having been somewhat depressed from the outset and consequently of lower morale, would have been prepared to put up more of a fight, had they had any confidence in their captain or other officers.  
          The Chief Quartermaster, by far the most competent man in the U-Boat, appeared to have been systematically overworked for many months; he complained that he had only been home on leave once since the outbreak of the war.  
          Like all German prisoners of war captured for many months they were extremely security-conscious as a result of repeated lectures on the attitude to be adopted if taken prisoners.  The success of this measure has reduced the information obtained from prisoners and has made interrogation very much more difficult.  
          Prisoners were surprised at the quantities and varieties of food in Great Britain.  They admitted that the German blockade could not be anything like as effective as they had been led to believe by their own propaganda.  
          In September, 1939, prisoners captured in the early days of the war felt sure that they would be home again by Christmas after a short and victorious war; a year later quite a large proportion of prisoners captured in the summer of 1940  
     
  (C43009)                                                                                                                    B*2  
     
     

 

     
     
 
2
     
  also expressed the opinion that Germany would have won the war by the end of that year.  A few of the more optimistic men from "U 570" hoped that the war would be over by the summer of 1942; they felt sure that Germany would win in the long run.  
          The officers and petty officers made little effort to refute the charge that the U-Boats had not achieved the desired success; their obvious disappointment in the activities of the German Navy constituted a tacit admission of failure.  Nevertheless, they defended Vizeadmiral (Vice Admiral) Dönitz, Commanding U-Boats, as being the one man of enterprising, vitality and independence of mind among the hide-bound, "traditional" and obsolete officers of the naval high command.  
          The captain, Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Hans Rahmlow, aged nearly 32 years, was a native of the Isar Valley and joined the Navy in 1928.  He had served in surface craft, notably in E-Boats, and had specialised in gunnery and coastal defence.  He was stated to have only recently transferred to U-Boats and had commanded a training U-Boat in the Baltic for a short time, "U 570" being his first active service command in that branch of the Navy.  He is married and has a small daughter.  
          He appeared to have been somewhat of a disciplinarian, but was at first quite popular with his crew of young recruits; later many of the ratings joined in a chorus of criticism.  
          The First Lieutenant, Oberleutnant zur See (Lieutenant) Bernhard Berndt, aged 25 years, entered the Navy in 1935, and served in destroyers until transferring to U-Boats some months ago.  He was a uninteresting, arrogant young man and professed some contempt for the "slackness and credulity" of the British.  According to the ratings of "U 570" Berndt was a difficult and nagging superior, but neither efficient nor knowledgeable.  His views on obligation, promises, or keeping faith were exactly what would have been expected of a rather typical product of the Nazi system.  On the night of 18th/19th October, 1941, Berndt attempted to escape from his Prisoner-of-War camp and was shot dead.  
          The junior officer, Leutnant zur See (Sub-Lieutenant) Walter Christiansen, 21 years of age, of Hamburg, joined the Navy in 1938; after various courses of instruction he was sent to the minelayer "Kaiser" at Wilhelmshaven; he denied that this ship had ever laid mines during his period of service on board.  Towards the end of 1940 he volunteered for U-Boats and did a shortened course; he was then appointed to "U 570."  He was very junior, having been granted his commission in the spring of this year, and hopelessly inexperienced.  He behaved rather like a schoolboy and was simple, cheerful and not very intelligent, but a much more pleasant personality than any of the other officers of his U-Boat.  
          The Engineer Officer, Leutnant (Ing.) (Engineer Sub-Lieutenant) Erich Menzel, promoted from the lower deck on 1st January, 1940, was 36 years of age, and had joined the Navy on 1st October, 1934.  He was a man of considerable experience and had served in peacetime and on active service in other U-Boats.  Personally he was a vulgar little Saxon with an appalling accent, but an enviable flow of invective.  He is married and has one child.  
          The officers and men of "U 570" all realised that they would be court-martialed by the German naval authorities at the end of the war; the more thoughtful men feared that their punishment might be hard.  But they all assumed that Rahmlow's fate would be a most unenviable one.  
     
 
III.  EARLY HISTORY OF "U 570"
 
     
          "U 570," a 500-ton U-Boat, type VII C, was built at the Blohm & Voss Yards, Hamburg.  It may be presumed that she was laid down during the latter half of 1940.  It was stated by prisoners that between three and five other U-Boats were built simultaneously on the same slip with "U 570."  
          "U 570 was apparently nearing completion early in March, 1941, for prisoners have revealed that at that time the First Engineer Officer, Leutnant (Ing.) (Engineer Sub-Lieutenant) Erich Menzel, and two or three Engine -room Chief Petty Officers were then present in the U-Boat attending the final stages of construction.  From March, 1941, onwards, petty officers and ratings began to arrive in batches for "Baubelehrung" (Constructional Training).  It is not known  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
3
     
  at what stage the Captain joined the ship.  From a captured diary belonging to an officer prisoner it appears that various tests of unspecified instruments were carried out early in April, 1941.  
          "U 570" was stated to have been launched on, or about 15th April, 1941, and was docked on the following day.  Those of the U-Boat's company already drafted to the ship received training in security-mindedness and conduct while ashore on 16th April, 1941.  The diary mentioned above conveyed the impression that some members of "U 570's" crew attended a training course in torpedo firing and loading at Wilhelmshaven on 25th April, 1941, torpedoes were taken on board.  
          "U 570" was commissioned on 15th May, 1941, and was allocated to the 3rd U-Boat Flotilla.  
          According to prisoners "U 570" left Hamburg on 17th May, 1941, and, proceeding alone through the Kiel Canal, reached Kiel on the following day.  An entry in a captured notebook alleged that Air Bottle group 4 was leaking on this day.  
          In Kiel "U 570" was taken over by officers of the U-Boat Acceptance Commission, who were to supervise working up and trials.  These officers, who wear silver, instead of gold braid, included Kapitan zur See (Captain) Fachs, Kapitänleutnant (Ing.) (Engineer Lieutenant-Commander) Duden, Kapitänleutnant (Ing.) (Engineer Lieutenant-Commander) Kalb, Marinebaumeister (Naval Constructor) Kerlähne, Marineingenieur (Naval Engineer) Erdmann.  In addition two further ratings joined the U-Boat, and also a fitter from the Blohm & Voss Yard.  "U 570's" trials, with the U-Boat Acceptance Commission's representatives on board, began on 22nd May, 1941.  
          On the previous day, according to a diary, there had already been a short diving test from 0930 to 0943, and two further men, one Engineer Petty Officer 2nd Class, and one stoker 3rd Class, joined the ship.  
          On 22nd May, 1941, there were trimming trials and diving tests between 1035 and 1222 hours.  
          On 23rd May, 1941, according to a diary, representatives of the Torpedo Versuchsabteilung (Torpedo Testing Department) came on board; these included Engineer Krullmann, and Torpedo mechanicians Gohm, Zohn and Hartwig.  The diary states that diving was carried out between 0820 and 1005 hours, and that the U-Boat lay on the bottom at a depth of 10.5 metres (35-45 ft.).  
          On 24th May, 1941, Engineer Krullmann was again on board, and diving was carried out between 0800 and 0822 hours and 1045 and 1152 hours.  It is stated that dummy torpedoes were fired from the bottom.  It is possible that during these torpedo tests "U 570" proceeded as far as Gotenhafen, the name of this port being entered in another diary belonging to an officer prisoner against the date of 24th May, 1941.  It appears, however, that "U 570" had returned to Kiel by 26th May, 1941, for a diary states that on 26th May, 1941, new members of the U-Boat Acceptance Commission came on board, including Staff Chief Mechanician Bruns, Engineer Schönherr, and a leading stoker named Eilers.  There was diving practice between 0825 and 0831 hours, 1255 and 1330 hours, and 1340 and 1350 hours.  
          On 27th May, 1941, there was a pressure test in dock attended by a naval representative, whose name is given in the diary as Kaag.  There was also diving between 0855 and 1335 hours.  
          According to a diary "U 570" was at sea on 30th May, 1941, with representatives of the U-Boat Acceptance Commission, the Torpedo Testing Department, and Engineer Nagal of the Barrage Trial Commission.  The U-Boat dived between the hours of 0832 and 0941, and also carried out practice shooting at mines.  
          On 31st May, 1941, trimming trials were carried out, again with officers of the U-Boat Acceptance Commission, who were reinforced on this occasion by Commander Schrinner, a Marinewaffenoffizier (Naval Armament officer) and Staff Chief Mechanician Bruns.  "U 570" dived between 0945 and 1045 hours.  
          On 3rd June, 1941, a diary states "U 570 took fuel on board.  On 6th June, 1941, hydrophone and underwater telephony tests were carried out submerged, which were attended by officers of the N.E.K. (Nachrichten Erprobungs  
     
  (C43009)                                                                                                                         B*3  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
4
     
  Kommission) (Signalling Tests Committee), including Captain Kopmann, Engineers Begier and Spitzeck, presumably hydrophone experts of the U-Boat Acceptance Commission, and two men named Heller and Probst of the N.E.K.  "U 570" submerged between 1105 and 1201 hours, and between 1317 and 1427 hours.  
          A diary states that on 7th June, 1941, torpedo firing practice was carried out, "U 570" diving between 1634 and 1730 hours.  There is no indication in the diary as to where this took place, but one prisoner stated during interrogation that such practice was carried out off the Baltic port of Warnemünde.  Similar tests were apparently carried out on the following day, 8th June, 1941, and "U 570" dived between 0812 and 0903 hours.  It appears from another diary and from prisoners' statements that on this day and during the night of 9th June "U 570" also made a speed trial to Rönne, on the island of Bornholm, and back.  A diary stated that there were tests and practice dives on the two following days, 9th and 10th June, 1941.  The diary added that torpedo firing practice again took place on 13th and 14th June, and was again attended by experts.  It would appear from diaries and from prisoners' statements that "U 570" then returned to Hamburg to refit.  On 18th June, 1941, torpedoes were again taken on board, according to an officer prisoner's diary.  
          Towards the end of June or at the beginning of July, "U 570" again left Hamburg for Kiel, where she lay at the Deutsche Werft.  On 5th July, 1941, she was visited here by a number of engineers.  On this day she made a trial run, diving between 1454 and 1549 hours.  Later, on 7th July, 1941, provisions and ammunition were taken on board.  On 8th July, 1941, there were further hydrophone tests, and three distance finding apparatus specialists were on board.  On this day there were also trimming trials, the U-Boat diving between 1345 and 1504 hours.  
          A diary states that on 9th July oxygen was taken on board, and final trimming trials were held at 1330 before "U 570" left Kiel for Warnemünde, possibly to carry out further torpedo firing trials.  
          On 11th July, 1941, the inflatable rubber life-saving rafts were tested as a preliminary for putting to sea on a longer cruise, and at 0500 hours on 12th July, 1941, after explosive charges had been fixed in position, "U 570" left Kiel for Horten in Oslo Fjord.  It is known that "U 501" left Kiel for Horten on the same day, accompanied by a 500-ton U-Boat, whose identity number was not known; it seems possible that this was "U 570."  
          The following general details of trials and the training of the crew up to this period have been disclosed during interrogation of prisoners.  
          Throughout trials, and indeed until "U 570" left Trondheim to start her war cruise proper, officers of the U-Boat Acceptance Commission were virtually in control, and Kapitänleutnant Rahmlow, though on board, did not assume command.  Prisoners stated that "U 570" did not make any extensive tactical trials with other U-Boats.  Trials consisted of crash diving, gunnery, torpedo firing and manoeuvering in restricted waters.  Gunnery trials were carried out at cruising speed with 8.8.cm. gun, which had a crew of seven ratings.  
          While in Kiel the crew of "U 570" lived in a ship named "Ubena," a 9,600-ton liner of the Deutsche Ost Afrika Line.  
          During the whole of her journey to Horten "U 570" proceeded on the surface, arriving on 13th July, 1941, when she took practice torpedoes on board.  The object of the visit to Horten was to continue trials through a period of eight days.  During this time, on 16th and 17th July, "U 570" made a short excursion to Oslo, returning to Horten.  Prisoners stated that they were accommodated in barracks ashore at Horten, but that they were out every day practising diving and manoeuvering.  "U 570" was said to have left Horten on 20th or 21st July, 1941, for Trondheim.  It was during this voyage that the crew had their first taste of excitement.  Prisoners stated that, when the U-Boat was cruising between Bergen and Alesund a British aircraft dived out of the sky and bombed a Norwegian ship lying about six or seven miles away from them.  They believed the aircraft was too busy to see their U-Boat, but they immediately crash dived and, in doing so, touched bottom, and struck a reef.  This damaged the bows, a hydroplane and the cap of torpedo tube No. 3 ("Mündungsklappe"), besides wrecking their detector gear.  Prisoners stated that they remained submerged after this incident for between thirty and forty-five minutes, but, not having heard any bombs being dropped, they surfaced again and put into a small remote harbour for the night.  In this  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
5
     
  harbour they found the Norwegian ship which had suffered damage about the bridge and had one wounded Norwegian on board.  Prisoners did not know whether the Norwegian was acting as escort for the U-Boat or whether the two ships had met by chance encounter.  
          "U 570" arrived off Trondheim on 25th July, 1941, and put into Lo Fjord, about thirteen miles north of the port.  At Trondheim it was decided that the U-Boat must be thoroughly examined, and some time was wasted as another U-Boat was occupying the only available dock.  "U 570" was moved to the Ytrre Havn, the crew being accommodated in the depôt ship "Huaskara."  During this period an attempt was made to repair damage blow water by a petty officer telegraphist using life saving apparatus.  The petty officer has stated that he volunteered for the job as the remainder of the crew were too unskilled to be entrusted with the task.  He remained over half an hour under water, coming up on one or two occasions for additional oxygen.  He succeeded in sawing away a steel rod which had fouled a hydroplane.  
          When "U 570" was docked, damage to the bows was repaired by welding steel plates, but it was not found possible to repair the detector gear, as there was no engineer at Trondheim who understood the work.  "U 570" was therefore unable to use this apparatus during her war cruise.  Prisoners criticised this state of affairs bitterly and stated that, owing to the rapid expansion of the U-Boat arm, there were no longer enough skilled technicians to meet requirements.  
          Repairs having been completed, further trials were carried out; these apparently consisted chiefly of diving, manoeuvering and gun-firing practice.  Representatives of the U-Boat Acceptance Commission were still on board and "U 570" was apparently not finally handed over to Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Rahmlow until about the middle of August.  
          On 22nd August, the eve of the start of "U 570's" first and last war cruise, the pending departure was celebrated on board, while the U-Boat was lying in Lo Fjord.  Much wine and beer flowed, and the entertainment consisted of songs and recitations.  The "hit" of the evening was a long recitation containing personal details of "U 570's" officers and other members of the crew, as well as descriptions of the U-Boat's trials.  This frivolous extravaganza, preserved apparently for purely sentimental reasons, provided the British Interrogating Officers with useful information.  It might well serve as a warning against the preservation of personal records, however harmless they may appear, by the ship's companies of all vessels sailing in waters in which they are liable to capture.  
          "U 570" then being ready for sea, electric war torpedoes were taken on board.  Of these, four were stated to have been stowed in the bilges forward, and one in the bilges aft, five in the tubes, two on the floor plates and two in containers on the upper deck.  Some prisoners however denied that torpedoes were in the containers on the upper deck.  "U 570" provisioned for a cruise of about four weeks.  
     
