Op-16-Z                                                                                                   S E C R E T
                                                                                                                        Copy No.  ____  
     
 
NAVY DEPARTMENT
 
 
OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF NAVAL OPERATIONS
 
 
WASHINGTON
 
     
 
Final Report - G/Serial 32
 
 
 
REPORT ON THE
 
 
INTERROGATION OF SURVIVORS FROM U-575
 
 
SUNK 13 MARCH 1944
 
     
     
     
  DISTRIBUTION:  
          BAD  
          BUORD  
          BUSHIPS  
          BUSHIPS (Code 515)  
          BUSHIPS (Code 815)  
          COMINCH (F-21)  
          COMINCH (F-4253)  
          COMINCH (F-45)  
          COMINCH (FX-40)  
          COMINCH (FX-43)  
          COMNAVEU  
          DNI (Ottawa)  
          G-2 (Col. Jones)  
          Op-16-1 via Op-16-1-F  
          Op-16-1-V  
          Op-16-FA-4  
          Op-16-P  
          Op-16-W  
          Op-16-G  
          Op-16-C  
          SONRD  
          C.O. Naval Unit, Tracy, Calif.  
          Lt. J. I. Eibens (CSDIC, AFHQ)  
          Lt. S. R. Hatton (CSDIC, AFHQ)  
          Lt. (jg) R. J. Mullen (4th Fleet)  
          Lt. V. R. Taylor  
          Lt. J. T. Rugh, Jr. (JICA ME)  
     
  1 May 1944  
 
 
 
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
     
 
       
Page
CHAPTER
I.
  INTRODUCTION
1
 
   
 
II.
  DETAILS OF U-575
3
 
   
 
III.
  METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION
17
 
   
 
IV.
  GUNNERY
24
 
   
 
V.
  TORPEDOES
28
 
   
 
VI.
  COMMUNICATIONS
34
 
   
 
VII.
  OTHER U-BOATS
36
 
   
 
VIII.
  MISCELLANEOUS REMARKS
50
 
   
 
IX.
  BASES AND FLOTILLAS
52
 
   
 
X.
  CREW OF U-575
56
 
   
 
XI.
  EARLY HISTORY AND FIRST SIX PATROLS OF U-575
62
 
   
 
XII.
  SEVENTH PATROL OF U-575
68
 
   
 
XIII.
  EIGHTH PATROL OF U-575
74
 
   
 
XIV.
  NINTH PATROL OF U-575
79
 
   
 
XV.
  TENTH AND LAST PATROL OF U-575
85
 
   
 
XVI.
  SINKING OF U-575
92
         
ANNEX
A.
  CAPTURED NOTEBOOK
 
     
 
B.
  CREW LIST OF U-575 AND U.S. EQUIVALENT OF GERMAN NAVAL RANKS  
 
     
 
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ILLUSTRTATIONS
 
     
 
Plate A Schnorchel
     
Plate B Naxos Aerial
     
Plate C Thetis
     
Plate D Attacks on 7th Patrol of U-575
     
Plate E Eighth Patrol of U-575
     
Plate F Ninth Patrol of U-575
     
Plate G Last Patrol of U-575
     
Appendix A Diagrams From Captured Notebook
         (Plates 1 to 12)
 
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
 
 
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CHAPTER I.  INTRODUCTION
 
     
          U-575, a 500-ton U-boat under command of Oberleutnant z. S. Wolfgang Boehmer, was sunk on 13 March 1944 in position 46.10 N., 27.34 W. by destroyers and planes from T.G. 21.11.  Planes from U.S.S. BOGUE detected the presence of a U-boat at 1510 by means of sonobuoys and also by sighting an oil trace being left by the U-boat.  Sound contact was then made by U.S.S. HAVERFIELD, which was joined about an hour later by U.S.S. HOBSON and H.M.C.S. PRINCE RUPERT.  Depth charge and hedgehog attack forced the U-boat to the surface at 1838.  Shell fire from the destroyers and rockets from planes from U.S.S. BOGUE completed the destruction of the U-boat.  
     
          The U-boat was abandoned immediately after surfacing, nearly all of the crew succeeding in leaving the boat.  Some were killed by gunfire while abandoning ship or while in the water.  Fourteen survivors, including two officers, were picked up by H.M.C.S. PRINCE RUPERT and brought to St. Johns.  They were here transferred to H.M.S. NENE, which brought them to this country for interrogation and internment.  Twenty-four survivors, including the commanding officer, were picked up by U.S.S. HOBSON, and taken to Casablanca.  One prisoner died on board from wounds sustained while abandoning ship and was buried at sea.  Three others were hospitalized in Casablanca.  The remainder were given preliminary interrogation in Casablanca, then put aboard U.S.S. ALBEMARLE, which brought them to the United States for further interrogation and internment.  
     
          All the prisoners praised the treatment received aboard  
     
 
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  the various ships.  Careful handling of the prisoners resulted in making the task of interrogators easier then it would otherwise have been.  Prisoners demonstrated only average security consciousness, and a few were willing to cooperate completely with interrogating officers.  
     
          Special features of this report are:  
     
          1.  Description of extensible Diesel intake and exhaust (Chapter II).  
     
          2.  Description of R.D.S. (Chapter II).  
     
          3.  Meteorology (Chapter III).  
     
  *  Equivalents of German rank will be found in Appendix B.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
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CHAPTER II.  DETAILS OF U-575
 
     
  DISPLACEMENT  
     
          500-tons.  
     
  TYPE  
     
          VII C.  
     
  BUILDING YARD  
     
          Blohm and Voss, Hamburg.  
     
  COMMISSIONING  
     
          19 June 1941.  
     
  FLOTILLA  
     
          7th at St. Nazaire.  U-575 was once a guest boat at Lorient.  
     
  COVER NAME  
     
          Lilliput.  
     
  FIELD POST NUMBER  
     
          M-44068.  
     
  PATRON  
     
          Dornbirn in Tirol.  This town was visited by some of the crew in spring or summer of 1942.  
     
  VISUAL CALL SIGNAL  
     
          X D C.  
     
 
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  INSIGNIA  
     
          Conning tower:  Insignia of the 7th Flotilla:  Bull of Scapa Flow.  Some of the crew recently took to wearing the figure of a Lilliputian on their caps.  
     
  CONSTRUCTION  
     
          Normal construction of the Blom and Voss 500-ton series.  Modifications since construction of U-570 (now H.M.S. GRAPH) may be found in Appendix A.  
     
  DEPTH GAUGES  
     
          (1)  One Papenburg gauge, 0 to 18 meters in control room.  
     
          (2)  One gauge, 0 to 25 meters in control room.  
     
          (3)  One gauge, 0 to 200 meters in control room.  
     
          (4)  One gauge in stern compartment, 0 to 200 meters.  
     
          (5)  One gauge in bow compartment, 0 to 200 meters.  
     
          (6)  One gauge on starboard side in Diesel room, 0 to 25 meters, especially provided for use while proceeding at periscope depth with extensible Diesel intake mast raised.  
     
  MAXIMUM DEPTH  
     
          On her eighth patrol, U-575 went to a depth of 230 meters.  This is the greatest depth that could be ascertained.  
     
  BRIDGE ARMOR  
     
          16-mm. thick.  So equipped on ninth and tenth patrols.  
     
 
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  AIR RAID SHELTER  
     
          During lay-over period before the ninth patrol, two protected places were built into the enlarged bridge.  One on the starboard side provided shelter for three or four men.  One on the port side, large enough for one man.  During the lay-over preceding the tenth and final patrol, the coning tower was again modified, restoring more or less the old narrower shape.  Armored shelter for one man on port side was retained.  
     
  GUN PLATFORMS  
     
          See Chapter IV.  
     
  TORPEDO TUBES    
     
          Five; four forward, one aft.  Four new bow tubes installed before eighth patrol.  All tubes were of bronze.  
     
  TORPEDOES  
     
          See Chapter V.  
     
  S.B.T. (Submarine Bubble Target)  
     
          Fitted, but apparently never used.  
     
  D.C.P.  (Depth Charge Plotter)  
     
          Not fitted.  
     
 
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  DIESELS  
     
          G.W.  After nine patrols, both Diesels were removed and replaced by new ones.  Both the new and the old were G.W.  The new ones were not reversible.  
     
          Revolutions and speeds normal.  
     
          On her last patrol, U-575 was equipped with the "Schnorchel", which enabled the boat to travel on Diesels at periscope depth.  
     
  SCHNORCHEL  
     
          This device permitted the U-boat to proceed submerged at 13-1/2 meters depth on both Diesels at slow speed ("Langsame Fahrt"), i.e., 6 or 7 knots, while charging batteries.  U-575 proceeded through the Bay of Biscay submerged and on her electric motors during the daylight hours.  At dusk she came to periscope depth and raised her Schnorchel.  It is not necessary to surface entirely before raising the Schnorchel.  She proceeded in this fashion until about 2300, then surfaced for long enough to complete charging of batteries,  U-575 would run again on Schnorchel for a few hours just before dawn.  On top of the Schnorchel was a drum-shaped aerial ("Runddipol"), and during the entire time that the U-boat was proceeding on Schnorchel a watch was kept on the Wanz (as also, light conditions permitting,  
     
 
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Click here to view Plate A:  Schnorchel-U-575  Extensible Diesel Intake and Exhaust

     
 
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  on the periscope).  The schnorchel is streamlined in shape like a stack on a modern merchantman; the forward part being round, the after part pointed.  It stands just forward of the conning tower on the port side, and, when not in use, is lowered forward into a groove in the deck grating.  Raising and lowering are controlled by hand wheels in the control room which activate a hydraulic mechanism.  One hand-wheel is turned to "Open" for raising; when the schnorchel is to be lowered, this wheel must be on "Closed" and the other wheel turned to "Open".  The exhaust pipe, approximately 20 cm. in diameter runs up the inside of the Schnorchel to within one to one and a half meters of the top.  There it emerges and projects aft for about 40 to 50 cm.  
     
          The drawing of the Schnorchel included in this report was made from description furnished by various prisoners from U-575.  The exactness of all details cannot be guaranteed, but it is believed largely correct.  
     
          Prisoners' reactions to the Schnorchel were all of a pattern:  Every one objected to its use and hoped that it would be discarded.  Some feared the sudden creation of a vacuum in the U-boat if a wave should wash over the top of the intake mast; some complained of fumes in the Diesel compartment, caused by insufficient exhaust; all feared that in a phosphorescent sea they could be easily detected by enemy aircraft, and would rather proceed submerged.  
     
 
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  An officer, however, discounted all possibility of a vacuum being caused by inadequate air intake, although during trials considerable fumes formed in the Diesel compartment.  This, he said, did not occur on patrol because the Diesels would only be run for a short time, then the U-boat would be thoroughly aired before the Diesels were started again.  No water ever entered the air intake he asserted.  
     
           A radio rating objected to the Schnorchel because, he said, it interfered with listening on the multi-unit hydrophones, especially aft.  It was impossible to pick up sounds of any but the greatest intensity at a safe distance.  
     
          During the last patrol the Engineer Officer sent two or three messages to Control, reporting U-575's experience with the new device.  In one report he declared that the pressure on air-intake was greater than he expected, judging from experience during trials at base and in Germany.  In another report he suggested an automatic depth-keeping apparatus to be used in conjunction with the Schnorchel.  
     
  SUPERCHARGERS  
     
          "Kapselgebläse".  
     
  FUEL CAPACITY AND FUEL CONSUMPTION  
     
          Normal.  
     
 
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  MOTORS  
     
          B.B.C.  Revolution and speeds normal.  
     
  SWITCHBOARD  
     
          B.B.C.  
     
  BATTERIES  
     
          Two banks of 62.  Lead-acid type.  Capacity, approximately 10,000 ampere hours.  Maximum diving angle possible without spilling stated to be 480.  Endurance at flank speed, stated to be 1.5 hours.  
     
  ROTARY CONVERTERS  
     
          One 0.3 K.V.A.  
     
          One 6 K.V.A.  
     
          One 1.5 K.V.A.  
     
          One transmitter converter.  
     