 
IV.  FIRST AND LAST CRUISE OF "U 570"
 
     
          "U 570" left Lo Fjord for her first and last war cruise at 0800 on 24th August, 1941.  She was probably accompanied to sea by "U 568," then stated to have been at Trondheim, and was escorted to the North Sea by a trawler.  "U 570" was apparently under instructions to proceed to the Atlantic South of Iceland, carry out attacks and then to make for La Pallice on the French Atlantic coast.  Few things appear to have gone well on this cruise for the U-Boat and her inexperienced crew.  Soon after leaving harbour engine trouble developed.  It was found that the valves of one of the Diesel engines were not securely seated and, because of this, the cooling system did not work properly, resulting in severe overheating.  Repairs were effected, while the U-Boat proceeded on one engine.  
          No sooner had this trouble been remedied, than further difficulties developed with the injector pumps.  In addition, 'U 570" was making a certain amount of water through one of her torpedo tubes, an old trouble which, it was thought, had been checked, and also through an exhaust pipe.  According to one prisoner "U 570" twice sighted aircraft while crossing the North Sea and crash dived on each occasion.  Another prisoner stated, however, that no aircraft were seen.  
     
  (C43009)                                                                                                                             B*4  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
6
     
          It appears that the U-Boat proceeded mostly on the surface to her area of operations which, there is some reason to believe, was designated by the code word "Rosengarten."  Her approximate course was North of the Shetlands, North of the Faroe Isles, to a position South of Iceland.  She sighted three drifting mines off Iceland, believing them to be German.  
          According to a diary she sighted a steamer on 25th August, 1941, and a second on 26th August, 1941, when she submerged, but on neither occasion did she attack.  
          During this part of the cruise "U 570" was in constant touch with the Vice-Admiral, U-Boats, and prisoners stated that, on one occasion, they received a signal saying that a U-Boat had sunk 4 ships out of a convoy protected by American destroyers; the signal attributed this success to the lack of experience of the Americans.  The encouraging effect of this signal on the crew of "U 570" was said to have been considerable.  On the night of 26th/27th August, 1941, they received another message that a U-Boat had sunk a ship in their vicinity.  
          Prisoners stated that "U 570" was also informed of an approaching convoy which had been sighted and was being shadowed by another U-Boat.  Acting upon orders "U 570" left her operational area to proceed to intercept this convoy, when disaster overtook her.  According to one prisoner 10 to 12 U-Boats had gathered in the vicinity of "U 570," all having designs on the same convoy.  They had come from various flotillas and bases.  "U 570" received orders to attack the convoy, but these were cancelled and a more northerly course ordered, owing to an alteration of course by the convoy.  It appears that the other U-Boats were in a more favourable position for the attack.  Prisoner stated that they expected to attack the convoy on 28th August, that is to say about 24 hours after the time of their detection and capture.  
     
 
V.  CAPTURE OF "U 570"
 
     
          At approximately 0830 on the morning of 27th August, 1941, "U 570" submerged in position about 62° 15' N. and 18° 35' W. to obtain some respite from heavy seas which had already caused much seasickness among her inexperienced crew.  At 1050 the captain decided to surface again and brought the U-Boat up from a depth of approximately 90 ft.  What happened next can only be attributed to the lack of training of the Commander.  Rahmlow entirely forgot to make any observation for hostile aircraft before exposing his ship.  It so happened that a Hudson aircraft "S" belonging to 269 Squadron, and piloted by Squadron-Leader Thompson, was almost immediately overhead.  "U 570" perceived her danger too late and, while she was attempting to crash dive, the aircraft dropped a stick of four 250 lb. depth charges, at an angle of 30° to the U-Boat's track.  These exploded close to her, the nearest being about 10 yards away.  One minute after the water disturbance had subsided "U 570" surfaced again, bow down, and 10 to 12 of her crew came on deck.  The aircraft attacked with guns until a white flag was waved from the conning tower.  
          It was established by interrogation of prisoners that, at the moment of the attack, confusion reigned within the U-Boat.  The detonation of the depth charges, the smashing of instruments, the formation of gas, thought by the crew to be chlorine gas, and the entry of a certain amount of water apparently convinced Rahmlow that his boat was lost, for her ordered the crew to don life-jackets and mount the conning tower.  
          Prisoners stated that once on deck it became necessary for them to wave the white flag, as it was possible that the aircraft, imagining that they were about to man their gun might have attacked once more.  Seas were apparently so high, that the manning of the gun was out of the question, as also was the launching of a boat, and no-one among the crew relished the prospect of being cast into the seas, when not a single ship was in sight.  Huddled in their miserable position the crew remained throughout the day.  At 1345 the Lockheed aircraft was relieved by a Catalina Flying Boat, which, like its predecessor, proceeded to circle the U-Boat with its guns trained on the crew.  As the day drew on "U 570's" officers seem to have regained some of their composure, and a number of men re-entered the U-Boat.  A wireless signal was sent informing the Vice-Admiral U-Boats that the U-Boat could no longer submerge and that she had been captured.  After this unskilled attempts were made with a hammer to smash vital and secret mechanisms.  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
7
     
  Confidential papers were dumped over the side, and the cipher machine was broken to pieces and also dumped.  Water was rising in the control room and, after working the electric pumps, current ran low and the lighting failed.  The forward compartments were shut off because of leakage.  
          At 2250 the aircraft and "U 570" were sighted by H.M. Trawler "Northern Chief."  This vessel closed the U-Boat and made the following signal: "If you make any attempt to scuttle I will not save anyone, and will fire on your raft and floats."  The reply was made:  "I cannot scuttle or abandon; save us to-morrow, please."  The U-Boat was then ordered to show a small white light to ensure that contact might be maintained, and this was fitted aft.  The crew of "U 570" were still apparently anxious about their fate and began to jettison ammunition and provisions in order to lighten ship.  Many of the men appear to have gone below to recover their most precious possessions, and one or two prisoners have stated that they actually slept below on this night.  
          At 0330 H.M.T. "Kingston Agate" arrived on the scene and was instructed to sweep to the east of "U 570" while H.M.T. "Northern Prince" swept to the west.  At 0550 H.M. ships "Burwell," "Wastwater" and "Windermere" arrived and asked for the position of the U-Boat.  Heavy seas were running making towing operations impossible at that hour.  
          At 0805 a single-engine float-plane was seen to approach "U 570" and drop bombs than making for "Northern Prince," who opened fire owing to the hostile appearance of the aircraft.  Firing ceased immediately recognition marks were seen.  As a result of this bombing Rahmlow reported that "U 570" was making water aft, but this was disbelieved, as she did not change her trim which was down by the bows.  Continual complaints were now, however, made by "U 570's" crew who said they were unable to keep their vessel afloat, and asked to be saved.  This was promised them, only provided they kept their ship afloat.  
          At 0720 "U 570" offered to take a tow, and at 0802 H.M.C.S. "Niagara" arrived.  At 0835 a line was passed from "Burwell" to "U 570,"  "Windermere" assisted by lying to windward and pumping oil.  At 0915 this line parted owing to the unmaneoeuverability of "Burwell" and "U 570's" crew being unable to haul in the line from their conning tower, their upper deck being awash.  H.M.S. "Windermere" then attempted to take the U-Boat in tow three times, but all attempts were unsuccessful.  At 1030, as "U 570" was slowly settling by the head and continuous signals were being received from her that she could not remain afloat much longer, she was ordered to blow more ballast and, if necessary, pump out oil.  It appeared that no effort was being made by the crew, so a burst was fired from "Burwell's" starboard 0.5 machine-gun over the conning tower.  Unfortunately, owing to the labouring of the two vessels, some of the bullets hit the conning tower, wounding five of the crew.  This action greatly perturbed the U-Boat's crew and once more the white flag was in evidence.  It did, however, have the desired effect; oil and water were blown out and for the first time "U 570" appeared to be in full surface trim.  At 1035 H.M.T. "Kingston Agate" reported that she was fitted for towing and was given permission to try.  At 1350 two officers and two ratings from "Kingston Agate" boarded "U 570" by Carley float and the wounded men were taken off.  At 1402 H.M.T. "Kingston Agate" reported all confidential books and instruments destroyed and that "U 570" was filling with chlorine.  Prisoners stated that the formation of gas within the U-Boat had been considerably aggravated by the second bombing attack upon them.  
          At 1600 "U 570" was got in tow, stern first, by H.M.T. "Kingston Agate" and the crew were being removed.  At 1930 the tow parted, and H.M.T. "Kingston Agate" proceeded to Reykjavik with the wounded.  At 2057 "U 570" was finally taken in tow by H.M.T. "Northern Chief" and brought successfully to Thorlakshofn, where she was beached.  
          Examination of "U 570" has shown that a moderately well-trained crew should have had no difficulty in diving the U-Boat.  Lieutenant George Colvin, R.N., who inspected "U 570," reported that the pressure hull appeared to be undamaged and that no leaks could be found.  The forward main ballast tank was holed and gave no buoyancy.  The remainder of ballast tanks were probably undamaged, but may have had slow leaks, due to strained joints in pipe connections to tanks.  The fore planes were almost certainly out of action.  There were small quantities of water in the forward compartment, the control room, and the engine room, but  
     
  (C43009)                                                                                                                             B**  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
8
     
  scarcely more than would naturally accumulate in the bilges.  Internally the damage was negligible and consisted mostly of a few broken gauges, gauge glasses, and light fittings probably caused by the depth charges and also by ignorantly conceived attempts to destroy various fittings.  The latter damage was chiefly to the attack instruments, the master compass (prisoners claimed that this was damaged by the depth charges) and possibly some wireless gear, but it was by no means thoroughly done.  The main motors, main engines and pumps, compressors, auxiliaries, etc., appeared to be undamaged.  The main battery tanks (two in number) were apparently dry and sound.  It is doubted whether chlorine was ever present.  The batteries were fully discharged and provided only lighting and did not give sufficient power to run the H.P. air compressor.  The H.P. air services were apparently undamaged except for possible strained joints, but all the air groups were practically empty.  
     
 
VI.  DETAILS OF "U 570"
 
     
  (i)  General Remarks  
          "U 570" is a 500-ton U-Boat of the series "U 563"-"U 570," designed by Friedrich Krupp, Germania Yard, Kiel, and built by Blohm & Voss Yard, Hamburg.  She is type VII C.  The general particulars as as follows as taken from one of the notebooks taken from the crew.  
 
Length over all
67.10 m. (220.20 ft.)
Length at waterline
65.90 m. (216.21 ft.)
Maximum beam
6.18 m. (20.275 ft.)
Height from lower edge of keel to upper deck
5.95 m. (19.52 ft.)
Height from lower edge of keel to upper edge of conning tower structure
9.40 m. (19.52 ft.)
Draft at normal load
4.53 m.(14.86 ft.)
Draft at maximum load
4.76 m. (15.61 ft.)
Displacement at normal load
710.80 cu. m. (688 tons)
Displacement at maximum load
760.70 cu. m. (736 tons)
Maximum diameter of pressure hull
4.70 m. (15.42 ft.)
Length of pressure hull
49.40 m. (162.07 ft.)
Height of keel below base
0.55 m. (1.80 ft.)
Height of periscope extended above keel
14.612 m. (47.934 ft.)
Periscope withdrawn to upper edge of conning tower structure
9,397 m. (30.81 ft.)
Breadth of keel
1.64 m. (5.38 ft.)
Beam including compensating tank
6.10 m. (20.01 ft.)
Beam at waterline
4.53 m. (14.86 ft.)
 