          Converters for gyro compass, torpedo fire control, echo-sounder.  
     
  COMPRESSORS  
     
          One Junkers and one E-Verdichter.  
     
  COMPRESSED AIR FLASKS  
     
          Six groups of 2 bottles @ 360 liters.  
     
  OXYGEN SUPPLY  
     
          Six flasks, four in control room, two in Petty Officers' quarters.  (One prisoner said 10, distributed as  
     
 
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  follows:  Four in control room, 3 in bow compartment, 1 in stern compartment, 2 in Diesel room.  
     
  PUMPS  
     
          One main and one auxiliary ballast.  
     
  GERMAN ASDIC  
     
          Not fitted.  
     
  G.S.R.  (German Search Receiver)  
     
          Wanz G-2, Naxos, and Borkum.  Demountable aerial for Naxos (see sketch), and drum-shaped aerial for Borkum and Wanz.  Additional drum-shaped aerial on top of Schnorchel.  
     
  RADAR  
     
          Not fitted.  
     
  R.D.B.  (Radar Decoy Balloons)  
     
          Three or four boxes of balloons, 30 per box.  Stored, one in control room,. others in bow compartment.  These were used 4 or 5 times on last patrol when a shadow was sighted or a G.S.R. warning was received.  
     
  R.D.S.  (Radar Decoy Spar Buoy)  
     
          On her last patrol U-575 carried 15 Radar decoy buoys known as "Weihnachtsbaum" (Christmas tree) and as "Thetis."  These buoys were carried dismantled in the bow compartment.  One such buoy consists of a cork float and two hollow rods approximately two meters in length.  Assembly usually takes place in the conning  
     
 
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Click here to view Plate B:  Naxos G.S.R. Antenna U-575

     
 
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  tower, and one set can be assembled in four minutes.  Each of the hollow rods contains one actual Radar Decoy mast which is removed.  The two rods are then fastened together, end to end, with a cotter pin and fastened on like manner to the cork float.  The two Radar Decoys are then likewise fastened together and in turn mounted onto the cork float.  The rods are open at the bottom so that they fill with sea water.  The masts are made of wood.  
     
          These details may be observer on the drawing made by a prisoner.  Note, however, that while the drawing is generally speaking correct, the groups of Dipoles are in sets of six and not in sets of three as indicated.  Of these six, three point upwards and three point downwards each at different angles.  They are all of the same length, i.e., 40 cm.  
     
          R.D.S. are believed to be very durable.  While and R.D.S. will drift considerably, it is felt that it could survive a considerable length of time - - even as much as six months under favorable weather conditions.  
     
          Prisoners state that all U-boats now leaving Biscay ports carry a number of these decoys and scatter them throughout the Biscay area.  U-575 surfaced every night and laid a total of ten on her outward voyage.  The rest were to have been laid in the same area on her return voyage.  One prisoner said that the idea is "to plant  
     
 
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Click here to view Plate C:  Thetis - Radar Decoy Buoy - U-575

     
 
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  the Bay of Biscay full of them".  They are not intended to be used in operations against convoys.  It was stated, however, that on receipt of special orders from Control, such buoys might be launched in areas other than the Bay of Biscay:  for example, for the purpose of confusing ship and plane radar during operations against convoys.  
     
          It is believed by prisoners that R.D.S. are effective against both surface ship radar and A.S.V. and that varying angles at which the Dipoles are placed would provide targets for different frequencies.  
     
  D/F GEAR (Direction Finder)  
     
          Standard D/F gear, as well as HF/DF.  The latter was never used, as the voltage regulator did not function satisfactorily.  
     
  TRANSMITTERS  
     
          Two.  One 200 watt Siemens, one 40 watt Lorenz emergency.  
     
  RECEIVERS  
     
          One "Main" receiver.  One all-wave receiver.  One short-wave receiver.  An additional all-wave receiver exclusively for the use of the meteorologist was installed in the radio room before the last patrol.  
     
  EXTENSIBLE ROD ANTENNA  
     
          Fitted.  
     
 
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  UNDERWATER TELEGRAPHY  
     
          Fitted.  
     
  WATCHES FOR RADIO PERSONNEL  
     
          For the first part of the voyage:  
     
                  0800 to 1200  
                  1200 to 1600  
                  1600 to 2000  
                  2000 to 0200  
                  0200 to 0800  
     
          During the course of the voyage changed to:  
     
                  0800 to 1400  
                  1400 to 2000  
                  2000 to 2400  
                  0000 to 0400  
                  0400 to 0800  
     
  HYDROPHONES  
     
          Fitted, normal multi-unit type (G.H.G.)  
     
  MAGNETIC COMPASS  
     
          One in control room forward.  
     
  GYRO COMPASS  
     
          One in control room aft.  
     
  GYRO REPEATERS  
     
          One on the bridge, two in control room, one in conning tower, one in listening room, one on D/F gear in radio  
     
 
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  room.  
     
  T.D.C.  (Torpedo Data Computer)  
     
          Normal older type.  Angle-of-impact switch built in at an undetermined time before the eighth patrol.  
     
  ELEKTROLOT  
     
          Fitted but never used.  
     
  ECHO SOUNDER  
     
          Atlas.  
     
  AIR PURIFICATION  
     
          Carried about 200 potash cartridges.  
     
  LIFE RAFTS  
     
          Fourteen or 15 one-man rubber boats stowed on bunks:    
          Two boats of 3-meter size, one in motor room, one in Petty Officers' quarters; one boat of 4-meter size in bow compartment; three rafts similar to "Marx Rettungsinsel" in control room.  
     
  LIFE JACKETS  
     
          Fifty-four, one for each man.  
     
  ESCAPE LUNGS  
     
          Fifty-five, one for each man and one extra.  
     
  DIVING APPARATUS  
     
          One simple suit with oxygen tube but without helmet,  
     
 
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  for shallow depths.  To be used only for clearing fouled rudders or hydroplanes, or making minor emergency repairs.  
     
  VISION AIDS  
     
          Carried polarized glasses for day use and red glasses for aiding night vision.  Every man who needed a pair had his own.  
     
  MEDICAL SUPPLIES  
     
          The Pharmacist's Mate 2/c stated that a complete kit for any injury was supplied.  An operation for appendicitis could have been performed on board if necessary.  Vitamins supplied and given to crew as part of their diet.  
     
  WEATHER BUOYS  
     
          Not carried.  
     
  WEATHER BALLOONS  
     
          Forty of Radiosonde type for measuring temperature and pressure.  These differ from the type used on land in that they have no provision for measuring humidity.  The meteorologist explained this fact by saying that a second trained listener, not usually available on a U-boat, is necessary to receive humidity data.  The transmitters for these balloons were stored in two boxes in the bow compartment, the balloons themselves  
     
 
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  in a chest in the officers' quarters.  
     
          Hydrogen supply for the weather balloons and for R.D.B. was contained in three large flasks on upper deck.  
     
          For further meteorological data see Chapter III.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
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CHAPTER III.  METEROLOGICAL INFORMATION
 
     
          The following information was given by the Meteorologist carried aboard U-575 on her tenth and last patrol:  
     
  METEROLOGICAL BROADCASTS  
     
          The principal meteorological broadcast stations are:  DDX, Nauen, which is principal transmitter for the German Air Force; and DAN, Norddeich, which is principal transmitter for the Navy.  There are a number of other smaller broadcast stations, but these are very short range and only serve a small local coastal area.  
     
          Weather bulletins are broadcast continuously by all stations on a special frequency which does not change.  In addition to DAN, approximately ten other German Navy stations transmit these bulletins, a special time of day being assigned to each area.  
     
          Broadcasts contain weather report, analysis of weather maps, upper air data, and forecasts.  The broadcasts are drawn up according to the standard "Copenhagen" system and this is re-encoded with numbers which change frequently.  This applies to the Navy.  The German Air Force uses another system which this prisoner claimed not to know.  
     
          The standard times of weather observations are as in peace time, and according to the international system.  However, the hours used are German Summer Time.  
     
  ATLANTIC AND NORTH AMERICAN AREA.  
     
          Formerly data was made available to all weather stations  
     
 
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  from meteorological groups operating in Greenland.  This is no longer the case.  The U-boat high command is regularly supplied with weather reports from operating U-boats.  (See entry on U-552 in Chapter VII).  
     
  WEATHER MAPS  
     
          In German weather stations, a minimum of two weather maps must be drawn each day, and usually three are drawn.  
     
  ACCURACY OF FORECASTS  
     
          The prisoner claimed an average accuracy of eighty percent.  
     
  WEATHER RECONNAISSANCE FLIGHTS  
     
          Weather reconnaissance flights are regularly made by aircraft, and observations are circulated to all stations in clear by teletype.  
     
  IRISH SOURCES  
     
          The prisoner has never heard of any weather reports received from the Irish or from German sources in Ireland.  
     
  WEATHER REPORTS FROM SUBMARINES  
     
          All U-boats are supposed to include a short weather signal in each transmission they make.  However, in view of the danger of transmissions being D/F'd, U-boat commanders are very reluctant to make their messages any longer than absolutely necessary.  Therefore, they often fail to include weather data, but of course would furnish it when called upon by Control to do so.  From the data furnished by  
     
 
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  U-boats, headquarters makes an analysis which is included in its transmission both by teletype and broadcast.  
     
          U-575 carried 40 balloons fitted with automatic transmitters, which transmitted temperature continuously, the curve being registered on a special teletype instrument attached to an all-wave receiver, as well as barometric pressure at five minute intervals.  Sling-type thermometers and psychrometers, barograph, hypsometer for checking the barograph, and anemometer were carried, as well as a number of ordinary thermometers for checking water temperature.  
     
          U-boats normally carry two barometers, one in the control room and one in the radio room mounted on shelves on a bulkhead.  U-575 carried an additional one similarly mounted in the Captain's cabin.  
     
  LONG RANGE WEATHER FORECASTING  
     
          Long range weather forecasts are made only by a Professor Bauer at Bad Hamburg.  Such forecasts are made for two-week periods.  The prisoner could not state what success long range forecasting has had.  
     
  METEOROLOGICAL OFFICERS  
     
          Meteorological officers are attached occasionally to U-boats, always to Raiders and to large units from cruisers on up.  Meteorological officers are attached to every airport, one officer to a "Geschwader".  In the Army, meteorologists are attached only for ballistics purposes.  A chief meteorologist is attached to Hitler's headquarters.  
     
 
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S E C R E T
 
   
  PLANNING MILITARY OPERATIONS  
     
          Considerable attention is paid to the effects of weather in planning military operations as, for example, in the case of the Channel dash by SCHARNHORST and GNEISENAU.  
     
  METEOROLOGISTS AND CHEMICAL WARFATE  
     
          This prisoner had a course of training in meteorology in relation to Chemical Warfare.  The course of instruction was based on British documents captured at Crete.  
     
  METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION  
     
          Approximately 150 officers and 1500 men in the German Navy have been trained for actual daily service at observatories.  This is exclusive of about 1,000 men and 200 to 300 officers attached to the headquarters at Greifswalde.  
     
          Candidates for the service are selected because of previous experience and suitable background, such as mathematics, geographers, physicists, etc.  Some volunteer for the service, others are drafted.  Naval meteorological officer candidates are educated at the University of Berlin where the shortened war-time course takes seven trimesters.  This is followed by a year at Gotenhafen or some other Baltic station for post-graduate training.  
     
          After completing post-graduate training, meteorologists are then usually assigned to one of the regular meteorological stations.  The entire peace-time set-up is maintained.  Subsequently meteorologists may be assigned to U-boats, cruisers, or Raiders.  The same system  
     
 
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S E C R E T
 
   
  applies to meteorologists for the Air Force and the Army.  These are, however, trained in other universities.  
     
          Typical routine in a meteorologist's office:  Radio personnel, map maker, and teletype operator report for the first weather map which is as of 0200.  A forecast is made from this chart.  Charts as prepared and are ready between 0500 and 0700.  One Petty Officer is kept on a watch system of six hours on and six hours off -- 24 hours a day.  During the night hours one meteorologist officer is on sleeping watch.  The second weather chart is made as of 0800.  This is ready at about 1500 including all last minute additions.  No forecast is made with this chart.  The third chart is made as of 1400 and is ready at 1700.  A forecast is made with this chart.  At 1900 the meteorologists will add in to his charts reports from surrounding areas.  Equipment of a meteorological station consists of thermoscreen with all equipment, teletype, and radio station for receiving messages in case the teletype breaks down, and otherwise all standard peacetime equipment only.  
     
  PERSONALITIES  
     
          The prisoner had a meteorological course under Dr. Wagemann, from January to March 1943.  
     
          Professor Bauer uses Multiple Correlation Method in long-range forecasting.  Dr. Wagemann has another method, which is not known to the prisoner, as Wagemann does not instruct in long-range forecasting.  
     
 
- 21 -
 
 
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S E C R E T
 
   
          Professor Weikmann is chief of the Leipzig school of Symmetry Points.  This school is only for the Luftwaffe.  The course takes two trimesters.  
     
  CORRELATION AND SYNOPTIC TECHNIQUE  
     
          Correlation and Synoptic Technique is part of course in Geophysics and Statistics given at each university.  All meteorologists must take two trimesters in Statistics and two trimesters in Synoptic Technique.  
     
  BALLOONS USED AT SEA  
     
          Balloons used are radiosonde type.  Air mass analysis results from data transmitted from the balloons.  No other means of making measurements of temperature over sea were known to the prisoner.  
     
  FRONTAL LOCATION  
     
          Use of RD/F in connection with Frontal location has proven unsuccessful.  
     
  METEROLOGIST'S ACTIVITIES ON LAST PATROL  
     
          The prisoner stated that the Captain was under special orders to regard this patrol not as a regular war patrol but as one for weather study only.  He was ordered to a certain operational square northwest of the Azores.  When he had reached this square, he was to report his position and stand by for specific instructions for the meteorologist, which instructions would at that time be radioed  
     
 
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S E C R E T
 
   
  direct from Control.  If U-575 should by chance contact a convoy, the Captain was forbidden to attack, should conditions be favorable; but the meteorologist was certain that the U-boat would not have been diverted from its observation area in order to take part in convoy attacks.  U-575 would have remained in its square until ordered to return to base.  
     
          During the patrol the meteorologist made routine observations each day, even though he had not received orders for this.  These observations were only reported to Control once or twice, some time between 9 March 1944 and 12 March 1944.  Actually these reports were the same as those regularly reported from any U-boat on the basis of observations made by the Captain.  The only difference was, as the prisoner smilingly remarked, that he had added the Latin names of the types of cloud formation observed.  Each day data for making a weather chart was received from Control, which charts were made by the meteorologist.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
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S E C R E T
 
   
 
CHAPTER IV.  GUNNERY
 
     
  DECK GUNS ON VARIOUS PATROLS  
     
          On her first eight patrol U-575 carried the standard guns customary at that time for 500-ton U-boat, namely:  
     
          One 88-mm. gun forward of conning tower.  
          One 20-mm. gun on bandstand.  
          Four MG-34 for use on the bridge.  
     
          During the lay-over period preceding the ninth patrol U-575 was equipped with the newer style conning tower with Platforms I and II and the following guns:  
     
          One quadruple mount 20-mm. on Platform II.  
          Two twin 20-mm. on Platform I.  
          Two twin MG-81 for use on the bridge.  
     
          For the tenth and last patrol, U-575's superstructure was again modified.  The conning tower and platforms were made narrower and the quadruple mount was replaced by the new 37-mm. automatic gun.  Armament for the final patrol was therefore:  
     
          One new 37-mm. automatic on Platform II.  
          Two twin 20-mm. on Platform I (the same ones as on the ninth patrol)  
          Two twin MG-81 for use on the bridge.  
     
  20 MM. AMMUNITION AND STOWAGE ON LAST PATROL  
     
          U-575 carried 56,000 rounds of ammunition for the 20-mm. guns.  There were two kinds:  A/P with tracer) and H.E. incendiary with and without  
     
 
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S E C R E T
 
   
  tracer (flat nosed, yellow marking; red ring on rounds which had tracer).  Firing sequence was stated to be blue, yellow, blue, yellow, etc.  
     
          Stowage of 20-mm. ammunition was as follows:  
     
                  In ready use lockers:  30 to 45 clips.  
                  In conning tower:  10 to 15 clips.  
                  In control room:  50 clips.  
                  In main magazine:  80 to 100 clips.  
                  In bow compartment:  An undetermined number of full boxes containing 100 rounds each.  
     
          Clips held 19 rounds each.  
     
          Two ready-use lockers were available for 20-mm. ammunition, capacity 15 clips each.  There was a third locker, but it was found not pressure-proof and was not used.  
     
  37-MM. AMMUNITION AND STOWAGE ON LAST PATROL  
     
          U-575 carried about 1,300 rounds of "Minenmunition" (H.E. tracer) for her 37-mm. gun.  Capacity of upper-deck containers was 380 rounds.  These lockers were, however, never all full.  There were five of them, one large one with a capacity of 20 clips and four smaller ones with a capacity of 14 clips each.  One of the smaller lockers leaked and was not used.  Clips held 5 rounds each.  The ammunition not stowed in ready-use lockers was kept in the main magazine and in the bow compartment.   
     
  SERVICING OF 37-MM. GUN  
     
          The Gunnery Officer stated that various experiments in  
     
 
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  lubricating had been made aboard U-575.  At first, oil was used for all parts.  This being found unsatisfactory, a mixture of grease and oil was tried out.  This, too, was not satisfactory, and finally it was decided to use the grease known as Z.d.M.26 for all parts including the automatic mechanism.  
     
  COMBAT EXPERIENCE  
     
          Members of the crew believe that they shot down a four-motored aircraft on the last patrol.  This was the plane which attacked in the early morning hours of 13 March 1944 (see Chapter XV).  20-mm. fire alone was used, there being too little warning to get the 37-mm. gun into action.  The Executive Officer and the bridge watch manned the 20-mm. guns.  
     
          On the occasion of the second plane attack of the last patrol (See Chapter XV), all guns were in use.  Fire was opened at about 4000 meters.  The 37-mm. gun jammed after a few shots.  The cover was raised and the gun was cleared.  From then on, the gun was fired singly, each round being inserted in to the bore by hand.  According to the Gunnery Officer, recoil ejection was still in order, and the breech-block was still operating mechanically; thus the extent of failure seems to have been confined to the feed mechanism.  One of the crew, however, who was actually No. 1 at the time, stated that it was necessary to move the breech-opener lever for each shot fired.  As many as 40 rounds were fired this way before it was decided to submerge.  
     
 
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S E C R E T
 
   
  MISCELLANEOUS  
     
          It was stated that radio personnel are used as auxiliary anti-aircraft personnel.  For this reason they are given a superficial training course in A.A. guns.  It is mainly intended that they should be used as ammunition passers.  This practice has been current ever since the time that the quadruple 20-mm. first came into use on U-boats.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
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S E C R E T
 
   
 
CHAPTER V.  TORPEDOES
 
     
  COMPLEMENT  
     
          U-575 carried fourteen torpedoes on each of the first eight patrols, eleven or twelve on the ninth patrol, and ten on the last patrol.  
     
  TYPES  
     
          On her last patrol U-575 carried the following torpedoes:  
     
          One T-5 in tube No. 2.  
          One T-5 on tube No. 5.  
          Five T-3 F.A.T.-2, three of which were in tubes Nos. 1, 3, and 4; none of these was fired.  
     
  UPPER DECK CONTAINERS  
     
          Not fitted on last two patrols.  
     
  "LUT" TORPEDO  
     
          The following statements were made by an officer prisoner:  
     
                  1.  There is a new torpedo known as "LUT".  
                  2.  It is air driven.  
                  3.  It is an improved F.A.T.  
                  4.  Its course does not consist of long or short legs, right or left; rather, its course is described as follows:  
     
               
     
 
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                  5.  It is not an acoustic torpedo.  
                  6.  The term "Lut" means "Lageunabhängigkeits-torpedo" (a torpedo which can be fired from a U-boat irrespective of the position and course of the firing U-boat and of the target).  
                  7.  The torpedo need not be fired on a collision course.  
                  8.  A new gyro setting gear is required.  
                  9.  U-boats carrying "Lut" require a new torpedo data computer.  
                10.  It is not known whether "Lut" torpedoes are restricted to U-boats, whether they are to be used by Walterboats, or whether they are anti invasion torpedoes.  
     
          T-5 - An officer made the following statements concerning T-5:  
     
                  1.  SS-setting is never used - - not even for a nonacoustic run.  It was denied that T-5 could be fired as an ordinary electric torpedo with the acoustic mechanism non-operative.  
     
                  2.  Unlike other torpedoes with combination impact and magnetic firing (in which the magnetic firing can be cut out), the magnetic firing in T-5 is always used in conjunction with impact firing.  
     
 
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                  3.  It was emphasized that T-5 does not pursue a snake-like course, that it always heads directly for the propellers, that it does not turn to hit the side of the target, that it does not rush into the propellers, and that it does pass under the propellers, detonating under the target.  
     
                  4.  It was denied that the torpedo would, on losing acoustic contact continue to circle either right or left until, hearing no more vibrations, it sank; rather, it would circle a few times and then proceed on its original course.  
     
                  5.  The prisoner believes that the acoustic safety run is about 800 meters.  
     
                  6.  The prisoner had seen two iron-colored transformers used in the nose; the term "transformer" was not known by him; he emphasized that they were NOT laminated.  
     
                  7.  The first T-5 fired by U-575 was shot from the stern tube, from the surface, against an approaching target, range 3000 meters.  The torpedo was said to have run about 12 minutes, after which a detonation was heard.  Sea force was between two and three, depth-setting four meters.  The  
     
 
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  crew were not certain whether the destroyer was hit, but thought so.  The U-boat remained on the surface after firing.  
     
                  The second T-5 was fired from a forward tube, from the surface, against an escort vessel.  No detonation was heard.  The U-boat dived and altered course to port immediately after firing.  
     
                  8.  The prisoner stated that the reason U-575 did not carry more than two T-5s was, according to what he had been told, that the factory manufacturing these torpedoes, "PINTSCH" at Fürstenwalde near Berlin, had been destroyed by bombing.  The prisoner believes that no U-boat is receiving more than two T-5s at present.  Accordingly, more F.A.T.s are carried.  
     
                  9.  The following statements were made by a torpedoman's Mate 3/c:  
     
                   Servicing of T-5:  The battery is charged every six days.  The propeller shaft is oiled every six days with a red-colored oil known as E.T.42 (meaning unknown).  U-575 carried two cans of oil (25 liters in each can) for the propeller shaft.  
     
                  External winding on tail piece:  This is about 15 cm. behind the gyro; when the torpedo is  
     
 
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  being loaded into the tube, the wooden protecting frame is removed, exposing another sort of protection around the winding.  This is bronze-colored, about 28 to 30 cm. wide, and extending about 1.5 cm. above the body of the torpedo.  
     
          F.A.T.-2  T-3A - An officer gave the following information:  
     
                  In addition to the usual F.A.T.-1 (air driven) and the F.A.T.-2 (electric), both of which can be set to turn either right or left and also for either long or short legs, there is a third type known as F.A.T.-2  T-3A.  This torpedo is said to have only two settings:  "lang" (long), which signifies a right turn only (with long legs only); and "kurz" (short), which gives only a circling track to the left only.  Known as a "Kreisläufer" (circler), it is an anti-escort torpedo, non-acoustic, combination impact (not inertia type) and magnetic firing, and is fitted with an improved battery which increases the range to 8000 meters.  The prisoner was unable to describe the battery, except that it was longer and of greater diameter.  The prisoner does not know whether F.A.T.-2  T-3A is a combination torpedo-mine.  
     
                  The Torpedoman's Mate 3/c stated that this torpedo uses a four-wiskered pistol, each wisker being about 15 cm. long.  
     