     
  (ii)  General Construction of the Boat  
 
(Translated from a notebook belonging to a Mechanician, 2nd Class)
 
          U-Boats, type VII C, are boats of medium size and of a mixed type.  The boat consists principally of pressure hull with conning tower, outer hull, and the upper deck with conning tower superstructure.  
          The whole bridge structure, which occupies approximately half the length of the pressure hull above the control room, is connected to the latter by a central hatch.  The outer hull is shaped to the pressure hull, forward on either side, and aft.  The lower part of the upper deck extends along the entire length of the boat and is welded by means of angle brackets to the pressure hull.  In order to reduce the speed resistance of the boat when submerged, the conning tower has been provided with a casing (Turmverkleidung).  
          On the underneath side of the pressure hull is situated a ballast keel .55 metres (1.8 ft.) high and 1.1 metres (3.61 ft.) broad.  
     
  (iii)  Construction of the Pressure Hull  
 
(Translated from notebooks belonging to the Chief Mechanician and to a Mechanician, 2nd Class)
 
          The pressure hull has for its entire length a circular cross-section.  It is formed out of one cylindrical and seven truncated cone-shaped sections.  These are connected together with electric weldings and are fitted inside with 82 transverse  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
9
     
  curved ribs supported by bulb plates (Flachwilsteisen) and stiffened by pressuretight and watertight bulkheads.  The heads of the electrically welded rivets are inspected by the dockyard with X-rays.  In the first boats of this type 25 per cent. of all welded rivets were rejected; as a result of experience this was reduced to 15 per cent., so that the resistance capability of the pressure hull is capable of withstanding greater depths than had been foreseen.  The thickness of the plates is somewhat less towards the ends.  Certain surfaces (at present below the conning tower and between the after torpedo hatch, the gas escape flaps and the Diesel embarkation opening) are strengthened by the use of thicker material.  The pressure hull is closed (abgeschlossen) at the ends by two externally curved end plates (or bulkheads) (Böden) which are welded in place.  The foremost end plate (Endböden) is strengthened between the fore torpedo tube supports, which compensates for this weakness.  
          The thickness of the plates of the cylindrical part of the pressure hull is 18.5 mm. (.710 in.) and forward and aft of this is reduced to 16 mm. (.629 in.).  The wall thickness (Wandstärke) of the two end plates amounts to 35 mm. (1.378 in.).  
     
  (iv)  Construction of the Conning Tower  
 
(Translated from a notebook belonging to a Mechanician, 2nd Class.)
 
          The shape of the conning tower is formed in the horizontal section aft of an ellipse and on either side and forward arcs (Kreisbogen), which merge together without any flat surfaces.  The radii forward are 575 mm. (22.638 in.) and for the side walls 2260 mm. (88.978 in.).  In order to reduce the speed resistance of the boat when submerged the conning tower is surrounded by a casing (Turmverkleidung).  
          The upper part of the conning tower is sectioned off by a conning tower covering (Turmdecke) consisting of a steel casting 30 mm. (1.18 in.) thick.  This is welded to the conning tower casing by plates 32 mm. (1.259 in.) thick.  In the conning tower are situated:  
                  Periscope aft with oil pressure motor,  
                  Steering pedestal for main rudder, and  
                  Torpedo-firing apparatus.  
     
  (v)  Telegraph Orders, Powers and Speeds (U-Boats, Type VII C).  
     
 
Diesels.
Electric Motors.
Diesel Electric.
     
Ahead.
i.e., One diesel propelling and one diesel charging.
Telegraph Orders.
Revs.
Speed in Knots.
Revs.
Speed in Knots.
Speed in Knots.
Diesel.
Electric Motors.
Dead slow                  (KF)
180
7
60
1.6
-
-
-
Slow                           (LF)
283
10
114
3
7.5
240
155
Half Speed                 (HF)
350
12
167
4.5
9
283
195
3/5 speed            (2 X HF)
390
14
220
6
10
330
215
3/4 speed                   (GF)
420
15
257
7
-
-
-
4/5 speed             (2 X GF)
460
16.5
275
7.5
11
360
240
Utmost speed             (AK)
470
16.9
293
8
-
-
-
Emergency speed (2 X AK)
480
17.4
-
-
-
-
-
Astern.
Dead slow                  (KF)
180
-
60
-
-
-
-
Slow                           (LF)
210
-
115
-
-
-
-
Half Speed                 (HF)
250
-
165
-
-
-
-
3/5 speed            (2 X HF)
310
-
220
-
-
-
-
Utmost speed             (AK)
400
-
293
-
-
-
-
 
     
  (C43009)                                                                                                                         B**2  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
10
     
  (vi)  Underwater Sound Apparatus  
          The U.T. Anlage (Underwater Telegraphic Apparatus (Sonic)) consists of two transmitters and two receivers on each side of the submarine mounted with axis nearly vertical (a total of four transmitters and four receivers).  
          The transmitters are believed to be of the sonic "Wall" type excited directly from an alternator and controlled by a magnetic relay and a morse key.  
          The receivers are probably of the moving coil type connected direct to an amplifier fitted with telephones.  
          The frequency of transmission is believed to be 3,000˜ but may be higher as the supply alternator has the unusual speed of 5,150 r.p.m. and is fitted with a governor.  
          The G.H. Gear (Multi-unit Hydrophone Gear) consists of 48 Rochelle Salt Receivers arranged in a circle on the ship's bottom well forward near the fore planes.  
          Each receiver is fitted with a one-valve "head" amplifier and is connected to an electrical compensator with built-in filter amplifier which enables the direction of a continuous sound to be obtained probably with considerable accuracy.  Reception is by telephone and the amplifier is fitted with high pass filters to cut out frequencies below 500, 1,000, 3,000, 6,000 and 10,000 cycles.  
          The highest filter previously met with has been 6,000 cycles in "Spindrift" (ex. Polaris").  
          The use of crystal receivers in multi-unit sets is not new, as some of the later Dutch submarines were fitted with these, but 48 is an unusually large number to be fitted.  
          The shallow or supersonic set consists of a single M/S transmitter and receiver probably with a frequency of about 15,000 cycles.  Transmission is by condenser discharge and the depth is indicated by a neon tube indicator with a scale 0-125 metres.  
          The deep or sonic echo-sounding set consists of three "Wall" type sonic transmitters operated in parallel and three moving coil receivers operated in series.  The frequency used is 3,000 cycles, the transmitter being supplied by an alternator generating 1,500 cycles.  
          Depths are indicated on the same neon tube indicator as the shallow sounding gear but with scales up to 1,000 and 3,000 meters.  Hand transmissions and aural reception-presumably with stop watch-can also be used.  
          Note.  This may account for the signals heard by our submarines when keeping A/S watch off Lorient.  At the time it was suggested that they might be echo-sounding transmissions from an enemy submarine making the 100 fathom line.  These would be audible on the hydrophones and probably on the asdic.  
          All the above apparatus is made by Electro Acoustic Company of Kiel.  
     
  (vii)  Detector or "S" Gear (Such-Gerät, usually known as S-Gerät)  
          The S-Gear is the German asdic and is manufactured by Electro Acoustic of Kiel (commercially as the Ultrameter) and by the Atlaswerke of Bremen (commercially as the Periphone).  
          It consists of a combined Magneto Striction transmitter or receiver which can be used for telegraphy and telephony, echo-ranging and hydrophone effect listening.  The frequency used is probably between 15,000 and 20,000 cycles.  
          The apparatus, which is retractable, projects through the ballast keel near the fore end of the control room.  
          It is a short range supersonic echo-ranging apparatus of the magnetostriction type and is fitted primarily for mine detection purposes.  It is only emerging from the experimental stage and "U 570" was one of the first, if not the first U-Boat to be fitted with it.  In its present form it is not very serviceable; "U 570's" apparatus had broken down and was not in working order at the time of her capture.  
          The maximum range of detection is 500 metres and the practical range about 300 metres.  The combined transmitter-receiver comprises four packs of nickel stampings and was said to be energised with 4,000 volts transformed up from a 110-volt supply.  The beam angle is stated to be + 45° and no means of training the beam is provided.  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
11
     
          Prisoners believed that the amplifying and recording unit of the S-Gear is known as the A.E.G. apparatus (since it was made by the A.E.G. Company).  The transmitted and received pulses are applied to a cathode ray tube in front of which is an optical projection system which casts an image of the C.R. tube trace on to a ground glass screen provided with a range scale graduated in metres.  
          An earlier statement that the S-apparatus was used for "blind" underwater firing of torpedoes has been contradicted and is not now believed.  
     
 
VII.  DIESEL-ELECTRIC PROPULSION
 
     
          A chief mechanician prisoner, claiming expert knowledge of Diesels, gave the following explanation of the term "Diesel-Electric."  
          "Diesel-Electric" propulsion is used, when it is desired to put one Diesel out of action for repairs or other reasons, and it is nevertheless required to turn both screws.  The electric motors are dual-purpose motors.  They can be used either as dynamos or as generators as required.  The switching over from one use to the other is done by means of a switchboard and a series of resistances.  The whole procedure takes but a few seconds.  
          If it is required, for example, to stop the port Diesel and keep under way on the other Diesel, the starboard generator is started from the batteries.  The compression cocks of the starboard Diesel are opened, the generator slowed down and the clutch slowly let in, thus turning the Diesel engine.  The cocks are then shut and the Diesel will run under its own power.  The dynamo is then switched off and the speed of the Diesel increased so that the starboard generator produces enough electricity to drive the port dynamo.  The electricity produced is led through the batteries to prevent the current fluctuating.  
          The following table, found among captured documents, would therefore, indicate that if one Diesel is turning at 285 revs. at slow speed and the electric motor is coupled with it, the number of revs. is reduced to 240; the electricity produced is sufficient to turn the other screw at 155 revs.  The loss in revolutions is due to the loss of power in the process of conversion.  The differences in speed between port and starboard propellers is counteracted by the rudder.  
     
 
Telegraph Orders.
Diesels.
Electric Motors.
Diesel Electric.
Revs.
Speed in Knots.
Revs.
Speed in Knots.
Speed in Knots.
Diesel Revs.
Electric Motors Revs.
Slow
285
10
114
3
7.5
240
155
Half Speed
350
12
167
4.5
9
285
195
Three-fifth speed
390
14
220
6
10
330
215
Four-fifth speed
460
16.5
275
7.5
11
360
240
 
     
 
VIII.  DEGAUSSING
 
     
          A prisoner stated that U-Boats are degaussed by alternating current treatment and have to be re-treated after every cruise.  
     
 
IX.  OTHER U-BOATS
 
     
  (i)  "U 15"  
          The loss in February, 1940, of "U 15," a 250-ton U-Boat of the older type, was mentioned in C.B. 04051 (9), (10) and (13); the Chief Quartermaster of "U 570" added some further information on this point.  He stated that a German cruiser had rammed and cut "U 15" in half.  
     
  (C43009)                                                                                                                          B**3  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
12
     
  (ii)  "U 17"  
          A torpedo rating who had served in "U 17," a 250-ton U-Boat of the older type, from about the middle of December, 1939, until November, 1940, stated that Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Udo Behrens was in command during the earlier part of that period and that only two war cruises were made; the first was said to have been carried out towards the end of January, 1940, and lasted 14 days, the U-Boat proceeding from Kiel, through the Kiel Canal, and to the North Sea as far as the Eastern end of the English Channel.  It was claimed that two ships were sunk, the first with one electric torpedo and the second with one or two electric torpedoes.  "U 17" then returned to Wilhelmshaven and thence through the Kiel Canal to Kiel.  Other officers stated to have been on board were Leutnant zur See (Sub-Lieutenant) Gerhard Massmann, now in command of "U 137," and, as engineer officer, Oberleutnant (Ing.) (Engineer Lieutenant) Rohweder.  
          The second cruise of "U 17" was said to have started on 4th or 5th April, 1940 from Wilhelmshaven and to have lasted until 1st May, 1940.  It is known that "U 17" took part in the Norwegian operations.  Prisoner stated that nothing was sunk on this cruise.  
          On her return to Kiel "U 17" was said to have remained alongside the wharf until shortly after Whitsun and then to have proceeded alone to the anti-submarine school at Gotenhafen; prisoner added that, when he was transferred in November, 1940, she was still at that port, under the command of Oberleutnant zur See (Lieutenant) Collmann, now in command of "U 562."  
     