          T-2 - According to one officer prisoner, T-2 (electric  
     
 
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  torpedo with impact firing) is obsolescent.  T-3 (electric torpedo with impact/magnetic firing) is replacing T-2.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
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S E C R E T
 
   
 
CHAPTER VI.  COMMUNICATIONS
 
     
  G.S.R. SUPPLY DEPOT  
     
          One prisoner stated that in a warehouse in the Rue des Apperts in Nantes are stored supplies of all types of G.S.R. gear for all U-boat flotillas based in France.  
     
  RADAR INSTRUCTION  
     
          A radio rating had a course in German Radar in November 1943.  This was given in a former Tuberculosis Sanatorium in Den Haan, near Ostende, Belgium.  Radio personnel from all over are sent here for instruction, this being possibly the only such school in all German-occupied territory.  A six-day course in Gemag and Hohentwiel is given here.  
     
          The Hohentwiel about which the prisoner was given instruction was the Air Force model with 12-volt battery.  At this time there was no U-boat model Hohentwiel available at the school.  
     
          The prisoner was not shown details of construction of this gear, but received only instruction in its use and in emergency repairs.  
     
         Gemag gear had R V 12 P 2000 tubes and P H 4671 tubes.  As nearly as the prisoner could remember, the Hohentwiel had the same tubes.  Whereas Gemag has wave-length of 80-cm., Hohentwiel has either 50 or 60-cm. wave-length.  
     
          The prisoner was told that Gemag has a theoretical range of 15 kilometers, depending on weather conditions.  Actually, five to six kilometers is the practical limit under optimum conditions.  
     
 
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  Hohentwiel was said to have a range of 20 to 25 kilometers; but the prisoner thought that the maximum practical range under favorable conditions is 15 kilometers.  
     
          Hohentwiel has the same type mattress aerial as Gemag, except that the Diploes are either 12.5 or 15-cm. long.  
     
          The pulse repetition rate of Hohentwiel is the same as Gemag, stated by this prisoner to be 1000 to a second.   
     
          The chief advantage of Hohentwiel is that is is smaller and simpler to operate than is Gemag.  
     
  RECEPTION OF GOLIATH TRANSMITTER  
     
          The Goliath transmitter was received satisfactorily aboard U-575 in the western North Atlantic at a depth of 17 meters.  
     
  TERMINOLOGY  
     
          One prisoner stated that German Radar in general is now referred to as FuMO (Funk-Mess-Ortungs-Gerät).  The old term FuMG was too easily confused with FuMB.  
     
  D/F BEACONS  
     
          D/F beacon No. 15 in Spain near Cape Finisterre.  D/F beacon No. 5 is at Quimper.  Between these two the whole Bay of Biscay is covered.  
     
     
     
     
 
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S E C R E T
 
   
 
CHAPTER VII.  OTHER U-BOATS
 
     
 
U-66         A prisoner reported U-Markworth sunk.  (O.N.I. Note:  This most probably refers to U-66 ex. Commanding Officer Markworth, present Commanding Officer Seehausen.)
   
U-103         Commanded by Kapitänleutnant Jannsen.  Left on patrol end September 1943.
   
U-132         A prisoner who stood by during final stages of the construction of U-132 at Vegesack in Bremen in April 1941, gave the following information about this boat:  U-132 went to Kiel for U-boat Acceptance Trials and made her Active Service Acceptance Trials at Hortin and her Tactical Exercises at Trondheim in mid-August 1941.  Her patrol was Reichssportführer von Tschammer and Osten.  Her insignia was the Reichssport coat-of-arms.  She was assigned to the 3rd Flotilla.  Her officers were:  Commanding Officer, Kapitänleutnant Ernst Vogelsang, First Watch Officer, Leutnant Jordan (O.N.I. Note:  Probably Günther Jordan of the October 1937 Term), Second Watch Officer, Leutnant Anton (O.N.I. Note:  Eberhard Anton of the October 1938 Term), and the Engineer Officer, Oberleutnant (Ing.) Lütwitz (O.N.I. Note:  Not in G.N.L.)  U-132 left on her first patrol 23/24 August 1941 and went to the Kirkenes for three days, then to the Arctic and white Sea.  She sank two Russian merchant vessels of 5000 and 1500 tons which
 
     
 
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  were unescorted.  Three torpedoes were expended.  She returned to Trondheim mid-October 1941.  She left Trondheim on her second patrol 1 November 1941 and again proceeded to Kirkenes, the Arctic and then to the Barents Sea.  She had no successes on this patrol and returned to Trondheim about 20 December 1941.  She sailed from Trondheim on her 3rd patrol 28/31 January 1942, proceeding via Kirkenes to the Barents Sea.  She returned to Trondheim about 20 February 1942 and was overhauled.  She left on her 4th patrol 5/6 March 1942 and proceeded to the North Atlantic between the Shetlands and Faroes, toward Reykjavik.  Sank an American coastal patrol vessel from a convoy going from America to Iceland.  The U-boat was depth-charged by destroyers for 3 hours; she was damaged and headed for base on one Diesel at slow speed.  It took 12/14 days to make La Pallice, where they arrived 15/16 April 1942.  The prisoner believed this boat was sunk in November 1942, according to his friends in the Flotilla.
   
U-267         U-267 commanded by Kapitänleutnant Tinschert was not sunk.  Her cover name was stated to be "Seepferd".  Her insignia is two small sea-horses.  Her history was given as follows:  Final overhaul at Hamburg completed 28 October 1942.  Officers of U-267 at this time were stated to be:  Commanding Officer, Tinschert, First Watch Officer, Siegfried Breinlinger, Second Watch Officer, Oberleutnant d.R. Caesar Kaiser, and the Engineer Officer, Leutnant (Ing.)
 
     
 
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  Narziss Schenk.  U-267 left Kiel on her first patrol about 2/3 January 1943 with a 750-tonner.  She sank nothing.  She was depth-charged several times by destroyers but sustained no serious damage.  She arrived at St. Nazaire 27/28 February 1943 and joined the 7th Flotilla.  She left alone on her second patrol in April 1943 and operated in the North Atlantic.  She sank nothing.  She was again depth charged, but there was no serious damage.  She took part in Group ELBE 1, then returned to St. Nazaire early in June 1943.  Her 3rd patrol started 11/15 July 1943 with one or two other U-boats.  She carried F.A.T. torpedoes for the first time on this patrol.  She was out only 10 days.  When out 4/5 days she was sighted by aircraft and depth-charged by three destroyers for 36 hours.  Both compressors and the hydrophones went out of action.  Then the destroyers left and U-267 sailed for her base.  On her way back she was contacted by a Sunderland which did not attack.  She arrived at St. Nazaire 20/25 July 1943.  She was then fitter with a new conning tower with two platforms and quadruple mount.  It was apparently during this patrol that Tinschert was taken sick.  Upon his return he was relieved by Oberleutnant von Witzendorf for one patrol only.  Tinschert then took U-650 on trials for von Witzendorf, late July 1943.
   
          The First Watch Officer, Breinlinger was relieved by Oberleutnant Kaiser and went to command his own boat.
 
     
 
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S E C R E T
 
   
 
U-270         Commanded by Oberleutnant Paul Otto  Sank 2 destroyers in GROUP LEUTHREN, end of September 1943.  Her cover name is "Struppi".
   
U-336         Oberleutnant Baltz (O.N.I. Note:  Known to command U-336) has not been heard of for a long time.  (O.N.I. Note:  Recent information from other sources reported Baltz had to undergo an operation in January 1944, and therefore may no longer command U-336.)  The First Watch Officer is Baer.  (O.N.I. Note:  Probably Kurt Baer of the October 1940 Term.)
   
U-404         A prisoner confirmed the sinking of von Bülow's boat, a 500-tonner.  (O.N.I. Note:  This is very probably U-404 previously believed sunk, no date.  However, it is thought that von Bülow now has a shore appointment.)
   
U-440        (O.N.I. Note:  Commanded by Kapitänleutnant Johannes Geissler).  U-Geissler was reported to be about the last boat to reach St. Nazaire, the 7th Flotilla, before U-575 sailed on 29 February 1944.  Her cover name might be "Hein".  (O.N.I. Note:  Apparently U-440 was not sunk on her 5th patrol as previously reported.)
   
U-448         Commanded by Oberleutnant Helmut Dauter.  This boat is based on St. Nazaire.  Dauter is a very cool-headed commanding officer.  On a recent patrol in the Biscay area Dauter sighted some shadows, turned toward them and
 
     
 
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  recognized an escort group.  He sank 2 destroyers with T-5s.  Three other destroyers turned away.  Her cover name is "Krischan".
   
U-455         Kapitänleutnant Hans Martin Scheibe (O.N.I. Note:  Known to command U-455) is known as the calmest commanding officer in the 7th Flotilla.  Her cover name is "Forst".
   
U-510         (O.N.I. Note:  Commanded by Oberleutnant Alfred Eick.)  U-Eick has sunk 35,000 tons.  He was on patrol in the Indian Ocean early 1944.
   
U-552         (O.N.I. Note:  Commanded by Kapitänleutnant Klaus Popp.)  Popp sank a corvette and a merchant vessel on his first patrol.  (O.N.I. Note:  This is believed to have been in the fall of 1942.)  Described as "the calmest commanding officer of the century", he has the reputation of always getting a destroyer and a ship.  He is now on his 4th patrol from the 7th Flotilla.  His first Watch Officer is Rogowsky, of the October 1938 Term.)  On this patrol U-552 has a meteorologist aboard; he was reported to be Leutnant der Reserve Weydemann.  Her cover name was reported to be "Adelheid".  (O.N.I. Note:  This cover name is also attributed to U-404.)
 
     
 
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  POPP in "civvies - drawn from captured document.
   
   
U-608         Kapitänleutnant Struckmeier (O.N.I. Note:  Known to command U-608) was reported to have operated in GROUPS SIEGFRIED and SCHILL.
   
U-618         Now belongs to the 7th Flotilla.  The former First Watch Officer was Angermann (O.N.I. Note:  Leutnant Walter Angermann, October 1940 Term), the Second Watch Officer is Baresel (O.N.I. Note:  Leutnant Hans Baresel, October 1940
 
     
 
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  Term) and the Engineer Officer is Dillmann (O.N.I. Note:  Not in G.N.L.).  U-618 was subjected to a 38 hour depth-charge attack early January 1944 in the outskirts of the Bay of Biscay, but suffered no damage.  Her cover name is "Negus".  (O.N.I. Note:  U-618 previously belonged to the 3rd Flotilla at La Pallice.
   
U-645         (O.N.I. Note:  Commanded by Oberleutnant der Reserve Ferro.)  U-Ferro operated with U-575 in a convoy attack 6 May 1943.  She has been reported missing since late 1943.
   
U-648         (O.N.I. Note:  Commanded by Oberleutnant Albert Stahl.)  Belonged to the 7th Flotilla.  Sailed with U-575 on the latter's 9th patrol in October 1943.  Confirmed sunk.  Cover name was "Rasputin".
   
U-650         A prisoner who served on U-650 for a short time in July 1943 reported that her commanding officer, Oberleutnant Ernst von Witzendorff commanded U-267 for one patrol while U-267's commanding officer, Kapitänleutnant Otto Tinschert, who returned sick from a patrol took U-650 on trials.  Von Witzendorf was described as being a go-getter but having a chip on his shoulder.  (O.N.I. Note:  Cover name is reported to be "Delphin".)
   
U-666         Oberleutnant der Reserve Engel (O.N.I. Note:  Formerly
 
     
 
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  commanding officer of U-666) has made 13 patrols in this war, three as a commanding officer.  He has now been relieved by another officer.
   
U-667         (O.N.I. Note:  Commanding Officer is believed to be Kapitänleutnant Heinrich Schroeteler.)  Her cover name was reported to be "Gluck Auf".  The crew of this boat lived with U-575's crew at Grand Hotel, La Baule.  U-667 belongs to the 7th Flotilla and is reported to be unsuccessful.  A prisoner stated that either Schütt or Schroeteler recently entered the Mediterranean.  (O.N.I. Note:  More likely Schroeteler since Schütt was reported to have left his boat because of heart trouble.  It seems that U-667 was not sunk on her first patrol as previously believed.)
   
U-951         A prisoner who served on U-951 during her working-up under Oberleutnant Pressel (O.N.I. Note:  Kurt Pressel, October 1937 Term), a former quartermaster, reported U-951 was lost on her first patrol.  (No date given.)  Other officers mentioned with Pressel were:  First Watch Officer, Tielenius (O.N.I. Note:  Oberleutnant Günther Tielenius of the December 1939 Term), and former Third Watch Officer, Leutnant Gramlow (now a prisoner of war from U-575).
 
     
 
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U-BOATS IDENTIFIED BY COMMANDING OFFICERS
 
     
 
BREINLINGER         Was reported to be Commanding Officer of a Lubeck boat (500-tonner) not out yet.  Was former First Watch Officer on U-267.  (O.N.I. Note: Siegfried Breinlinger is listed in the G.N.L. but his term is not known.)
   
BURGHAGEN         One prisoner stated Burghagen is Kapitan zur See and commands a large minelayer.
   
von DAVIDSON         Has a 500-tonner, 7th Flotilla boat.  He entered St. Nazaire early March 1944 from his second patrol.  His cover name is "Spinne".
   
DOBBERT         Has a 500-tonner.  (O.N.I. Note:  Apparently based on St. Nazaire.)
   
FENN         U-Fenn was a 500-tonner, based on St. Nazaire.  Fenn was relieved because of ill-health and a new C.O. took over his boat about January 1944.
   
HASSHAGEN         Entered Lorient early March 1944.  Has a 750-ton boat.  (O.N.I. Note:  There is no Hasshagen listed in G.N.L.)
   
HEINSOHN         (O.N.I. Note:  Ex Commanding Officer of U-573.)  Heinsohn was at tactical exercises with a new 750-ton boat early spring 1943.  He was reported sunk on his first patrol while attacking HASENSCHAR'S convoy in
 
     
 
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  May 1943.
   
HEPP         A prisoner related that U-Hepp, upon reaching GROUP LEUTHEN, late September/early October 1943, found most of the escorts sunk or damaged.  U-Hepp sank 5 or 6 merchant vessels, total of 35,000 tons, which was all the merchant tonnage to be sunk in this convoy.  (O.N.I. Note: U-Hepp was reported sunk during this operation.)
   
JORDAN         U-Jordan was stated to be one of two boats of the 7th Flotilla lost during January and February of this year.  Sunk on her first patrol while on her way to France.  Jordan was formerly First Watch Officer of U 132, now sunk.  (O.N.I. Note:  Oberleutnant Günther Jordan of the October 1937 Term.)
   
KINZEL         Kapitänleutnant Manfred Kinzel's boat, a 500-tonner, was reported sunk, late summer 1943.  Her cover name was "Esel".  Sixteen men were rescued by an unknown U-boat.  (O.N.I. Note:  Previously reported sunk in GROUP LEUTHEN, late September 1943.)
   
KOCH         Oberleutnant Leopold Koch's 500-ton, 7th Flotilla boat has been taken over by Kapitänleutnant Rudolf Zorn.  Koch's nerves went to pieces during a patrol and he was dismissed from the U-boat service.
   
LIESBERG         (O.N.I. Note:  Oberleutnant Ernst Liesberg, October 1937 Term.)  U-Liesberg is based at St. Nazaire.
 
     
 
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  (O.N.I. Note:  Her cover name was reported to be "Laterne".)
   
MANNESMANN         (O.N.I. Note:  Kapitänleutnant der Reserve Gert Mannesmann)  U-Mannesmann was reported sunk in the Bay of Biscay on her way from Germany to Lorient.  The crew was saved by U-Schwebeke.
   
PETERSEN         It was stated that U-Petersen sank five destroyers on one patrol.  Petersen has the German Cross and the Iron Cross, first class.  (O.N.I. Note: It is not known whether this applies to Klaus or Kurt Petersen).
   
POEL         U-Poel was reported to have operated in GROUPS SIEGFRIED and SCHILL.  One prisoner stated that Poel is now in the Mediterranean and no longer based at St. Nazaire.
   
PURKHOLD         A prisoner stated that U-Purkhold belongs to the 6th Flotilla.  Cover name is "Rabauk".  She was in St. Nazaire when U-575 left on her last cruise. (O.N.I. Note:  Kapitänleutnant Purkhold is believed to command U-260.)
   
RENDTEL         This boat was stated to be one of the two 7th Flotilla U-boats lost during January and February of this year.  Lost in the Bay of Biscay.
   
SASS         This boat was reported lost under unknown circumstances
 
     
 
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  just short of St. Nazaire end of January or early February 1944.  She was on her first patrol from Germany.  (O.N.I. Note:  Probably Oberleutnant Werner Sass of the April 1937 Term.)
   
SCHWEBCKE         Reached St. Nazaire just before U-575 sailed on her last patrol.  U-Schwebcke rescued the crew of U-Mannesmann, sunk on her way from Germany to Lorient.  (No date given.)  Schwebcke arrived in Lorient with 102 men aboard.  Officers mentioned were:  First Watch Officer - Jaecke, Second Watch Officer - Trompter (O.N.I. Note:  Very probably Leutnant Kurt Jäckel and Leutnant Heinz Trompter, both of October 1940 Term.)
   
TIESLER         Oberleutnant Tiesler recently arrived in St. Nazaire, 7th Flotilla, from his first patrol.
   
TROJER         It was stated that U-Trojer was sunk.  Bascha was mentioned as an officer under Trojer.  (O.N.I. Note:  Leutnant Johann Bascha of the December 1939 Term.)
   
WATERSTRADT         Probably commands a U-boat.  Was formerly a warrant quartermaster under Korvettenkapitän Pauckstadt.  (O.N.I. Note:  Oberleutnant Kurt Waterstradt wrote from the 12th Flotilla Bordeaux in September 1943.)
   
WILLNER         Is now a commanding officer.  (O.N.I. Note:  Oberleutnant Horst Willner, October 1938 Term.)
 
     
 
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ZEPLIEN         A former First Watch Officer on U-575, Oberleutnant Walter Zeplien was stated to be now a commanding officer.
   
ZIMMERMANN         Formerly First Watch Officer on U-650 during one patrol under Tinschert, July 1943.  Zimmermann left for the commanding officer's course.  (O.N.I. Note:  This may refer to Oberleutnant Armin Zimmermann who was reported to have a 6th Flotilla boat.
   
ZORN         Kapitänleutnant Rudolf Zorn took over Oberleutnant Koch's U-boat in November 1943.  A prisoner reported 8 to 10 boats; including U-Zorn, sank a British destroyer.  Her cover name is "August".
   
HARLFINGER         Recently joined the 6th Flotilla.  (O.N.I. Note:  Kapitänleutnant Karl-Heinrich Harlfinger of the 1936 Term.)  Cover name was reported to be "Bolzen".
   
   
   
   
 
     
 
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U-BOATS IDENTIFIED BY COVER NAMES
 
     
 
ADELHEID         Reported to be U-552, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Popp.  (O.N.I. Note:  Also attributed to U-404.)  She sailed about two weeks before U-575 left on her last patrol 29 February 1944.  Insignia:  Two red devils.
   
AMIGO         Identified by one prisoner as Kapitänleutnant Looks' boat.  (O.N.I. Note:  U-264 was sunk 19 February 1944.  Looks is now a prisoner.)  U-Amigo was reported to have been the first U-boat fitted with "Schnorchel".
   
BUBI         Reported to be a new boat.  Arrived in St. Nazaire before U-575 left on her last cruise.
   
HABICHT         Identified as U-Hopmann, now sunk.  Belonged to the 6th Flotilla.  (O.N.I. Note:  Korvettenkapitän Hopmann was reported missing in December 1943.)
   
HORRIDO         Identified as Oberleutnant Ulf Lawaetz's boat.  (O.N.I. Note:  October 1937 Term.)  Belongs to the 6th Flotilla and was seen in St. Nazaire before U-575 left on her last cruise.
   
PAN         Reported sunk.  Captain and number unknown.
   
WERNER         Belongs to the 6th Flotilla.  Stated to be the cover name of U-boat commanded by Kapitänleutnant Herman Lamby.  (O.N.I. Note:  Lamby is known to command U-437, which has been reported sunk while in company with U-386.)
 
     
 
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CHAPTER VIII  MISCELLANEOUS REMARKS
 
     
  WEATHER REPORTING PATROLS  
     
          The Executive Officer stated that weather-reporting patrol of the type undertaken by U-575 are a prelude to major operations.  
     
  WALTER BOATS  
     
          Walter Boats are now being built by yards which formerly built 500-ton type VII C U-boats, production of which has now been stopped, according to the Executive Officer of U-575.  
     
  WOLF PACKS  
     
          One prisoner stated that at present no more than twenty U-boats ever operate together as a group.  
     
  NOISE BUOYS  
     
          Before leaving St. Nazaire, the Executive Officer and Second Watch Officer were warned that enemy warships sometimes drop "Geräuschbojen" (noise buoys).  They were not told the purpose of them, but one of the officers had the following view:  when an escort vessel has to leave a hunt, she drops a few of these buoys around the estimated position of the U-boat and then makes off in the direction of one of these buoys, so that the U-boat should not be able to think that she is departing.  U-boats are meant to think that these buoys are hunting craft, for the noise is as of propellers.  (O.N.I. Note:  The terms "foxer" and "sonobuoy" were not mentioned  
     
 
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  to this prisoner.  
     
  NOISE-MAKERS  
     
          A Boatswain's Mate 2/c remarked that it was useless for Allied ships to "drag around those rattles (Klapper)" as they were no protection against T-5.  (O.N.I. Note:  The above is believed to have been the man's own personal opinion.)  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
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  CHAPTER IX.  BASES AND FLOTILLAS  
     
  GERMANY  
     
          Hela - The Executive Officer of U-575 stated that a small repair yard for Walterboote had been erected at Hela.  He was unable to give any details.  
     
  FRANCE  
     
          St Nazaire  
     
                  (A)  Seventh U-boat Flotilla.  
     
                          Senior Officer - In February 1944, Kapitänleutnant Sohler, the senior officer, was relieved by Korvettenkapitän Piening.  Sohler was appointed to command a Naval Training Establishment at Glueksberg.  The senior officer's deputy in February 1944 was stated to be Kapitänleutnant Borm, former Commanding Officer of U-592.  Borm is responsible for billeting and other personnel matters.  
     
                          (b)  Staff - Other officers on the staff of Piening are Oberleutnant Petruska - signals; Kapitänleutnant (V) Bretzke - supply, (Verwaltung); Bretzke recently relieved Kapitänleutnant (V) Dietrichs who was appointed to fulfill a new job  
     
 
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  in Berlin.  
     
                          (c)  Strength - The average strength of the 7th Flotilla was stated to be about 15 U-boats.  The Executive Officer stated that whereas during the latter part of 1943 few new U-boats had been sent to join the 7th Flotilla, the numbers during the first months of 1944 were back to normal.  
     
                  (B)  Sixth U-boat Flotilla.  
     
                          (a)  Strength - The strength of this Flotilla was stated to be approximately the same as that of the 7th.  
     
                  (C)  Quarters of U-boat Personnel.  
     
                          (a)  Seventh Flotilla - Each U-boat crew of the 7th Flotilla is unusually given an entire hotel as quarters in La Baule.  U-575 shared quarters in the Grand Hotel with U-267 and U-667.  U-boat Captains in the 7th Flotillas are for the most part quartered in the Hotel Celtic.  
     
                          (b)  Sixth Flotilla - Some of the U-boat crews in the 6th Flotilla are quartered in the hotels in La Baule.  The majority live in a camp at Beau Regard, half-way between St. Nazaire and La Baule.  
     
 
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                  (D)  Port Installations.  
     
                          The Normandie Dock was stated to be not yet in use as repairs had not been carried out following the raid on St. Nazaire.  
     
                  (E)  Anti-Invasion Measures.  
     