  (iii)  "U 19"  
          Confirmation was obtained of the fact that "U 19" was commanded at the outbreak of war by Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Meckel who was subsequently transferred to the staff of the Vice-Admiral U-Boats, being succeeded by Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Joachim Schepke.  (See C.B. 04051 (13) and C.B. 4051 (19).)  
          The Chief Quartermaster of "U 570" claimed to have served in "U 19"under Godt, Meckel and Schepke.  "U 19" appears to have carried out at least one cruise under Meckel, which was a minelaying cruise, and prisoner claimed that Meckel had been congratulated by the Vice-Admiral U-Boats personally on having successfully laid mines as required; these mines were said to have been magnetic.  
          A further incident alleged to have occurred in the early war history of "U 19" was the escape from a torpedo attack off the Shetlands after sighting a periscope and diving to 40 metres (131 ft.); the torpedo was heard to pass overhead.  
          On another occasion "U 19" was described as having entered the mouth of the Humber; a light seen, at first thought to be a lighthouse or beacon of some kind, proved to be a destroyer about 165 yards away.  "U 19" was said to have crash dived, laid magnetic mines and returned safely to her base.  Prisoner believed that the lookout kept in the British destroyer must have been poor, as "U 19" was apparently neither seen nor heard.  
          This man also mentioned the occasion on which Schepke in "U 19" had attacked a convoy of ships off an East coast port and sunk three of them (see C.B. 4051 (19)); this incident appears to have occurred early in 1940.  
          New alleged facts given by prisoners were that Schepke had got through the British mine barrage by waiting for and then following a merchant ship; a further detail given was that the convoy attacked afterwards consisted of seven ships; it was mentioned in C.B. 4051 (19) that three of the ships were claimed by Schepke to have been sunk.  
          Prisoner stated that "U 19" carried out six war cruises and was then transferred to the training flotilla, proceeding first to Warnemünde, where her command was taken over by Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Eberhard Hoffmann, and thence to Gotenhafen.  
          Prisoner denied that "U 19" had been lost, as stated by prisoners captured in July, 1940 (C.B. 4051 (14)), and insisted that she is still in service as a training U-Boat.  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
13
     
  (iv)  "U 37"  
          A prisoner who claimed to have served formerly in "U 37" under the command of Korvettenkapitän (Commander) Werner Hartmann, contributed some statements about the early war cruises of this U-Boat.  
          He said that Hartmann had carried out four war cruises, on the first of which nothing was sunk, but on the second cruise the sinking of 35,000 tons was claimed, 45,000 tons for the third cruise, and 27,000 tons for the fourth cruise on which "U 37" took part in the Norwegian operations; the latter total was stated to include a cruiser of the "London" or "Glasgow" class, but prisoner added that he did not know whether or not this cruiser actually sank.  
          The following names of other officers in "U 37" during these cruises were given:  
 
First Lieutenant Oberleutnant (Lieutenant) Bauer, during first and second cruises.
  Oberleutnant Karl Clausen, during third and fourth cruises.
Junior Officer Leutnant zur See (Sub-Lieutenant) Pohl, during all four cruises.
Engineer Officer Oberleutnant (Ing.) (Engineer Lieutenant) Gerd Suhren, during all four cruises
 
     
  (v)  "U 48"  
          Several prisoners stated that "U 48," Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Herbert Schultze, was out on a war cruise at the end of August or early in September, 1941.  He is known to have relieved Korvettenkapitän Rösing in command of the 3rd U-Boat Flotilla on 26th July, 1941.  
     
  (vi)  "U 59"  
          A Petty Officer Telegraphist claiming to have made a number of war cruises in "U 59," first under Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Harold Jürst, said this officer was succeeded about the middle of 1940 by Kapitänleutnant Joachim Matz, under whom prisoner served for several further cruises in "U 59."  As Matz is known to have been appointed to "U 70" in late autumn of 1940, these later cruises must have been made between July and November, 1940.  Matz was said to have been relieved about November, 1940, by another Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander).  
          Prisoner's statements do not agree with Matz' own account of his activities during that time,as that officer claimed that he had not been to sea during the period in question.  In view of the shortage of U-Boat captains and as Matz agrees that he had recovered from his illness by July, 1940, it seems likely that he was in command of "U 59" for some months before being transferred to "U 70" late in the year.  
          Prisoner denied that "U 59" had ever laid any mines during his service abroad and had operated in the North Sea, although he believed that she was now based on Lorient.  
     
  (vii)  "U 69"  
          This U-Boat, believed to have been under the command of Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Jost Metzler, sank five merchant ships totalling 31,500 tons off the west coast of Africa, according to a German radio announcement of 27th June, 1941.  
          From captured documents it was established that "U 69" was in touch with a convoy proceeding in the same direction as herself, and had sunk two ships of this convoy.  She was, however, short of fuel and had orders to report touch with the convoy to "U 123" operating nearby.  But "U 69" failed to maintain touch with the convoy, did not report that this failure was due to a lack of fuel, and did not even report to the Vice-Admiral U-Boats the latest position and course of the convoy.  The German communiqué quoted above indicated that this position was off the west coast of Africa.  
          On 1st August, 1941, the award of the Knight Insignia of the Iron Cross to Metzler was announced; it was added that his U-Boat had sunk eleven armed  
     
  (C43009)                                                                                                                         B**4  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
14
     
  merchant ships totalling 76,170 tons, one of which was sunk by gunfire at night as no torpedoes were left.  A German broadcast gave the tonnage of this ship as 5,000 tons and praised Metzler's courage in attacking by gunfire so formidable a foe as an armed merchant ship.  
          On 2nd August, 1941, the German radio broadcast an interview with Metzler in which he stated that he had returned the day before to a point on the west coast of France after a long cruise to the West African coast; he described the heat and dampness of the climate in South Atlantic waters and added that some of the U-Boat's supplies had gone bad but were replaced by fish caught by the crew.  
          It thus appears that the claim made on 27th June, 1941, refers to the earlier part of this extended cruise, and is again included in the total announced on 1st August, 1941.  Metzler has now been relieved in command of "U 69" by Korvettenkapitän (Commander) Zahn.  
     
  (viii)  "U 79"  
          On 27th June, 1941, "U 79" incurred censure from the Vice-Admiral U-Boats for having broken off touch with a convoy not yet reported in adequate detail, and for having started home without any apparently urgent reason, as she still had 42 cubic metres of fuel left.  
     
  (ix)  "U 82"  
          It was established that "U 82" was built by the Vulkan Yard, Vegesack, Bremen.  She is the same type as "U 570," namely VII C, of 500 tons.  Her dockyard number appears to have been "Veg. 10."  She was commissioned on 14th May, 1941, and allocated to the 3rd U-Boat Flotilla.  
     
  (x)  "U 84" and "U 87"  
          Prisoners from "U 501" stated that "U 84" and "U 87" left Horten for Trondheim at the same time as "U 501," soon after 20th July, 1941.  
     
  (xi)  "U 85"  
          This U-Boat, one of the series "U 83"-"U 87," built by the Flenderwerke, Lübeck, where she was known to the dockyard workers as "Flender 281," was commissioned on 7th June, 1941, and was allocated to the 3rd U-Boat Flotilla.  
     
  (xii)  "U 101"  
          A prisoner claimed to have made five cruises in "U 101" under Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Fritz Frauenheim.  
          It is known from statements of earlier prisoners that "U 101" was under construction early in 1940 and that she left on her first cruise at a date before June, 1940.  It seems likely that this prisoner's first cruise was also "U 101's" first cruise; this was said to have been carried out in April, 1940, after the start of the Norwegian operations, probably during the second half of the month, and lasted ten to twelve days.  The U-Boat was said to have gone from Kiel to Trondheim and back and to have sunk nothing.  
          After two weeks' rest in Kiel "U 101" was stated to have proceeded to the Atlantic on a war cruise of five or six weeks' duration and to have sunk a number of ships sailing independently and totalling 40,000 tons, after which she returned to Kiel about the middle of June, 1940.  This alleged achievement is believed to be that referred to in the German High Command communiqué of 17th June, 1940, which alleged that Frauenheim had sunk 41,500 tons of shipping, including the 11,400-ton "Wellington Star."  
          As mentioned in C.B. 4051 (20), page 20, "U 101" left Kiel on or about 10th August, 1940; according to prisoner this was her third war cruise from which she proceeded to Lorient.  On 3rd September, 1940, Frauenheim was awarded the Knight Insignia of the Iron Cross, and the German High Command claimed that, on his last cruise, he had sunk eleven ships, most of them in convoy, amounting to 58,000 tons.  
          It was stated by the above mentioned prisoner that "U 101" remained at Lorient for about three weeks before setting out on her fourth cruise, during which she was said to have sunk about 50,000 tons of shipping before returning to Lorient.  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
15
     
  As mentioned in C.B. 4051 (20), page 20, the German authorities credited Frauenheim, on the 19th October, 1940, with having sunk 51,000 tons during the preceding days.  
          After three weeks at Lorient "U 101" set out on her fifth cruise, according to prisoner, early in November, and returned to Lorient after twelve days, having sunk 56,000 tons of shipping.  
          According to the above evidence Frauenheim's total sinkings to the end of November, 1940, thus amounted to approximately 200,000 tons of shipping.  
          There has been no further mention of Frauenheim in German official communiqués, but prisoner captured in June, 1941, at the sinking of "U 556," stated that this officer's total was then still 195,000 tons.  
          It would thus appear that Frauenheim did not go to sea again in "U 101," or at least did not achieve further success.  
          It is also known that Frauenheim was appointed late in 1940 or early in 1941 to instruct at the U-Boat School at Pillau; it is also known that, early in March, 1941, Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Mengersen was already in command of "U 101" and may have been appointed to the U-Boat at a much earlier date.  The sinking of five ships totalling 41,000 tons on 2nd December, 1940, attributed to Mengersen by the German High Command communiqué of 3rd December, 1940, may have been achieved in "U 101," as stated in C.B. 4051 (23), page 27, but this could not be confirmed,as prisoner mentioned above left the U-Boat soon after her return from her fifth cruise.  
          This man, however, gave an interesting account of sabotage alleged to have occurred in "U 101" about Aril, or May, 1941, according to which a Diesel exhaust pipe was seriously weakened by dockyard workers, admitted to have been Germans, during a refit; later, during a cruise, while "U 101" was making a special effort to get away on the surface after an attack on shipping, this exhaust pipe broke, filling the U-Boat with dense black fumes.  Prisoner added that three men died as a result of inhaling these fumes, while four men were incapacitated for life and may also have died later.  This incident was said to have occurred on the twelfth day of a cruise just after "U 101" had fired her last torpedo; she was said to have returned to her base safely.  Many arrests were alleged to have been made in Lorient as a result of this sabotage.  
     
  (xiii)  "U 123"  
          As mentioned above, "U 123" Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Oscar Moehle, is known to have been operating on 27th June, 1941, in the immediate vicinity of "U 69," apparently off the West coast of Africa.  He has since been relieved in command of this U-Boat by Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Hardegen.  
     
  (xiv)  "U 124"  
          The German radio broadcast on 7th October, 1941, an interview with Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Johann Mohr on his return from his first cruise as captain of a U-Boat.  This officer is known to command "U 124," having formerly served in her as First Lieutenant and having succeeded Kapitänleutnant Schulz.  It was claimed that mohr had followed all day and attacked at night a convoy of eight merchant ships, protected by a destroyer and a corvette, proceeding from Great Britain to Gibraltar, and had sunk two large tankers.  After reloading his tubes Mohr was about to attack the convoy later, when Schnee got in before him and sank the three remaining ships in sight.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  Schnee's part in this attack is given under "U 201".)  
          Mohr alleged that the escorting corvette made off quickly instead of picking up survivors from the sunk vessels; he professed to have followed this ship for a while until she disappeared into the darkness.  
          The next episode on this cruise was stated to have been an attack at night on a British cruiser escorting a much bigger and better protected convoy coming from the south; the German torpedo was said to have missed as the cruiser was zig-zagging very sharply.  
          Mohr claimed to have then sunk, by means of two torpedoes, a huge tanker of 12,000 tons, and to have attacked but missed a destroyer.  
     
  (C43009)                                                                                                                    B***  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
16
     
  (xv)  "U 126"  
          The German radio announced that the U-Boat commanded by Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Ernst Bauer had assisted with great success in the sinking recently of 116,000 tons of shipping in the Battle of the Atlantic.  
     
  (xvi)  "U 132"  
          This U-Boat, built by the Vulkan Yard, Vegesack, Bremen, were she was known to the dockyard workers as "Veg.11," was commissioned on 29th May, 1941, and allocated to the 3rd U-Boat Flotilla.  
     
  (xvii)  "U 141"  
          This U-Boat appears to have been transferred from the 21st U-Boat Flotilla to the 3rd U-Boat Flotilla on 1st May, 1941.  She was probably completed and commissioned in 1940, probably as early as July, since "U 138" was commissioned on 27th June, 1940.  She is known to have been at her base as late as 14th July, 1941.  Oberleutnant zur See (Lieutenant) Philipp Schüler is believed to be in command of "U 141."  According to a German radio broadcast of 30th July, 1941, Schüler's U-Boat took an important part in the alleged sinking of 116,000 tons of shipping during the preceding days in the Battle of the Atlantic.  
          In a broadcast interview on 25th August, 1941, an announcer recounted Schüler's recent experience, presumably referring to the sinkings mentioned above.  He stated that Schüler had met the convoy concerned at midnight, but that the Northern Lights provided visibility; he described the convoy as having been protected by five modern destroyers and many other vessels.  He claimed that Schüler torpedoed firstly a 6,000 ton steamer which sank after her boilers had exploded, than a 10,000-ton ship which was still sinking when he sank his third victim, a 5,000-ton ship which also exploded.  After this the U-Boat was stated to have been obliged to dive and to have been attacked with many depth charges.  It was added that Schüler had formerly served under Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Joachim Schepke.  This officer lost his life when "U 100" was rammed and sunk by H.M.S. "Vanoc" on 17th March, 1941, (C.B. 4051 (19).)  
     
  (xviii)  "U 143"  
          From the fact that only 21 men are known to have been drafted to this U-Boat, she is presumed to be a 300-ton type.  She was transferred from the 22nd U-Boat Flotilla to the 3rd U-Boat Flotilla on 1st May, 1941.  
     
  (xix)  "U 147"  
          This U-Boat seems to have been transferred from the 22nd U-Boat Flotilla to the 3rd U-Boat Flotilla on 1st May, 1941.  
     
  (xx)  "U 201"  
          The German Radio announced on 8th September, 1941, that the Knight Insignia of the Iron Cross had been awarded to Oberleutnant zur See (Lieutenant) Adalbert Schnee; it is known that this officer is in command of "U 201."  
          It was announced that he had previously commanded a small U-Boat on three war cruises during which he had sunk 70,000 tons of merchant shipping, and was then appointed captain of another U-Boat in which, at the date of the announcement, he had increased his total sinkings to twelve ships totalling 95,000 tons.  
          On 7th October, 1941, the German radio claimed that Schnee's U-Boat had sunk the three remaining ships of a convoy of eight merchant ships proceeding from England to Gibraltar, after the U-Boat commanded by Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Johann Mohr had sunk two of the other ships, both of them tankers.  
     