                          During the fourth week of January 1944 information, reported as emanating from a Spanish Fishing Fleet, was received by the German Military Authorities to the effect that the Allied Invasion Fleet was on the way.  Prisoners, including the Executive Officer of U-575, stated that the following action was taken.  U-boat crews were ordered to report for duty immediately and issued arms.  Had the report not soon proved a false alarm all U-boats which were in a fit state were to be fueled and fitted out with torpedoes and were to put to sea.  In Officers' circles it was generally believed that all available U-boats were to be sent to attack the major units of the invasion fleet wherever they could be found, regardless of losses.  All such U-boats which could not put to sea were to be destroyed.  By the time prisoners left St. Nazaire they had never taken part in amy maneuvers such as  
     
 
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  the defending of the port.  Officer prisoners stated that the defense of St. Nazaire was to be carried out jointly by Army and Navy, and that maneuvers to this effect were shortly to be carried out.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
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CHAPTER X.  CREW OF U-575
 
 
 
 
OFFICERS
 
     
          U-575's first Captain, Kapitänleutnant Guenther Heydemann, was variously described by the men who had served under him.  The best estimate of his qualities seems to be that he was nervous but efficient.  During attacks he showed considerable agitation, but retained firm control of his nerves.  His chief fault seems to have been a tendency to overestimate the tonnage of the ships he torpedoed, and to claim as sunk ships which had been hit but not seen to sink.  In this respect he was, however, not an outstanding exception to the general run of U-boat captains.  
     
          Heydemann was born on 27 January 1913 at Greifswald.  He was of the 1933 Naval Term.  Little is known of his career before he took over U-575.  As captain of U-575 he was given official credit for sinking 11 merchant ships, totaling 85,676 B.R.T., and for torpedoing three more.  He was awarded the Knight's Cross on 6 July 1943.  
     
          U-575's second Captain, Oberleutnant Wolfgang Boehmer, was described by the men as being as yet too inexperienced to be a good U-boat commander.  He seems to have been well-liked by most of his crew.  At the time of the sinking, however, Boehmer is reported by some of the prisoners to have been completely unnerved, and a few even stated that he gave up his boat while she was still seaworthy; while admitting considerable damage, they claimed it was nothing that could not have been repaired and was of the type that frequently  
     
 
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  occurred even during trials.  
     
          Boehmer was of the 1939 term, and received his promotion to Oberleutnant late in the summer of 1943.  His first patrol as Captain of U-575 was unsuccessful.  On his second, the sinking of one destroyer (O.N.I. Note:  Possibly HMS ASPHODEL.  See Chapter XV.) and the shooting down of an aircraft were claimed.  Boehmer had previously had two patrols on U-575, one as Second Watch Officer and one as Executive Officer.  To his interrogators he was courteous but careful to say nothing on military matters.  He was extremely reluctant to admit even his age.  His sympathies lie decidedly with the National Socialist Party.  
     
          U-575's Executive Officer, Leutnant Gramlow, is a pleasant and talkative personality.  He is not persuaded of the merits of National-Socialism.  It is believed that he was thought of by the crew as young and inexperienced but relatively capable.  
     
          Gramlow joined the Navy on 22 November 1940 and had his first training at the 7th Company in Stralsund.  From 12 December 1940 to late May 1941 he was assigned to the 38th Minesweeping Flotilla in Cherbourg.  On 22 February 1941 he was rated as Cadet.  On 2 June 1941 he was sent to the Marineschule, Flensburg.  He became Midshipman as of 1 August 1941.  On 26 September 1941 he received the Portepee, and on the same day he was assigned to U-573, then under command of Kapitänleutnant Heinsohn.  He made three patrols with Heinsohn:  the first from Kiel to St. Nazaire; the second from St. Nazaire to Messina, after which the U-boat made a  
     
 
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  10-day trip ending at Pola; the third out from Pola and returning to Pola.  Late in March 1942 he left U-573 and went to U.L.D. in Pillau.  Because of illness of seven weeks, he did not complete his course here until late July 1942.  During this time he was promoted to Senior Midshipman (Oberfähnrich) as of 1 July 1942.  Then began the series of one-month courses for prospective commissioned officers.  These courses were completed by late December 1942, at which time he was assigned to U-951, commanded by Oberleutnant Pressel.  U-951 was now having her trials in the Baltic, and Gramlow was Third Watch Officer, having been commissioned Leutnant as of 1 January 1943.  He left U-951, however, before she sailed for her first patrol, and was assigned to U-575 as Second Watch Officer.  He joined U-575 on her return from her seventh patrol.  Missing the ninth patrol because of an injury described elsewhere in this report, he served as Executive Officer on the tenth patrol.  If U-575 had returned from this patrol, Gramlow would have been sent to P.C.O. school.  
     
          Leutnant Mayer, U-575's Second Watch Officer, is, like Gramlow, an attractive young personality.  By no means a Nazi, he nevertheless attempted not to give out any military information inadvertently.  His career followed the general pattern of Gramlow's.  In brief:  he joined up 1 March 1941, became Fähnrich 20 April 1942, made one patrol with U-620, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Stein, from Kiel to La Pallice.  He went to U.L.D., Gotenhafen, early in 1943, became Oberfähnrich on 20 April 1943; after the series of one-month courses for prospective officers, he was assigned to U-575,  
     
 
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  joining her on 24 July 1943; he made the ninth patrol as Second Watch Officer, although still Oberfähnrich, and was commissioned Leutnant 1 November 1943, while at sea.  If U-575 had returned from her tenth patrol he would presumably have become Executive Officer on this or another U-boat.  
     
          Marinewetterdienstreferendar (meteorologist with rank equivalent to Lieutenant junior grade) Willi Brogmus was assigned to U-575 for this one patrol, the specific purpose of which was to study weather conditions and complete weather charts for an area north west of the Azores.  It was his first experience with U-boats.  
     
          Brogmus is a courteous and pleasant person, quiet in his manner and speaking only when spoken to.  He and the two young officers are great friends.  His career is interesting for the numerous changes of status he underwent.  
     
          Brogmus in June 1939 joined the German Air Force and took his basic training as a simple Flieger (equivalent of Private in our Army).  Having completed this, he was transferred to the Naval Weather Station in Swinemünde, at his own request, for training in weather observation and chart making.  He was now Matrose, or Apprentice Seaman, in the German Navy.  From now on training as a meteorologist alternated with the routine training of a naval rating and prospective line officer.  From January 1940 to April 1940 he was on the SCHLESIEN for seaman training, with the rating of Cadet.  Then for two years he was under instruction in Meteorology at the University of Berlin, taking further naval training courses for  
     
 
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  prospective officers (at Glücksburg) between trimesters.  During this time he was rated as Bootsmaat.  Then for two months he was under training at the Gotenhafen Weather Station; for the next two months he served as Bootsmaat on minesweepers in Dunkirk and Ostend.  At the end of this period he was commissioned Leutnant zur See der Reserve (Ensign of the Line, Reserve) and given courses in Navigation in Gotenhafen.  In November and December 1942 he took his second course at the Gotenhafen Weather Station, at the completion of which he was the rank of Referendar.  He was now no longer an officer of the line, but wore silver stripes with eagle and swastika instead of gold stripe with star; the rank of Referendar is more or less equivalent to Oberleutnant.  
     
          Assignment for two weeks to the Aarhus Weather Station, the to Meteorologische Versuchsgruppe (Meteorological Experiments Group) in Hamburg for three months and to the Weather Station in Brest for two months followed in rather rapid succession.  Then he had his third and final training course at the Gotenhafen Weather Station.  This course wa especially for the meteorologists who were to be assigned to U-boats.  He was taught how to make balloon observations from the U-boat, in what ways this would be different from shore-based observation, how to use an escape-lung, and other details given all U-boat personnel.  
     
          Now he was assigned to the Weather Station in Toulon for about four months, at the end of which he was sent to St. Nazaire to join U-575.  He arrived late in January 1944.  
     
 
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GENERAL REMARKS
 
     
          The crew of U-575 were for the most part older and more experienced than the average U-boat crew.  Two had made all ten patrols with U-575, many had made five to nine.  Ages ranged from 19 to 29.  There were three Apprentice Seamen on board, one of whom had been degraded from Seaman 1/c for overstaying leave, and another of whom was so irresponsible that in two years he had never risen above the lowest grade.  U-575 carried an extra Mechanikermaat, who had come along for training under Asmussen, her regular torpedo petty officer.  There was also a Mechanikergefreiter (A) whose sole duties were care and servicing of the deck guns.  He had been with the U-boat since the beginning of the ninth patrol.  
     
          U-575 never carried a doctor, but on her last two patrols she had a Pharmacist's Mate 2/c on board.  His duties were to care for any wounded and to oversee the diet on board.  He had little to do, he said.  Medical equipment was very complete and he felt that he would have been prepared for almost any sort of emergency.  
     
          As is the case with any crew, some men were alert and intelligent, others stupid.  All except one were well-mannered toward their interrogators; only two were adamantly security-conscious.  Most of them had their own ideas to the effect that the U-boat war is as good as lost, but this did not affect them in the performance of their duties.  
     
     
     
     
 
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CHAPTER XI.  EARLY HISTORY AND FIRST SIX PATROLS OF U-575
 
     
  INTRODUCTORY  
     
          Details of the early history and first patrols of U-575 are largely unknown.  Of the entire crew of 54, only two, a Warrant Machinist and a Boatswain's Mate 2/c, had made all ten patrols.  Of these, only one survived.  He unfortunately proved to have only a hazy recollection of events that took place more than eighteen months ago.  Other ratings who joined the boat at some time between the first and seventh patrols likewise did not survive.  The following brief sketch of the first months of U-575's history is based on the statements of the one survivor who had made all patrols.  
     
  EARLY HISTORY  
     
          U-575 was built by Blom and Voss, Hamburg.  It could not be ascertained when she was laid down.  The launching is believed to have taken place mid-May, 1941.  The U-boat was commissioned on 19 June 1941.  Soon after, she left for Kiel, where U.A.K. trials were carried out and completed by late July 1941.  U-575 then left for silent-running tests at an undetermined place in Denmark (neither Rönne nor Sonderborg).  In early August U-575 left for Norway with an escort of patrol vessels.  She put in at Kristiansand and also at another small harbor farther up the coast before reaching her destination, which was the Hoplafjord.  
     
  Here the crew of U-575 lived on a parent ship of the Horn  
     
 
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  line.  Torpedo-firing trials were the first to be made.  These were followed by various tests such as the measured mile and a primitive kind of Agrufront (but not under this name).  There were no tactical exercises.  Following a short period in dock in Trondheim, U-575 was ready to leave on her first war patrol.  
     
          The officers at this time were:  
     
                  Captain:  Kapitänleutnant Gunther Heydemann, of the 1933 term.  
     
                  Executive Officer:  Leutnant Boehme (O.N.I. Note:  It is not known which Boehme this is.)  
     
                  Second Watch Officer:  Leutnant Stahl (O.N.I. Note:  Possibly Albert Stahl, of the 1937 A term, later Commanding Officer of U-648.)  
     
                  Engineer Officer:  Oberleutnant (Ing.) Kiehn (O.N.I. Note:  Believed to be Helmut Kiehn, of the 1936 term.)  
     
  FIRST PATROL  
     
          U-575 sailed from Trondheim early in September 1941.  While a member of a group in the North Atlantic, she made one attack on a small convoy.  Immediately after firing a torpedo, she was forced by the approach of a destroyer to submerge.  A depth charge attack ensued.  No serious damage was done.  One unidentified ship is believed to have been sunk.  
     
          U-575 was not supplied on this patrol.  After having been at sea five and a half weeks, U-575 put in at St. Nazaire, where she was attached to the seventh flotilla.  She arrived mid-October 1941.  
     
 
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  SECOND PATROL  
     
          U-575 left St. Nazaire for her second war patrol in mid-November 1941.  Her operational area was in the North Atlantic.  Her officers were the same as previously.  
     
          U-575 belonged to no group this time.  She sank nothing, was herself never attacked, and was not supplied.  She returned to St. Nazaire about 20 December 1941, after a patrol lasting 5 weeks.  
     
  THIRD PATROL  
     
          Still with the same officers, U-575 sailed from St. Nazaire late in January 1942.  Her third patrol, lasting six or six and a half weeks, was as unsuccessful as her second patrol.  She belonged to no group and was not supplied.  She made no attacks and was not herself attacked.  She returned to St. Nazaire in mid-March 1942.  
     
  FOURTH PATROL  
     
          For her next patrol, which began early in May 1942, U-575 received a new Executive Officer, Oberleutnant Basse (O.N.I. Note:  Believed to be Georg Wilhelm Basse of the 1936 Term.)  Her other officers were the same as on previous patrols.  Her operational area was, as on previous patrol, in the North Atlantic.  
     
          This time U-575 at last managed to make a sinking about which there was no doubt.  An unidentified independent freighter of about 5,5000 tons was attacked with five or six torpedoes and sunk in a matter of a few seconds.  The attack was made at night on the surface.  
     
 
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          This one sinking, however, was all that U-575 could accomplish on this patrol.  After having been out six and a half to seven weeks she again put in at St. Nazaire, arriving there late in June 1942.  
     
  FIFTH PATROL  
     
          Late in July 1942, U-575 again sailed from St. Nazaire for her operational area in the North Atlantic.  She operated independently, sinking a total of 20,000 tons.  
     
          Her first attack was on an independent freighter, which U-575 sank with two torpedoes.  The attack was made at night from the surface.  
     
          Not more than a week later a second independent freighter was sighted.  Four torpedoes, fired at night from the surface, sank the ship.  
     
         Three or four days after this attack, U-575 sank her first tanker.  Two torpedoes fired at night from the surface were expended in this sinking.  
     
          (O.N.I. Note:  None of these sinkings could be identified.)  
     
          At some time during this patrol the two torpedoes carried in upper deck containers were brought down into the boat.  
     
          During this patrol, U-575 was supplied for the first time.  Fuel was taken over from an unidentified supply U-boat ("U-tanker").  A doctor from the supply U-boat boarded U-575 to inquire after the health of the crew.  
     
          While on her way back to base, U-575 experienced her first  
     
 
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  aircraft attack.  A two-motored plane was sighted by the bridge watch and the order was given to crash-dive.  The plane dropped four or five bombs, which apparently missed by a wide enough margin so that no damage was done to the U-boat.  It was stated that this incident occurred before U-575 had reached the Biscay area.  (O.N.I. Note:  This attack has not been identified.)  
     
          After a patrol of about eight weeks, U-575 returned to St. Nazaire, probably in mid-September 1942.  
     
  SIXTH PATROL  
     
          Before starting on her sixth war patrol, U-575 received three new officers.  Kapitänleutnant Heydemann remained as Captain, but all other officers were replaced.  
     
                  Executive Officer:  Oberleutnant Franze (O.N.I. Note:  Believed to be Joachim Franze of 1937 A Term.)  
     
                  Second Watch Officer:  Leutnant Freiherr von Stillfried (O.N.I. Note:  A reservist of whom nothing is known.)  
     
                  Engineer Officer:  Oberleutnant (Ing.) Meyer (O.N.I. Note:  It is not known which of the Meyers this is.)  
     
          U-575 sailed from St. Nazaire in October 1942.  Early in the patrol she joined a group of U-boats attempting to attack a convoy in the North Atlantic.  It was stated that none of the group succeeded in getting into firing position.  This was due to the unusual strength of the escort of the convoy.  Pursuit was finally given up and the group disbanded.  U-575 continued independently on patrol.  
     
 
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          The next incident was the sinking of an unidentified 8,000-ton independent freighter.  A night attack was made, four or five torpedoes being fired from the surface.  
     
          Nothing further occurred on this patrol and U-575 headed for base.  She received instructions to put into Lorient as a guest boat instead of returning to St. Nazaire.  Prisoners could give no positive information as to why this was done.  According to one prisoner the probable reason for this irregularity was that facilities at St. Nazaire had suffered in Allied air attack while U-575 was on patrol.  
     
          It is believed that U-575 arrived at Lorient about 20 November 1942.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
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CHAPTER XIII.  SEVENTH PATROL OF U-575
 
     
          U-575's officers for her 7th and most successful patrol were:  
     
                  Captain:  Kapitänleutnant Guenther Heydemann.  
     
                  Executive Officer:  Oberleutnant Zeplien (O.N.I. Note:  Believed to be Walter Zeplien of the 1937 Term.  
     
                  Second Watch Officer:  Leutnant Wolfgang Boehmer of the 1939 B Term, later Captain of U-575, succeeding Kapitänleutnant Heydemann.  
     
                  Engineer Officer:  Oberleutnant (Ing.) Meyer (the same as on the previous patrol.)  
     
          U-575 left Lorient on 10 or 11 December 1942, escorted by two mine-destructor vessels.  When she made the customary first deep dive at the 200 meter line, it was discovered that there was water in the periscope.  Sabotage was suspected.  U-575 then put back to Lorient, where she remained for two days while repairs were made.  
     
          On 15 December 1942 U-575 actually started her patrol, being again escorted from Lorient by two mine-destructor vessels.  It could not be definitely established from prisoner-of-war statements just where U-575's operational area was to be for this patrol.  Presumably, however, she was somewhere south of the Azores when she picked up a signal from U-Auffermann (O.N.I. Note:  Kapitänleutnant Auffermann of the 1934 Term is believed to have commanded U-514, since stated to be missing) reporting his current position in contact with a  
     
 
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  convoy.  U-575 received this message one forenoon -- stated by one prisoner to have been 5 January 1943, and proceeded at full speed to the reported position.  Either on the way or just before making contact, she sighted a destroyer and dived.  The destroyer dropped about ten charges, which were not very well placed.  No damage was done to the U-boat.  (O.N.I. Note:  The attacking destroyer may have been H.M.S. HAVELOCK.)  
     
          By 8 January 1943, U-575 was in contact with the convoy, and reported the fact to Control, together with her position.  During the night she fired from the surface all 12 of the torpedoes carried inside the boat, retiring from the immediate vicinity of the convoy to re-fill her five torpedoes as this became necessary.  The crew stated that five hits were definitely observed, all on tankers.  In the early morning hours one tanker, possibly one of those torpedoed by U-575, was seen afloat but burning.  Another U-boat, a 750-tonner commanded by Schneider (O.N.I. Note:  It has not been established which of the Schniders this was) finished this tanker off.  U-575, having no torpedoes left except the two in upper deck containers, retired from the scene.  
     
          During this attack, U-575 was a part of GROUP DELPHIN (Porpoise).  She was one of the last U-boats to join the group, which consisted of about 12 U-boats.  The only members of this group that prisoners could definitely identify were U-Auffermann, U-Schneider (both mentioned above), and U-Loeser (O.N.I. Note: Believed to be U-373.)  It was stated that Schneider sank the largest number of ships from this convoy, U-575 the second largest,  
     
 
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  and Afuuermann one ship.  No U-boats were lost out of this group.  
     
          (O.N.I. Note:  The convoy attacked by GROUP DELPHIN was T.M. 1, sailing from Trinidad to Gibraltar between 29 December 1942 and 13 January 1943.  The convoy consisted of nine tankers and four British escort vessels.  All but two of the tankers were sunk, five of them in the period from 2130 on 8 January 1943 to 0630 on 9 January 1943.  It appears likely that U-575's claims were exaggerated, she was stated to have sunk five -- if, as was also stated, U-Schneider sank even more that she did.  It is probable that there was a duplication in the claims of the two U-boats.  
     
          The tankers sunk on the night of 8/9 January 1943 were:  OLTENIA II, 6394 tons; ALBERT L. ELLSWORTH, 8309 tons; NORVIK, 10,034 tons; MINISTER WEDEL, 3833 tons; and EMPIRE LYTTON, 9807 tons.  The position was 27059' N. - 28050' W.  
     
          A complete report of attacks on convoy T.M. 1 is given in C.B. 04050/43(2) page 15 ff.)  
     
          U-575, having left the scene of her greatest triumphs, was now in need of torpedoes if she was to continue her patrol.  A rendezvous was arranged with U-Bleichrodt, probably just west of the Azores.  (O.N.I. Note:  Bleichrodt at this time commanded U-109.)  From this boat, U-575 received five torpedoes and some provisions.  During this period the two air-torpedoes in upper deck containers were also brought down into the boat.  
     
          About this time GROUP HAUDEGEN was being formed, as a New York-Casablanca convoy had been reported approaching from west of the Azores.  U-575 became a member of this group.  Other U-boats  
     
 
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Click here to view Plate D:  Ships Attacked on 7th Patrol

     
 
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  present were stated by prisoners from U-575 to have been:  
     
 
  O.N.I. Commentary
   
U-Bleichrodt U-109.  
   
U-Heinsohn U-573. This boat was later interned in Spain.
   
U-Hesse Number unknown  
     
U-Mahnke Number unknown  
   
U-Thäter U-466.  
   
U-Weber Number unknown.  
 
     
  (O.N.I. Note:  Some confusion existed in the mind of the prisoner (a Funkobergefreiter) who furnished this list as to which U-boats were in GROUP HAUDEGEN and which in GROUP DELPHIN.  It is possible that some of the U-boats listed above were also present in GROUP DELPHIN.  The presence in GROUP HAUDEGEN of all the U-boats listed above, except U-Weber, checks with previous information.  Weber is known to have operated in GROUP PFEIL, mentioned below.)  
     
          U-575 and the other U-boats in her immediate vicinity waited in vain for the convoy to appear.  It was believed that bad weather on 22 January 1943 had caused the convoy to be scattered, as only single ships, most of them destroyers, were sighted.  (O.N.I. Note:  The convoy USG-4, bound from New York to Casablanca, was ordered at about this time to alter course and circle north of the Azores so as to avoid a concentration of U-boats known to be stationed across the more direct route passing south of the Azores.  It is true that foul weather had caused at least three ships to become stragglers.  These three later passed south of the Azores,  
     
 
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  apparently according to original instructions, and were sunk by U-boats.)  GROUP HAUDEGEN made no attacks, and was disbanded some time during the day on 25 January 1943, each U-boat taking up the hunt singly.  
     
          On the evening of the same day, U-575 sighted an independent freighter and maneuvered into firing position.  A spread of two torpedoes was fired.  These stopped the ship, which was then shelled wit 88-mm. fire until she sank.  One of the survivors swimming in the water was picked up and taken on board as a prisoner.  He turned out to be the cook, a man said to be about sixty years old.  He gave the Captain the name of his ship as CITY OF FLINT and claimed a tonnage of 10,000 for her.  
     
          (O.N.I. Note:  CITY OF FLINT, a United States freighter of 4963 tons, was torpedoed, shelled, and sunk in position 34047' N., 31030' W. at 2015 on 25 January 1943.  She was one of the stragglers from convoy UGS-4 and was proceeding alone to Casablanca.  The torpedoes struck on the port side at No. 1 hold and ignited gasoline and oil carried there.  She sank bow first about forty minutes after the torpedoing.)  
     
          This was the last success of U-575.  She continued her patrol for some time longer, operating in GROUP PFEIL, but nothing was attacked.  Heydemann had achieved his last sinking.  U-575 returned to St. Nazaire on 19 or 20 February 1943 without further incident.  
     
          Heydemann put forward a claim of 6 ships sunk, with tonnage totaling 41,000.  This claim was disallowed, the total tonnage being  
     
 
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  cut down by the Admiral U-boats to about 20,000.  One of Heydemann's Petty Officers, an experienced seaman who had been in the Navy since 1934 and before that in the Merchant Marine, stated that this was typical of Heydemann -- that he habitually overestimated the tonnage of the ships he attacked.  The Petty Officer, who knew better, made no attempt to correct his Captain.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
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CHAPTER XIII.  EIGHTH PATROL OF U-575
 
     
          U-575's officers for her eighth patrol, the last under Heydemann, were:  
     
                  Captain:  Kapitänleutnant Guenther Heydemann.  
     
                  Executive Officer:  Leutnant Wolfgang Boehmer.  
     
                  Second Watch Officer:  Leutnant Helmut Gramlow of the October 1940 Term.  
     