  (xxi)  "U 203"  
          According to a German broadcast the U-Boat commanded by Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Rolf Mützelburg, believed to be "U 203" had a successful first war cruise during which she encountered three other U-Boats; it was claimed that she sank two ships in her first attacked, and was then attacked herself by depth  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
17
     
  charges, but was able to surface and to continue the chase.  In the second attack on the same southward bound convoy this U-Boat was said to have sunk three merchant ships and a destroyer, and to have then returned to her base owing to lack of fuel.  
          According to other supplementary information "U 203" was, on 24th June, 1941, the only U-Boat in touch with an outward bound convoy; close by and at some distance away there were several U-Boats which might have co-operated successfully in this area.  "U 203" suffered a broken external exhaust gas-valve, and started for home without reporting the latest position of the convoy.  This neglect occasioned a reproof from the Vice-Admiral U-Boats.  
          On 30th July, 1941, the German radio claimed that Mützelburg had sunk a large share of the 116,000 tons recently disposed of in the Battle of the Atlantic.  
          Some days later, on 4th August, 1941, the German radio claimed the sinking of a larger total, namely 140,000 tons, also one corvette and one destroyer; of these sinkings 31,000 tons of merchant shipping and the destroyer were attributed to Mützelburg.  It was added that the cruise in question was only that officer's second cruise.  
     
  (xxii)  "U 204"  
          Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Kell is believed to be in command of "U 204."  The German Press of 3rd September, 1941, and various German broadcasts during the following days made a series of announcements from which it appears that Kell's U-Boat claimed to have sunk two freighters and a destroyer of the "Afridi" class during an attack off the coast of Portugal on a convoy from Gibraltar; it was claimed that the Germans had sunk 122,000 tons of shipping in this convoy.  
          Kell added that two other U-Boats had participated in the attack, one torpedoing six ships totalling 36,000 tons and the other eight ships, four of which Kell claimed to have seen sink.  
          Kell was described as having a "Facist" or typical "U-Boat" beard.  
     
  (xxiii)  "U 205"  
          It appears that "U 205" was built by the Germania Werft, Kiel, was commissioned on 3rd May, 1941, and was allocated to the 3rd U-Boat Flotilla.  As 40 men, exclusive of officer were drafted to this U-Boat, she is presumed to be a 500-ton type.  She is under the command of Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Reschke.  
     
  (xxiv)  "U 206"  
          This U-Boat of the same series as "U 205," also built by the Germania Werft, Kiel, also seems to have been commissioned on 17th May, 1941, and was allocated to the 3rd U-Boat Flotilla.  She is commanded by Oberleutnant zur See (Lieutenant) Herbery Opitz.  
     
  (xxv)  "U 332"  
          This U-Boat, built by the Nordseewerke, Emden, had a complement of 41 Chief and Petty Officers and men drafted to her and, therefore, appears to be a 500-ton type U-Boat.  She is believed to have been commissioned on 7th June, 1941.  
     
  (xxvi)  "U 373"  
          This U-Boat, built by the Kriegsmarinewerft, Kiel, appears to have been commissioned on 22nd May, 1941, and was allocated to the 3rd U-Boat Flotilla.  As 39 men, exclusive of officer, were drafted to her, she appears to be a 500-ton U-Boat.  
     
  (xxvii)  "U 402"  
          Built by the Danzinger Werft, Danzig, "U 402" is believed to have been commissioned about the middle of May, 1941, and was allocated to the 3rd U-Boat Flotilla.  As 17 technical ratings, the usual number allocated to a 500-ton U-Boat, were drafted to "U 402" on 17th May, 1941, and 16 navigational personnel, together with four telegraphists were drafted to this U-Boat on 21st May, 1941, making a total crew of 37, exclusive of officers, it is presumed that she is of this type.  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
18
     
  (xxviii)  "U 431"  
          This U-Boat was built by the Schichauwerft, Danzig, and appears to have been commissioned on 5th April, 1941, and was allocated to the 3rd U-Boat Flotilla.  As 41 men, exclusive of officers, were drafted to this U-Boat, she is presumed to be a 500-ton type.  
          Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Frielinghaus was appointed to "U 431" for the last three weeks of May, 1941.  "U 431" is known to have been in a German port on the 28th May, 1941.  
          The U-Boat is now believed to be commanded by Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Dommes.  
     
  (xxix)  "U 432"  
          It is believed that this U-Boat, built by the Schichauwerft, Danzig, was commissioned on 26th April, 1941, and was allocated to the 3rd U-Boat Flotilla.  As at least 38 Chief and Petty Officers and men were appointed to this U-Boat, it appears that she is a 500-ton type.  
          Prisoners from "U 501" stated that their U-Boat received a signal from "U 432" about four hours before the former sighted convoy S.C.42 on the night 10th/11th September, 1941; this signal announced that "U 432" was already in touch with the convoy.  
     
  (xxx)  "U 433"  
          This 500-ton U-Boat built by the Schichauwerft, Danzig, appears to have been commissioned on 24th, May, 1941, and was allocated to the 3rd U-Boat Flotilla.  She is of the same series as "U 431" and "U 432."  She is commanded by Oberleutnant zur See (Lieutenant) Ey.  
     
  (xxxi)  "U 451"  
          From the fact that 39 Chief and Petty Officers and men were drafted to "U 451," it appears that she is a 500-ton type U-Boat.  She was built by the Deutsche Werke, Kiel, commissioned on 3rd May, 1941, and was allocated to the 3rd U-Boat Flotilla.  
     
  (xxxii)  "U 452"  
          This 500-ton U-Boat, of the same series as "U 451" and built by the Deutsche Werke, Kiel, was commissioned on 29th May, 1941, probably about 3-1/2 weeks after "U 451," and was also allocated to the 3rd U-Boat Flotilla.  She is commanded by Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) March.  
     
  (xxxiii)  "U 502"  
          Prisoners from "U 501" stated that "U 502," a U-Boat of the same series, built at the Deutsche Werft, Finkenwerder, Hamburg, had been launched by the end of April, 1941, and had left the dockyard early in June, 1941, to carry out her trials.  
          The captain of "U 502" was described as a Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) with a pointed beard.  It was implied, but could not be confirmed, that this officer was Korvettenkapitän (Commander) Hans-Gerrit von Stockhausen, who formerly commanded "U 65."  The captain of "U 502" was said to have presented Förster, the captain of "U 501," with a toy hippopotamus as a mascot, and to have received in return a toy goat.  These animals were said to have been adopted by the respective U-Boats as their "badges" and were painted on their conning towers.  
     
  (xxxiv)  "U 503"  
          This U-Boat of the same series as "U 501" was stated to have been launched before the end of April, 1941.  
     
  (xxxv)  "U 504" and "U 505"  
 
        The Petty Officer Telegraphist of "U 501" was of the opinion that "U 504" and "U 505" of the same series as "U 501" were to be equipped with detector gear (S-Gerät); this gear was not installed in "U 501," commissioned at an earlier date than "U 504" and "U 505."
 
     
     

 

     
     
 
19
     
  (xxxvi)  "U 552"  
          Frankfort broadcast on 8th October, 1941, records stated to have been made on board a U-Boat in the North Atlantic between Greenland and Iceland; the record was made by a commentator named Heinrich Schwich, and said that the U-Boat had been cruising unsuccessfully for fourteen days but had that afternoon sighted on the port side a convoy protected by two zig-zagging destroyers.  The record reproduced the orders conversations and sounds in the U-Boat, stated to have penetrated past the escorts and the other column of ships right into the centre of the convoy, as a number of torpedoes were fired.  The first torpedo was alleged to have been fired from a good distance at a 5,000 ton tanker, which was hit in the engine room and immediately sank by the stern, but without the oil catching fire.  
          Two vessels were described as colliding and one of them as later breaking in two, and these ships were said to be firing red tracer bullets.  These ships were said to be heavily laden freighters of 7,000 tons and 5,000 tons, the former to have sunk and the latter to have probably sunk.  
          The next record stated that the U-Boat escaped from pursuing destroyers, after hearing the detonations of torpedoes of other U-Boats attacking the convoy.  
          The stalking and sinking by means of two torpedoes of a tanker estimated at 10,000 tons is then described in lurid detail, the commander gloating over the columns of flame and burning oil on the sea.  He added that the tanker fired on the U-Boat but missed.  
          The night's total sinkings were given as 22,000 tons.  
          Another German radio broadcast of 10th October, 1941, by the Deutschlandsender, purporting to be records made in the same U-Boat in the Atlantic on her way back to her base and moving parallel to the West coast of Great Britain, announced that the U-Boat was commanded by Oberleutnant zur See (Lieutenant) Erich Topp.  This officer is known to be in command of "U 552."  
     
  (xxxvii)  "U 567"  
          This 500-ton U-Boat, built by Blohm & Voss yards, Hamburg, was apparently commissioned on 24th APril, 1941, and was allocated to the 3rd U-Boat Flotilla.  
     
  (xxxviii)  "U 568"  
          Of the same series as "U 567" this U-Boat was commissioned on 1st May, 1941, and was allocated to the 3rd U-Boat Flotilla.  Prisoners from "U 570" claim to have seen her subsequently in Kiel and later in Horten, and at Trondheim in August, 1941.  They stated that she left on her first war cruise shortly before or at about the same date as "U 570" set out, 24th August, 1941.  
     
  (xxxix)  "U 569"  
          Also belonging to the same series which included "U 567" to "U 573" and other U-Boats of lower and higher identity numbers, "U 569" was commissioned on 8th May, 1941.  She is commanded by Oberleutnant zur See (Lieutenant) Hinsch.  
     
  (xl)  "U 571"  
          This U-Boat, of the series "U 563" to "U 574," was commissioned on 22nd May, 1941.  Prisoners claimed to have seen her at Horten on a date between 13th and 23rd July, 1941, and in Trondheim in August, 1941.  
     
  (xli)  "U 572"  
          "U 572" of the series "U 563" to "U 574," built by blohm & Voss, Hamburg, was commissioned on 29th May, 1941.  
     
  (xlii)  "U 573"  
          This U-Boat was commissioned on 5th June, 1941.  
     
  (xliii)  "U 652"  
          This U-Boat was built at the Howaldtswerke, Hamburg, and appears to be a 500-ton type, as 17 Technical Petty Officers and ratings were drafted on 20th March, 1941, to "U 652."  Orders of 2nd April included the names of these  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
20
     
  men in a crew list of 3 officers, 15 chief and petty officers, and 23 ratings, making a total of 41.  The officers were Oberleutnant zur See (Lieutenants) Georg Werner Fraatz and Remus and Leutnant (Ing.) (Engineer Sub-Lieutenant) Lichtenberg.  "U 652" was allocated to the 3rd U-Boat Flotilla.  
     
  (xliv)  "U 701"  
          This U-Boat was built by the Stülkenwerft, Hamburg.  She was commissioned on 16th July, 1941, with a complement of 39 men, exclusive of officers.  She is believed to be a 500-ton U-Boat, type VII C.  
     
  (xlv)  "U 752"  
          This U-Boat, built at Wilhelmshaven, was commissioned on 24th May, 1941, with a complement of 40 men, exclusive of officers, and is presumed to be of the 500-ton type.  
     
  (xlvi)  "U 753"  
          Of the same series as "U 752," this U-Boat was commissioned on 28th June, 1941, and allocated to the 3rd U-Boat Flotilla.  
     
  (xlvii)  "U.A."  
          A prisoner claimed to have witnesses the return of "U.A." from a cruise; he stated that she had been badly damaged and that the crew was in a very weak state.  
          Another prisoner said that "U.A." had a revolving gun platform forward of the conning tower.  
     
  (xlvii)  "U.B."  
          The First Lieutenant of "U 570" stated that he saw "U.B." then H.M.S. "Seal," towed into Frederikshaven, Denmark, by a trawler, after being captured.  Prisoner believed that the British captain was no longer on board the submarine at the time.  
          A rating claiming to have served later in "U.B.", said that she would not work properly on the oil fuel used by the Germans; various changes were said to have been made in the submarine.  This man said that she had visited the island of Bornholm on one occasion.  
          On 21st May, 1941, technical personnel consisting of five Chief Petty Officers, six Petty Officers, and 14 ratings were drafted to "U.B.", which was allocated to the 3rd U-Boat Flotilla.  Most of the above personnel were experienced men.  
          On 15th July, 1941, "U.B.", together with "U.D.1," "U.D.3" and "U.D.4" were placed under the U-Boat base at Kiel as regards personnel and administrative organisation.  
          Several prisoners said, however, that "U.B." had proved useless and had now been dismantled, but this statement could not be confirmed.  
     
  (xlix)  "U.D.1"  
          On 1st May, 1941, nine technical petty officers and men were drafted to "U.D.1," believed to have been built in Rotterdam.  On 15th July, 1941, she was placed under the administration of the Kiel U-Boat base.  This series of U-Boats "U.D.1" to "U.D.5," are believed to be the Dutch submarines under construction at Rotterdam when the Germans invaded the country.  
     
  (l)  "U.D.3"  
 
        This U-Boat is known to have been built at Rotterdam and to have been commissioned on 8th June, 1941, with a complement of 38 men, excluding officers.  On 15th July, 1941, "U.D.3" was placed under the administration of the Kiel U-Boat base.
 
     
  (li)  "U.D.4"  
          By 20th June, 1941, 8 members of the crew of "U.D.4" had been drafted to the U-Boat.  On 1st July, 1041, the four telegraphists were transferred to the U-Boat tender "Erwin Wassner."  
     
     

 

     
     
 
21
     
          On 11th July, the torpedo petty officer of "U.D.4" was transferred to "U.D.5," apparently still under construction at Rotterdam, and replaced by the torpedo petty officer from "U.D.5."  
          On 15th July, 1941, "U.D.4" was one of the four U-Boats placed under the administration of the Kiel U-Boat base.  
     
  (lii)  Unidentified U-Boats  
          A Petty Officer Telegraphist stated that he had intercepted a signal from a U-Boat which had picked up at sea two British officers and four British men, the crew of an aeroplane, the date of this alleged rescue was given as about 4th August, 1941, or a little later.  
          The batteries of a training U-Boat at Gotenhafen were stated to have become exhausted on one occasion, and the U-Boat sank to 80 metres (262 ft.); chlorine gas formed inside the pressure hull and the U-Boat was only brought to the surface after ten hours of tremendous effort.  
     
 
X.  U-BOAT CONSTRUCTION
 
     
          From an examination of the dates on which U-Boats are known to have been commissioned, the following facts have been established and may indicate the rate of production in some of the U-Boat building yards.  
     
  (i)  Blohm & Voss, Hamburg  
          "U 556" was commissioned on Thursday, 6th February, 1941, "U 567 was commissioned on Thursday, 24th Aorul, 1941, and "U 568" to "U 573 on successive Thursdays up to 5th June, 1941.  The series is known to include "U 551' to "U 574," and if the rate of production has been maintained as is most likely to have been the case, this yard produced twenty-four 500-ton U-Boats between 2nd January, 1941, and 12th June, 1941, at the rate of one U-Boat every Thursday.  
     
  (ii)  Howaldt Yard, Hamburg  
          This yard is known to be producing a series of 500-ton U-Boats, starting with "U 651," commissioned on 12th February, 1941.  There are reasons for believing that "U 652" was commissioned on 20th March, 1941, approximately five weeks later, and "U 654" about 10th May, 1941.  
     
  (iii)  Vulkan Yard, Vegesack, Bremen  
          "U 82," built by this yard and known by her dockyard number as "Veg. 10," was commissioned on 14th May, 1941.  
          The U-Boat known by the dockyard number as "Veg. 11" was "U 132," commissioned two weeks later on 29th May, 1941, and appears to have been one of a new series of 500-ton U-Boats, "U 132"-"U 136," being built by the Vulkan Yard.  
     
  (iv)  Wilhelmshaven Yard  
          This yard is known to be building a series of 500-ton U-Boats starting with "U 751."  "U 751" was commissioned on 24th May, 1941, and "U 753" on 18th June, 1941, less than four weeks later.  
     
  (v)  Germania Yard, Kiel  
          "U 205" was commissioned on Saturday, 3rd May, 1941, and "U 206" on Saturday, 17th May, 1941, exactly two weeks later.  
          This yard is one of the most important U-Boat building yards, and is likely to have been adopted for regular mass production of 500-ton U-Boats.  
     
  (vi)  Deutsche Werke, Kiel  
          This yard includes the Kriegsmarinewerft, Kiel.  
          "U 451," 500 tons, built at this yard was commissioned on 3rd May, 1941, and "U 452" was commissioned on 29th May, 1941, just under four weeks later.  
          As "U 141," "U 143" and "U 147," all 300-tonners, all appear to have been commissioned early in May, 1941, it is possible that they belong to a series of U-Boats of which several were laid down at about the same time.  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
22
     
          Hitherto only the Deutsche Werke and the Germania Yard, both of Kiel, have been known to construct the 250 or 300-ton types; the last of this small type definitely known to have been built by the Germania Yard was "U 24," laid down on 1st April, 1936.  It appears that this yard no longer builds small U-Boats; it thus seems likely that the series including "U 141," "U 143" and "U 147" is being built by the Deutsche Werke, Kiel, especially as the preceding series, "U 137" to "U 141," all 300-tonners, is known to have been built by this yard.  The complete series appears to be "U 137" to "U 150."  
     
  (vii)  Schichauwerft, Danzig  
          The 500-ton "U 431," built by this yard, was commissioned on Saturday, 5th April, 1941, the "U 432" exactly three weeks later, on Saturday, 26th April, 1941, and the "U 433" four weeks after the latter date, namely, on Saturday, 24th May, 1941.  It is presumed that this yard is building other U-Boats of this series.  
     
  (viii)  U-Boat Series in C.B. 4051 (29), Section VIII (viii)  
          Further information makes it possible to amplify this list.  
          As "U 85" is known to have been built by the Flenderwerke, Lübeck, it appears that the series "U 83" to "U 87," 500-ton U-Boats, type VII B, is being built by this yard, and also a later series of 500-ton boats, type VII C.  "U 88" to "U 92."  
          It is believed that a series of U-Boats under construction at the Vulkan Yard Vegesack, Bremen, starts with "U 132" and not with "U 131."  The latter U-Boat may be the last of a series hitherto thought to include "U 122" to "U 130," 740-tonners, built by the Deschimag Yard, Bremen.  
          The series of U-Boats built by Nordseewerke, Emden, starting with "U 331," is now known to consist of 500-tonners.  
          The series of U-Boats beginning with "U 401," built by the Schichauwerft, Danzig, is known to consist of 500-tonners.  
          The series of 500-ton U-Boats, starting with "U 451," is now known to have been built by the Deutsche Werke, Kiel, which includes the Kriegsmarinewerft, Kiel.  
          The series of 500-ton type VII C U-Boats, starting with "U 701," is now known to be under construction by the Stülkenwerft, Hamburg, and not by the Deschimag Yard, Bremen.  This is the first indication from prisoner of war sources that the former yard is building U-Boats.  
          The U.D.1" series, built at Rotterdam, includes at least three further U-Boats, "U.D.3," "U D.4" and "U.D.5," presumably also "U.D.2," of which no information is as yet available.  These are Dutch submarines which were under construction at Rotterdam at the time of the German invasion.  
     
 
XI.  THIRD U-BOAT FLOTILLA
 
     
          The 3rd U-Boat Flotilla was formed on 1sr March, 1941, with Korvettenkapitän (Commander) Rösing as Flotilla Chief.  This officer was relieved by Korvettenkapitän Herbert Schultze, who assumed command of the Flotilla on 26th July, 1941.  
          The Flotilla is based on La Pallice and is believed to consist of the following 33 U-Boats:  
 
"U 82" "U 402" "U 573"
"U 85" "U 431" "U 652"
"U 132" "U 432" "U 654"
"U 141" "U 433" "U 701"
"U 143" "U 451" "U 752"
"U 147" "U 452" "U 753"
"U 205" "U 567" "U.B."
"U 206" "U 568" "U.D.1"
"U 332" "U 569" "U.D.3"
"U 352" "U 571" "U.D.4"
"U 373" "U 572" "U.D.5"
 
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
23
     
 
XII.  U-BOAT EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
 
     
          The following table gives the number of Executive Officers known to be in the U-Boat Service on the 1st October, 1941:  
     
 
Approximate Age on 1.10.41.
Term.
Total Entry.
Trained in U-Boats before the War.
Trained for Naval Air Service.
Total Number Trained in U-Boats up to 1.10.41.
U-Boat Officers Dead or Captured up to 1.10.41.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
38
1921
16
1
-
1
-
37
1922
26
-
-
-
-
37
1923
24
-
-
3
1
36
1924
32
3
-
4
-
35
1925
54
9
-
13
3
34
1926
54
13
-
17
4
33
1927
35
6
-
9
4
32
1928
40
8
3
13
3
32
1929
29
9
-
12
7
32
1930
31
9
-
16
4
29
1931
52
10
-
19
8
28
1932
88
13
-
23
8
28
1933
109
12
23
32
7
28
1934
184
21
32
50
16
27
1935
258
18
84
46
13
23
1936
350
38
139
57
17
Totals
1,382
170
281
317
93
 
          Note.  (1)  The executive officers of the 1936 term are now being given commands of U-Boats after having served for a short period as 1st Lieutenant.  
          (2)  As far as is known 18 officers have been transferred from the Naval Air Service to U-Boats.  These have received commands after shorter periods of training than those taken from surface vessels.  
          (3)  In addition to the casualties in Column 7, 29 executive officers are known to have gone down with U-Boats sunk, the names of whom have not yet been ascertained.  
     
 
XIII.  U-BOAT BASES AND DEPÔT SHIPS
 
     
  (i)  Gotenhafen  
          A prisoner stated that the Germans began laying mines off Gotenhafen three months before starting the Russian campaign, and that naval men stationed there suspected that there was something in the wind involving Russia.  
          In November 1940, a prisoner at the Navigational Petty Officers' Training Establishment in Gotenhafen, said to be the only one in Germany, stated that there were then 200 men there, only six of whom, himself included, had previously served in U-Boats.  Four weeks before the end of the course 80 men from the 200 were detailed to the U-Boat arm.  
          One prisoner from "U 570" stated that the aircraft carrier "Graf Zeppelin" with the "Strength through Joy" ships, now being used as depôt ships, were in Gotenhafen.  
     
  (ii)  Trondheim  
          The U-Boat base at Memel, and the first training flotilla at Pillau were stated to have been transferred to Trondheim as a protective measure, after the declaration of war with Russia.  The former bases have since been considered safe, and it has been decided to transfer them to the Baltic again, according to prisoners.  
          The number of active service U-Boats at Trondheim was said to vary between two and twelve.  A whole training flotilla was also stated to be based there.  All U-Boats were described as lying alongside the quay under cover of camouflage nets, which remained in position whether the boats were in harbour or not.  No U-Boat shelters have been reported.  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
24
     
          The dock at Trondheim could berth two U-Boats at a time, one U-Boat was there together with "U 501," but her identity number was not established.  
          The "Huaskaran," a former Hamburg liner of 8,000 tons, was stated to be serving as a U-Boat tender in the harbour.  
          All final torpedo exercises were said to be carried out in the vicinity of Trondheim before the U-Boats proceeded to their operational areas.  
          Despite the fact that the U-Boats were protected by large numbers of fighters, Stuka and reconnaissance squadrons, Trondheim was not considered to be as safe as the French West coast bases, especially as the areas North or South of Iceland were believed to be perilous to U-Boats, on account of the British aircraft patrols.  
          There appears to be some dissatisfaction in naval circles in Trondheim regarding the spineless attitude of the German naval authorities.  Prisoners stated that the Norwegians were asked for a large shed near the wharf; the local people refused, so the German Navy built one of their own; prisoners considered that neither the German Army nor the Air Force would have tolerated the Norwegian refusal, and would have requisitioned the shed without further argument.  
          There were also complaints that naval men were always punished after any disturbance or row in which they had been involved, even if they had been in the right; whereas the Norwegians always got off scot-free, although it was often they who had provoked the trouble.  The German Army and Air Force on the other hand would tolerate no nonsense from the local people and invariably backed each other up in punishing the Norwegians.  
          It was stated that, when in town, the Germans could walk in pairs, but in the country they had to be in groups of four or more.  
          At Trondheim the men employed on the widening of the entrance to the U-Boat base being built there, were described as skilled workmen who had been called up and put into uniform.  The motive behind this conscription was clearly to reduce the expense to the State, as the men received pay as soldiers instead of wages as skilled workmen, and lived in a depôt ship.  
     
  (iii)  Lo Fjord  
          Lo Fjord lies about 13 kilometers north of Trondheim' prisoners stated that many depôt ships were lying in this fjord with troops on board for the protection of Norway against the British invasion, which was expected about four weeks ago.  They were described as being moored very close to the shore, camouflaged with paint, and difficult to discern.  Ships mentioned as having been there at the same time as the "U 501" were the "Neisse," "Herta" and "Black Prince," the last of which was used as depôt ship by the crew of "U 501."  
          Prisoners state that the fjord is closed at night by a very efficient boom defense, which even in day time, is only opened in certain places.  Further protection is afforded by heavy calibre anti-aircraft batteries.  All the guns are said to be of the same calibre.  
          Prisoners stated that the 24th U-Boat Flotilla lay in Lo Fjord; in addition there were another five active service U-Boats.  
     
  (iv)  Naval Convalescent Homes  
          It was established that there are two homes for wounded and convalescing naval personnel, one at Krummhübel, the other at Spindlermühle.  
     
  (v)  La Pallice  
          It appears probable that the administration of the U-Boat branch of the navy at La Pallice occupies offices 84, Avenue Guton.  
     
 
XIV.  CO-OPERATION BETWEEN U-BOATS AND FOCKE-WULF KONDOR AIRCRAFT
 
     
          Prisoners emphasized that there was no direct communication between U-Boats and Focke-Wulf Kondor aircraft sent on reconnaissance patrols to locate British convoys.  
          According to prisoners, when a Kondor sets out, its patrol area and D/F frequency is signalled to U-Boats by the Vice-Admiral U-Boats.  This signal is repeated at definite times, one of which is believed to be 1400 hours.  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
25
     
          Upon sighting a convoy the aircraft begins transmitting D/F signals to its base.  These signals were stated by prisoners to be either long dashes, or a series of "V's."  The D/F frequency of Kondors is between 500 and 600 metres, strength of transmission being between 40 and 70 Watts.  Between signals, the aircraft sends short messages in code, which may be either the course the convoy is steering or the distance and compass bearing of the convoy from the aircraft.  
          In this code, "Willi" is west (270°), "Sophie" is South (180°), "Nanni" is North (360°) and "Otto" is East (090°).  As example, 285° is denoted as "5 Willi 10," the addition of 270, 5 and 10, being 285.  
          Any U-Boat picking up these signals transmits their bearing to the Vice-Admiral U-Boats, who, knowing the whereabouts of the U-Boats, can calculate the position of the aircraft and convoy by plotting cross bearings.  
          The position of the convoy is then transmitted to the U-Boats in the area and the necessary dispositions made.  The number of ships in convoys and their escorts is not transmitted by Kondors, presumably because they will return fairly soon to report in full.  
          Prisoners stated that U-Boats are equipped with 50 cm. D/F loops.  U-Boats maintain touch with the Vice-Admiral, U-Boats, on short wave length between 20 and 200 metres, or on long waves between 16,000 and 21,000 metres.  The U-Boat power is between 150 and 200 Watts.  
          Transmission by U-Boats is cut down to a minimum in order that their position should not be located by D/F.  
          Of available wave lengths between 20 and 200 metres only three or four were said to be generally used.  There is a book of frequencies on board for U-Boats plotted for months ahead.  Changes are usually made each hour, but sometimes the same frequency is retained for two hours running.  Apparently certain frequencies are more favorable for certain times of the day, and consideration is paid to this fact.  
     
 
XV.  U-BOAT SECRET ORDERS
 
     
          The following are items from a volume of secret orders captured on board "U 570":  
     
          No. 1:  Timing of salvo-firing  
                  Attention is drawn to the fact that an interval of less than 8 secs. is not permitted in salvo firing.  
                  Although there is no actual proof of the assumption that the G 7a AZ (percussion) pistols hitherto in use have detonated together at smaller distances apart than 120 metres, and the consequent damage to torpedoes has hindered results, it is best in the absence of urgent reasons, not to have an interval of less than 120 metres between torpedoes at the moment of detonation.  
     
          No. 2:  Orders in Code  
                  Attention is again drawn to the fact that orders in code are not to be issued to boats putting to sea, but officers are to be informed of their contents (meaning).  
     
          No. 3:  Blockade Area  
                  (1)  The new western limit of the blockade area round England, extended as from 1st April, is Sq. BE 4288 to Antin Jet 3326 to AD 3399, southern limit for U-Boat remains 4730 north.  
                  (2)  For Swedes, Finish and Russians the way is open from AK 6748 via AL 1489 to AF 4468.  These ships are not to be attacked on this route if they are clearly recognised as such.  
                  (3)  Otherwise all ships, including U.S.A. merchantmen, are to be sunk in the blockade area.  
                  (4)  Neutral warships are not to be attacked in the blockade area.  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
26
     
          No. 4:  Minimum Distance for Minesweepers ("Sperrbrecher")  
                  Minimum distance from minesweepers is 150 metres; this must be maintained in all circumstances, even when passing them in harbour.  It is particularly necessary to observe this when mooring in the neighborhood of minesweepers, even if minesweeper's electric bow protection gear (V.E.S.-Anlage) is not working.  Even in this case the residual magnetism is sufficient to influence vessels in the vicinity to such an extent that their demagnetisation is overpowered.  
     
          No. 7:  Vice-Admiral, U-Boats, Secret Order 826 of 29th April, 1941  
                  As many reports have been received of damage to outer caps of torpedo tubes owing to breakage of protective shutters, some people are of the opinion that a U-Boat with an open or leaky outer cap should not be allowed to submerge to maximum depth.  This opinion is erroneous.  The stability of torpedo tubes against internal pressure is greater than that of the pressure hull against outer pressure.  
     
          No. 9:  Vice-Admiral, U-Boats, Secret Order 976 of 8th May, 1941  
                  The enemy appears to be contemplating the introduction of torpedo nets for merchant vessels at sea.  Observations throwing light on this subject must be reported to the Vice-Admiral, U-Boats, on returning from a cruise.  
     
          No. 10:  Radiogram Vice-Admiral U-Boats of 17th May, 1941  
                  As Germany has considerable interest in the sailing of Swedish, Finnish and Russian ships through the blockade area, as arranged with her approval, the sinking of these ships must be avoided as far as possible.  The course prescribed for these ships may be considered as a strip about 20 nautical miles wide on either side of the central line.  
     
          No. 11:  Vice-Admiral U-Boats, Secret Order of 29th May, 1941  
                  Resort to arms outside the blockade area, North of 4730 North:  
                          (a)  Immediate resort to arms is permitted:  
                                  (i)  In accordance with standing war order 101 paragraph 11, 4b to d, and paragraph 5a to e.  
                                  (ii)  Against enemy merchant vessels under neutral escort.  
                          (b)  In the case of warships:  
                                  (iii)  by day, attack only if recognised as hostile.  
                                  (iv)  Single warships steaming without lights are only to be attacked if they are definitely recognised as enemy ships or have opened hostilities.  
                                   (v)  Warships steaming without lights in defence of convoys may be attacked if the situation demands it.  
     
          No. 12:  Vice-Admiral U-Boats of 3rd June, 1941  
                  (1)  The risk of giving away bearings by short signal and wireless messages is so great at present, that commanding officers must always consider whether they are actually necessary and in accordance with operational orders.  
                  (2)  In or near areas of our own U-Boat positions the use of W/T must be even further restricted.  Only tactically necessary W/T messages and short signals should be sent out.  
     
          No. 13:  Vice-Admiral U-Boats of 1st June, 1941  
                  In contradiction to previous orders, the following regulations for passage through the North Sea come into force at once:  "Remain invisible."  For this purpose boats may proceed on the surface only at night during the winter.  In the summer, for the sake of speed, they may surface by day so long as the horizon and sky are clear (or clouds high) so that surprise is impossible.  Proceed submerged at dusk.  
     
          No. 14:  Vice-Admiral U-Boats, Secret 1155 of 17th May, 1941  
                  Repetition of No. 10.  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
27
     
          No. 16:  Concerning Officers' Financial Affairs  
                  The Defence Station in war area X reports the following in a letter:  
                          "Almost all officers living at "Wietzel's Hotel" in Hamburg are short of money.  Most of them bank at Ahlmann's Bank, Kiel, and are paying at present by uncovered cheques.  Ahlmann does not return these cheques to drawer, but covers them in course of time by the payments automatically coming in."  
  This report affords a most unpleasant insight into the financial transactions of a number of officers appointed to the U-Boat branch.  
                  Every U-Boat officer must regulate his money affairs in accordance with the tradition obtaining in the Officers' Corps.  It is unworthy of an officer and an offence against the law, to make payment by uncovered cheques.  If a boat is lost, such cheques might under certain conditions be returned to drawer (dishonoured) and most disagreeable consequences would ensue for the family or the officers taken prisoner.  An officer must be an example to his subordinates and all his compatriots in the management of his finances.  
                  An officer transgressing these principles endangers the reputation of the Officers' Corps among the general public.  An officer who tenders worthless cheques renders himself guilty of deception or fraud.  In future I shall call any officer to account, most severely, who offends against this prohibition.  
                  This order must be made known to all subordinate officers on the . . . . . . April and the 1st October of each year.  All officers and midshipmen entering the U-Boat service must be informed of this order separately in the U-Boat training divisions.  
     
          No. 17:  Vice-Admiral U-Boats, Secret Order of 12th May, 1941  
                  On account of enquiries, identification marks of our own naval forces for the benefit of our own aircraft at present valid are herewith made known again.  
                  Ships and boats:  gun-turrets and gun-shields painted bright yellow, swastika flag (national flag) on fore and aft decks.  Vessels without gun-turrets or gun-shields, only the swastika flag.  War vessels without war paint, and U-Boats, no identification marks.  
     
          No. 19:  Telegram, Vice-Admiral U-Boats of 18th June, 1941  
                  (1)  Contrary to previous procedure, from now onwards position data according to reference points will always be given in such a way that the reference point is calculated from the position ordered, in the direction indicated, as with position data with regard to landmarks.  
                  (2)  Boats are not to give their position according to reference points, but by squares, as hitherto.  
     
          No. 20:  W/T, Vice-Admiral U-Boats of 24th June, 1941  
                  Russian and former Baltic ships are enemy, with the exception of Finnish.  Immediate resort to arms is permitted against them.  
     
          No. 21:  Vice-Admiral U-Boats, Secret Order of 27th June, 1941  
                  (1)  The following W/T message is by way of correction of mistakes made, and was sent by Vice-Admiral U-Boats on 27th June to all boats at sea:  "W/T Vice-Admiral U-Boats,  All boats.  Mistakes made recently.  (1)  'U 203' W/T 2020/24.  Keeping touch was imperative for the other boats' sake.  If return was absolutely necessary, touch (with enemy), position and course of convoy should at least have been reported immediately before starting home.  (2)  'U 79,' W/T 0520/27:  Boat should have continued to keep touch with the enemy for the relief of other boats.  Having only 42 cubic metres of fuel did not necessitate return.  (3)  'U 69,' W/T 0301/27:  If impossible to keep in touch any longer on account of fuel, latest position and course of convoy should at least have been reported."  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
28
     
                  (2)  This reproof was occasioned by the following circumstances:  
                          (a)  "U 203" was the only boat to be in touch with an outward bound convoy.  Close by and some distance away there were a number of boats which might have operated successfully in this area.  "U 203" started home without reporting the latest position of the enemy.  
                          (b)  "U 79" standing by a convoy not yet properly reported, started home with 42 cubic metres of fuel, without any apparently urgent reason for doing so.  
                          (c)  "U 68," when short of fuel, was in touch with a convoy proceeding in the same direction as herself, and sank two steamers belonging to it.  She had orders to report touch with the enemy to "U 123" stationed near by, so long as fuel supply would allow.  She did not keep touch, did not report whether this was due to lack of fuel, and did not report latest position and course of convoy.  
     
          No. 23:  W/T Vice-Admiral U-Boats of 11th July, 1941  
                  (1)  Swedish ships clearly showing their distinguishing marks must be spared not only on the route already laid down but when they deviate from it at 62° N.-13° W., and thence East or West via 62° N.-3° E., towards Skagerrak.  They must, therefore, not be attacked within a circumference of 60 nautical miles around the Faroes, even if they deviate from this route, so long as they are recognised.  Germany's interest in this traffic is considerable.  Reporting will be attempted (apart from 2144/11/131) but is not assured.  
                  (2)  At present on their way Eastwards; S.S. "Svendrott," "Brazil" and "Saturnus."  
     
 
XVI.  GENERAL REMARKS REGARDING U-BOATS
 
     
  (i)  Allocation of Operation Areas  
          According to one prisoner U-Boats do not remain indefinitely in the operational square, or area, originally allotted to them.  A time limit is set for their stay in any one particular square and, after this has expired, they are moved to further squares at the discretion of the Vice-Admiral U-Boats.  
     
  (ii)  Increased Difficulties of Attack  
          Prisoners expressed the opinion that the occupation of Iceland by British and, later American forces, was playing a big part in the defeat of the U-Boat Arm.  They stated that improved convoying of merchant ships had also increased the difficulties of successful attack, and that the presence of protecting aircraft over a convoy was a danger signal that the Germans could not ignore; it forced them to break off an attack and make good their escape.  
     
  (iii)  Avoiding of Aircraft by U-Boats  
          A Petty Officer prisoner stated that after diving to avoid aircraft U-Boats were instructed to proceed away from the locality at full speed.  This prisoner added that British air reconnaissance was particularly dreaded by U-Boats.  He said:  "If on the surface you see a plane the plane has probably seen you and it is already too late, you are done."  
     
  (iv)  Diving Angle of U-Boats  
          Prisoners stated that the diving angle was usually 3° to 4°, but, when crash diving, it was 15° to 20° according to the state of the sea.  They dived more steeply in bad weather.  
     
  (v)  German Depth Charges  
          A prisoner who had seen service in a German submarine-chaser, stated that the depth charges used against Allied submarines were 550 lbs in weight.  They could be set to detonate at depths of 30, 60, 90 or 120 metres.  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
29
     
  (vi)  Conditions of Service in U-Boats  
          A prisoner alleged that it was no longer possible for U-Boat personnel to apply for transfer from the U-Boat service.  This particular man had applied to be sent to a Petty Officers' training course for destroyers.  He had had previous experience of U-Boats and was most unwilling even to go in one again.  His application was refused.  Three days before he was available for transfer he was told that he had been drafted to the 1st U-Boat Flotilla.  Another prisoner stated that the majority of U-Boat crews now operating had been given no option about going into the U-Boat Arm, particularly if they had special qualifications.  
     
  (vii)  Awards to U-Boat Crews  
          A prisoner stated that U-Boat personnel who had spent 24 days at sea on a war cruise, or who had fallen into the hands of the enemy following the sinking of their U-Boats, qualified for the special U-Boat badge.  U-Boat men who were lost with their boats were posthumously awarded the Iron Cross, 2nd Class, and the U-Boat badge.  
     
 
XVII.  OTHER SHIPS
 
     
  (i)  Torpedo-boat "Luchs"  
          A Chief Petty Officer prisoner from "U 570" said that the torpedo-boat "Luchs" had been rammed in Wilhelmshaven and had sunk.  In order to keep this fact dark, another torpedo-boat was named "Luchs," but the incident became an open secret after four weeks.  
     
  (ii)  Submarine Chaser Flotilla  
          A Petty Officer prisoner from "U 570" stated that he had served for one year in a Submarine Chaser Flotilla.  He joined this Flotilla in February or March, 1940.  On 21st March, 1940, while his boat was at Borkum with three others, they were attacked by British aircraft.  Their anti-aircraft gun jammed.  Four bombs were dropped, three to port and one to starboard of his boat, no hits being scored.  
          On 20th April, 1940, the prisoner's Flotilla, this time with five boats, was used to escort two transports from Frederikshaven to Oslo.  The first ship carried light motor vehicles , and the second ammunition, there being troops in both.  Off the entrance to Oslo Fjord, the prisoner alleged, the convoy was attacked by a British submarine.  Four torpedoes were fired, all of which missed.  One torpedo passed eight yards ahead, and one five yards astern, of the submarine chaser lettered "E" in the Flotilla.  According to the prisoner, on 23rd March, 1940, the Flotilla of five boats was attacked again off the Swedish coast by a submarine.  A direct hit was scored on Boat "B" of the Flotilla, which exploded and sank within a minute.  Of the crew of thirty only four men were saved, one of these dying later.  Above one hundred depth charges were dropped over the estimated position of the submarine, and it was believed she was destroyed.  
          In July, 1940, the prisoner stated, Flotilla Boat "D" was mined off Trondheim, thirteen men being killed, while Flotilla Boat No. 126 was torpedoed off the island of Schermanikoog, nine being killed.  During this month, July, 1940, the prisoner's boat was in Emden, apparently for refitting.  On one night there wa an air raid, as a result of which there were six fatal casualties in the town.  
          On 23rd July, 1940, the prisoner's Flotilla proceeded to Den Helder, twenty-eight mines being sighted and sunk on the way.  The prisoner observed that the town had suffered much damage, the hospital being completely wrecked.  
          On 29th July, 1940, the Flotilla attempted to bring in a Dutch Survey vessel, which had had to anchor in heavy seas off Norderney on account of engine trouble.  
          On 14th August, 1940, five boats of the Flotilla were alleged by the prisoner to have had a brush with two British destroyers north of Texel.  One boat was hit, one man being killed and five wounded.  The boat wa not sunk, and the Flotilla put into Borkum.  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
30
     
  (iii)  "Schawn"  
          A Petty Officer telegraphist prisoner, who had joined the German Navy some years before the war, stated that two weeks before the war broke out, he was summoned to Wilhelmshaven-Schlittau.  Here he and a number of other telegraphists, who had also been summoned, were given 50 RM. each to provide themselves with civilian clothing.  The party was then split into four sections, one being sent to Hamburg, one to Stettin and one to Bremen, while one remained in Schlittau.  The prisoner was with the Hamburg party.  They were met at Hamburg station at midnight by a Lieutenant of the Naval Reserve, who was also in civilian clothes.  They were then taken on board a cargo liner, which the prisoner alleged was the "Schwan," belonging to the Aalborg Line.  The ship left Hamburg at 0400 that night, and proceeded to cruise off the Skagerrak and the south-western coast of Norway.  The object of the cruise was to spy out the movements of British and Allied shipping, and the wireless traffic, in English, between the ships.  The prisoner stated that his ship scarcely ever flew the German flag, and her name had been deliberately defaced, so that it was practically illegible.  The ship was not armed and was not of more than 3,000 tons.  
     
  (iv)  German Hospital Ship  
          A prisoner from "U 570" stated that a British submarine had sunk a German hospital ship off the Norwegian coast shortly before "U 570" sailed on her first and last war cruise on 23rd August, 1941.  
     
  (v)  "Bücher"  
          An officer prisoner stated that the Captain of the cruiser "Blücher" was killed in an aircraft accident eight days after the cruiser was sunk during the Norwegian campaign.  
     
 
XVIII.  MISCELLANEOUS
 
     
  (i)  Conditions of Service in the German Navy  
          A prisoner signed on in the Navy in 1933 for 4-1/2 years, but when his promotion to Petty Officer was due, a new order came into force which extended his service to 12 years.  If he wished to be promoted he had no other option but to comply.  Some men having signed on for 4-1/2 years were called to their Divisional Officers after two years' service and were asked to sign on, extending their period of service to 15 years; most of them did so.  Those who had refused found written on their discharge papers at the expiration of their 4-1/2 years"  "Left the Fatherland in the hour of need."  ("Verliess das Vaterland in schwerster Not").  This remark effectively prevented them from obtaining any form of employment in civilian life and acted as a warning to other men, who might have been tempted to refuse the conditions of service.  A prisoner repeated the phrase several times; "Once the Navy gets you you're finished."  
          Several prisoners expressed extreme bitterness about the lack of prospects for naval men at the expiration of their service compared to the army or air force.  The latter services afford good educational courses, enabling men to pass various examinations which assure them well-paid jobs in the civil service and other walks of life.  A similar experiment was tried in the Navy and was dropped, because it was found seriously to interfere with naval duties.  The prospects of adequate jobs on leaving the Navy are scarce, and some men think themselves lucky if they can succeed in finding even a humble job, such as being in charge of a ferry boat in Kiel Harbour, which one Chief Petty Officer of fifteen years' service cited as the best job for which he could reasonably hope.  
          There is also dissatisfaction amongst reservists who have been recalled to the Navy.  On returning to the service many have not been given their former rating, but have been compelled to accept considerably lower ranks.  
          The pomposity of officials who incur expense and waste to satisfy ideas of their own dignity and importance has also caused considerable indignation.  A typical instance was cited when "U 570" was lying at the Tirpitz Mole, the U-Boat Acceptance Committee, consisting of three officials, insisted on waiting  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
31
     
  at the Blucher Bridge for the U-Boat to be brought to them; it would have been no trouble whatsoever for them to take the ferry to the U-Boat.  The time wasted, and the unnecessary trouble of moving the U-Boat caused strong feeling among the ship's company.  
          A Petty Officer prisoner stated that there was much bad feeling in the German Navy concerning the better treatment of members of the German Air Force.  Living conditions were particularly bad for the Navy in barracks and in depôt ships, while in hostel ships there was scarcely room to sling a hammock.  He quoted a saying common in naval circles, that to-day it was:  "The Prussian Army, the Imperial Navy, and the National Socialist Air Force, "implying that the latter service was the most favoured arm, while the Navy, like the other formerly Imperial institutions, was obsolete and neglected.  
     
  (ii)  Manning Divisions  
          A prisoner stated that the Manning Division ("Schiffsstammabteilung"), formerly stationed at Glückstadt, had been moved to Holland.  The 6th Manning Division had also been moved to Holland, but had later been transferred to Pillau.  The 8th Manning Division had been moved to France, and another, supplying personnel for North Sea warships, had been established near Paris.  
     
  (iii)  Naval Barracks at Buxtehude  
          Several prisoners from the "U 570" stated that in October, 1940, a new naval barracks was being built at Buxtehude, near Hamburg; they were under the impression that it was to be one of the most comfortable and up-to-date training establishments in Germany.  
     
  (iv)  Training of Naval Telegraphists  
          Describing the training of naval telegraphists a Petty Officer telegraphist stated that he was two years at sea before being drafted to a special Petty Officer telegraphists' training school.  The periods of two years preliminary training was remarkably short, and ratings generally considered themselves lucky if they were drafted to the school after three years' service.  The course at the school lasted for one year, after which the trainees were required to send and receive 110 letters per minute.  The final test lasted for three minutes and had to be passed without mistake.  
     
  (v)  Obscenity  
          Among personal property captured from U 570" were a number of parodies, skits and poems, all of an unrelievedly coarse and obscene nature, there being scarcely a single redeeming witty phrase in the whole.  A strong undercurrent of unashamed blasphemy was apparent, and may well be a result of modern Hitler Youth training.  
     
  (vi)  A.A. Guns on Norwegian Coast  
          Germany was stated by one prisoner to have mounted a vast number of anti-aircraft guns along the Norwegian coast, making the approach of hostile aircraft from the sea suicidal.  
     
  (vii)  Norwegian and Dutch Workmen  
          Prisoners indicated that the German authorities were sorely troubled by the attitude of Norwegian workmen in occupied ports in Norway.  It had been found necessary to forbid Norwegians to go on board German U-Boats, as acts of sabotage had constantly occurred.  It was now arranged that, should it be necessary to employ a Norwegian workman in a German ship, he should be attended by a German guard.  
          Dutch workmen were stated by one prisoner to be even more antagonistic than the Norwegians and, in his opinion, they were far too mildly treated.  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
32
     
  (viii)  Interference in Industry by Party Officials  
          According to a prisoner, German industries were being greatly impeded by the interference of Party Officials, empowered to enforce Government decrees and orders.  These men did not properly understand their work and they were constantly causing difficulties, particularly as regards the distribution of skilled labour.  The prisoner stated that Hitler was too busy to devote any tine to such matters and that the only man who could have straightened things out satisfactorily was Rudolf Hess.  
     
  (ix)  Air Raid Damage in German Ports  
          Prisoners gave the usual conflicting statements regarding air raid damage in German ports.  Prisoners who alleged they had been present during large scale raids on Kiel, Hamburg and Bremen, affected to depreciate the damage, but admitted that they had been badly shaken.  One prisoner stated that the damage at Kiel was "not really bad," but another prisoner who was present at a big raid on this port described parts of the town as being enveloped in a 'veritable sea of flame."  The Holstenwall (sic) and the Deutsche Ring were described as having been severely bombed, anti-aircraft batteries along the Deutsche Ring being entirely destroyed.  An old story was repeated by prisoners that unexploded bombs dropped on Bremen and Hamburg were found to contain sand and chalk.  
     
  (x)  Electrification of Berlin-Hamburg Railway  
          A prisoner stated that the railway line between Berlin and Hamburg was being electrified.  
     
  (xi)  Services Information Bureau in Rome  
          It was established that on the 13th March, 1941, a German "Services Information Bureau" was established in Rome at the Hotel Nuova Roma, Via Regina Giovanni di Bulgaria 3 - Telephone 43751.  
          All officers of the three services are required to report there on arrival in Rome.  Billeting, welfare and numerous other arrangements are all undertaken by the Centre.  Each main line train arriving in Rome is met by a representative from this organisation, who collects together all officers and men and conducts then to the Hotel Nuova Roma.  Soldiers arriving at smaller railway stations have to report to the local N.S.D.A.P. (Nazi Party) representative, who directs them to the Information Centre.  Men on leave have still to report to the senior officer of their service in Rome.  
          Officers and men are responsible for their own accommodation, and are allowed to stay only at hotels which have been taken over by the military authorities.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
33
 
     
 
APPENDIX
 
 
 
     
 
List of Crew of U "570"
 
     
 
Name.
Rank.
English Equivalent.
Age
Rahmlow, Hans Kapitänleutnant Lieutenant-Commander
31
Berndt, Bernhard Oberleutnant zur See Lieutenant
25
Christiansen, Walter Leutnant zur See Sub-Lieutenant
21
Menzel, Erich Leutnant (Ing.) Engineer Sub-Lieutenant
35
Grotum, Otto Obersteuermann Chief Quartermaster, 1st Class
26
Wech, Alban Obermaschinist Chief Mechanician, 1st Class
26
Remmers, Anton Obermaschinist Chief Mechanician, 1st Class
27
Stock, Friedrich Bootsmannsmaat Boatswain's Mate, 2nd Class
25
Wagner, Otto Bootsmannsmaat Boatswain's Mate, 2nd Class
27
Kerber, Ernst Bootsmannsmaat Boatswain's Mate, 2nd Class
23
Meisterznock, Erich Maschinenmaat Mechanician, 2nd Class
22
Pinsdorf, Wilhelm Maschinenmaat Mechanician, 2nd Class
25
Meier, Paul Maschinenmaat Mechanician, 2nd Class
21
Christoph, Hans Maschinenmaat Mechanician, 2nd Class
25
Kühne, Helmuth Maschinenmaat Mechanician, 2nd Class
23
Abt, Rudolf Mechanikersmaat(T) P.O. Artificer, 2nd Class
22
Atsamski, Franz Funkmaat P.O. Telegraphist, 2nd Class
21
Gottschling, Erich Funkmaat P.O. Telegraphist, 2nd Class
22
Mahr, Heinrich Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class
19
Garlik, Walter Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
21
Hornschuh, Werner Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
19
Kasper, Georg Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
19
Kühnl, Adolf Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
20
Lupfer, Eugen Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
19
Rother, Heinz Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
19
Stimpfig, Paul Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
19
Schlupp, Hermann Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
21
Zier, Paul Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
20
Zimmer, Waldemar Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
23
Muschiol, Wilhelm Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
22
Gärtner, Karl Mechanikergefreiter Artificer, 2nd Class
21
Cornberg, Heinz Mechanikergefreiter Artificer, 2nd Class
20
Ahlemann, Harry Funkgefreiter Ordinary Telegraphist, 1st Class
19
Huth, Fred Funkgefreiter Ordinary Telegraphist, 1st Class
20
Hartmann, Heinrich Matrose(S) Ordinary Seaman, 2nd Class
22
Heising, Werner Matrose(S) Ordinary Seaman, 2nd Class
20
Karl, Alfons Matrose(S) Ordinary Seaman, 2nd Class
21
Lorenz, Herbert Matrose(S) Ordinary Seaman, 2nd Class
20
Mörschel, Erich Matrose(S) Ordinary Seaman, 2nd Class
20
Paul, Ernst Matrose(S) Ordinary Seaman, 2nd Class
23
Schiffer, Johann Josef Matrose(S) Ordinary Seaman, 2nd Class
21
Schesack, Erich Matrose(S) Ordinary Seaman, 2nd Class
20
Huber, Hermann Matrose II(T) Stoker, 3rd Class
20
 
     
          Total crew:  
 
4
  Officers
14
  Petty Officers
25
  Men
43
   
 
     
     
  (C43009)    B25      1/43  
     
     

 


 

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