                  Engineer Officer:  Leutnant (Ing.) Gerhard Lob of the December 1939 Term.  
     
          There were also three midshipmen on board.  One of these was Fähnrich Hermann Ude of the January 1941 Term.  The names of the other two could not be ascertained.  One was a Fähnrich, the other an Oberfähnrich.  
     
          U-575 sailed from St. Nazaire on 22 April 1943.  She was first ordered to a patrol area in mid Atlantic, but remained there only one day before she was directed to join in the attack on a convoy which had been reported by Hasenschar (O.N.I. Note:  Kapitänleutnant Heinrich Hasenschar commanded U-628, first Flotilla, Brest.  His boat has since been sunk and Hasenschar perished with it).  The convoy was west-bound and had been sighted somewhere between the southern tip of Greenland and Newfoundland.  (O.N.I. Note:  The convoy referred to is most probably O.N.S.5, which was attacked on 5 May 1943.  Twelve ships were torpedoed in general position 530N. - 440W.  Eleven of these ships were sunk, totaling 50,624 tons.)  
     
 
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          U-575 made off at a good speed and made contact with the convoy presumably on the morning of 6 May 1943.  She took up position in daylight some 10 miles ahead of the convoy to await nightfall.  In her immediate vicinity were about seven other U-boats, all proceeding on the surface in line abreast some 300 to 500 meters apart.  
     
          During the period that followed U-575 was a member of GROUP AMSEL-DROSSEL-FINK, then of GROUP ELBE II.  Other U-boat groups mentioned by prisoners as present were GRUPS ELBE I, ELBE III, DONAU I, and DONAU II.  All of these groups were later welded into one group.  The total number of U-boats participating in these groups was stated to be forty.  U-boats specifically mentioned by prisoners as taking part in attacks made by these groups were:  
     
 
    O.N.I. Commentary
     
U-533   Commanding Officer Hennig.  Since sunk.
     
U-Auffermann   U-514.  Reported missing August 1943.
     
U-Waecher - badly damaged during these operations U-223 was Waechter's boat at this time.  U-223 since sunk in Mediterranean
     
U-Woerdemann - sunk at this time. Woerdemann is not listed in G.N.L.
     
U-Tinschert (U-267)  
     
U-Witzendorff (U-650)  
 
     
 
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Click here to view Plate E:  Eighth Patrol

     
 
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U-Heinsohn - signaled that he had been attacked by aircraft and that a battery had split.  He reported that he could make base, but was not heard from or seen again. Number of U-boat unknown.  Believed to be a new U-boat on first patrol.
 
     
          The night before U-575 contacted the convoy it had been attacked by Hasenschar and others and had suffered some casualties.  As night fell U-575 and the other U-boats proceeding ahead of the convoy maneuvered into position at right angles to the course of the convoy in preparation for their attack.  The weather was foggy, and U-575, on the surface, suddenly sighted a destroyer approaching at a distance of 150 meters.  U-575 was in the act of diving when the destroyer rushed past her, apparently without seeing her.  U-575 remained submerged for nine hours during the course of which she was subjected to two ineffectual depth-charge attacks.  It was about daybreak whenU-575 surfaced again and set about trying yo follow up the convoy.  She had not been long on the surface when another destroyer sighted her.  She submerged and was promptly subjected to two depth-charge attacks.  The first series caused little harm, but the second was devastating.  There was considerable water entry and most of the electrical equipment was damaged, including the gyro compass.  Outboard tanks were also dented.  U-575 remained submerged for the best part of 24 hours and was not again attacked.  During this time the crew set about carrying out repairs.  These  
     
 
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  were entirely successful, the Engineer Officer being, it was said, particularly brilliant on this occasion.  
     
          On surfacing and reporting to Control, U-575 was instructed to proceed to an area northeast of the Azores, where an eastbound convoy, originally reported by Luis, had been located.  (O.N.I. Note:  Kapitänleutnant Wilhelm Luis of the 1935 Term commanded U-504.  This U-boat was sunk 30 July 1943 and Luis was a casualty.)  U-575 set off at full speed and joined a patrol sweep for about two days before sighting the convoy.  Most of the U-boats from the Hasenschar attack had been switched to the Luis convoy, and it was, according to prisoners, the greatest U-boat gathering of all times.  One prisoner thought this group was called GROUP PREUSSEN.  As the convoy approached, U-575 was once more sighted by an escort vessel which drove her off, and forced her to submerge.  Several other U-boats were driven off, and few remained in contact with the convoy.  (O.N.I. Note:  This is believed to have been convoy SC-129, which on 11 May 1943 was in position 40030'N. - 32030'W.)  
     
          Again surfaced, U-575 tried in vain for a few days to regain contact with the convoy.  It was picked up by chance by U-Vlausen (O.N.I. Note:  Kapitänleutnant Karl Clausen of the 1936 Term may have been the captain in question).  Clausen was returning to base after sinking an auxiliary cruiser or U-boat trap and a merchant vessel in the Newfoundland area, and sighted the convoy heading for England.  Prisoners believe that Clausen had no success against this convoy.  U-575 was unable to catch up with the convoy, as she was by now running short of fuel.  A rendezvous was arranged  
     
 
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  with U-Janssen, a 750-tonner on her way to Lorient for special fitting out for the Far East or Indian Ocean, and U-575 received 90 cubic meters of fuel.  (O.N.I. Note:  Kapitänleutnant Gustav Adof Janssen of the 1936 Term commands U-103, a 750-ton U-boat based on Lorient.)  
     
          U-575 now turned north and went off in the direction of Iceland to another operational area.  She had no success here and started back to base.  Part of the homeward journey was made in company with U-Techand, a 500-tonner based on Brest.  (O.N.I. Note:  Oberleutnant Werner Techand of the 1937 B Term commanded U-731 at this time.)  U-575 sailed into St. Nazaire on 11 June 1943, having covered about 8000 miles without firing a single torpedo.  
     
          Although he had accomplished no further sinkings on this patrol, Heydemann was awarded the Knight's Cross to the Iron Cross, being credited with a total of 85,676 tons of shipping sunk.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
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CHAPTER XIV.  NINTH PATROL OF U-575
 
     
           U-575 now underwent a thorough and received considerable new equipment.  One of the adjustments necessary after the long and unsuccessful eighth patrol was the repair of a rather large hole in the saddle-tank plating aft on the starboard side.  The cause of this damage was never ascertained.  The 88-mm. gun forward was removed and the newer style bridge with two platforms was fitted.  On Platform II a quadruple 20-mm. gun was mounted, and on Platform I two twin 20-mm. guns.  The MG-34's were replaced by 2 MG-81s.  Wanz G-1 and Naxos were taken aboard and the appropriate aerials installed.  The four bow torpedo tubes were removed and replaced with new ones.  These were of bronze, and were stamped "Made in 1941."  The stern tube was never removed.  
     
          Apparently there were numerous delays, the new prefabricated coning tower, for instance, failing to arrive until long after it had been expected.  At any rate, some of the crew expected to put to sea again under Heydemann after the more urgent repairs and adjustments had been made.  
     
          Then about 30 July 1943, Heydemann was suddenly relieved of command.  Not one of the men could give the reason for this, but all believed that he had earned a tour of duty on a shore station for a while.  They were of the opinion that he was transferred to a training establishment in Germany.  where he would become an instructor.  An officer stated that Heydemann is now torpedo firing instructor at the 23rd Schiessflotille in Danzig.  
     
 
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          The Executive Officer, Lieutenant Boehmer, was now sent to P.C.O. School, and it was decided that U-575 should await his return.  Her officers would then be:  
     
                  Captain:  Oberleutnant Wolfgang Boehmer  
     
                  Executive Officer:  Leutnant Giesewetter (O.N.I. Note: Leutnant Herbert Giesewetter of the 1939 B Term)  
     
                  Second Watch Officer:  Leutnant Helmut Gramlow  
     
                  Apprentice to Second Watch Officer:  Oberfähnrich. Harald Mayer of the 1941 Term.  
     
                  Engineer Officer:  Leutnant (Ing.) Gerhard Lob  
     
          By mid-September 1943 Boehmer was back from school and all was apparently in order.  Final preparations for the war-patrol were being made when an accident to one of the officers made another change necessary.  Leutnant Gramlow had for some time been in the habit of carrying a revolver on his person, as a result of an embarrassing encounter with a drunken petty officer.  It seems that Gramlow had attempted to arrest this man for disorderliness late one night.  The man had been sober enough to break away from the officer and disappear into the darkness before his identity could be established.  Ever after, Gramlow had gone armed.  Now, on 18 September 1943, he had just finished packing up his trunk, which he was going to send home to Germany.  He put his hand into his pocket to get out the trunk-key.  As he withdrew his hand, the key-chain fouled the trigger of the revolver, which went off and shot Gramlow in the foot.  He was taken to the hospital, where he was under treatment until 4 October 1943.  
     
 
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          Meanwhile, Gramlow's loss was Mayer's gain.  Leutnant Mayer who had been assigned to the boat as an apprentice Watch Officer, now moved into Gramlow's place as Second Watch Officer, although he was still only an Oberfähnrich.  
     
          At last U-575 sailed with the usual escort of mine-destructor vessels.  Reaching the 200 meter line, she made her deep diving trials.  It was immediately discovered that something was wrong with the hydrophones, with the short-wave receiver, with the hydroplanes, and, one prisoner thought, also with the periscope.  U-575 turned back.  Repairs were quickly effected, Yard officials claiming that there was really nothing at all wrong with the hydrophones.  U-575 set out again and traveled as far as the 200 meter line.  Again the hydrophones acted up just as they had done before, and U-575 turned back.  Yard officials once more declared that the difficulties were all a figment of Boehmer's imagination, and he was ordered to sail at once.  He, however, insisted that a Silberling (Yard official with special technical training) accompany the boat until the escort vessels left her.  This was done, and to the satisfaction of the crew, the Silberling did indeed discover that something was seriously wrong with the hydrophones.  U-575 turned back for the third time.*  Careful and thorough adjustments, taking perhaps five or six days, were now carried out.  
     
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          *On one of these false starts U-575 was accompanied by U-Rasputin (cover name of a U-boat commanded by Stahl).  (O.N.I. Note:  Oberleutnant Albert Stahl of the 1937 B Term commanded U-648.  Stahl perished at the sinking of this U-boat 19 November 1943.)  
     
 
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          At last, on 3 October 1943, U-575 finally began her ninth war patrol.  To be sure, certain minor matter in the engine room again indicated inadequate preparations, but it was decided to continue the patrol none the less, making emergency repairs on board.  
     
          U-575's operational area was in the North Atlantic, southwest of Cape Farewell.  About 20 October 1943 she joined GROUP SIEGFRIED, consisting of about 25 U-boats patrolling the area between Newfoundland and Greenland.  The group was divided into four parts, one to the north off Cape Farewell, one to the south somewhere near the Grand Banks, and two others between these.  The only other U-boats whose presence in GROUP SIEGFRIED was known to prisoners were U-Poel and U-Struckmeier, although it was suggested that U-Henke may have been there also.  U-Poel was stated to be equipped with D/F gear for convoy voice traffic, and to have been one of the first U-boats so equipped.  (O.N.I. Note:  Kapitänleutnant Gustav Poel of the 1936 Term commanded U-413.  Kapitänleutnant Rolf Struckmeier of the 1935 Term commands U-608.  Kapitänleutnant Werner Henke of the 1933 Term commanded U-515, sunk on 9 April 1944.  Henke was taken prisoner.)  
     
          U-575 now spent about fourteen days cruising back and forth between the northern and southern limits of the group's operational area on course roughly 2000 T down and 200 T back.  Relative positions of the U-boats in the group were changed many times.  Sighting nothing, U-575 then turned on a south-easterly course, starting from the  northern limit of the area just patrolled.  A convoy was reported  
     
 
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Click here to view Plate F:  Ninth Patrol

     
 
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  to be somewhere along U-575's present course, but she never made contact with it, although three explosions, thought to be torpedoes fired by another U-boat, were observed early one morning.  U-575 dived when the explosions occurred.  When she surfaced again there was nothing in sight.  (O.N.I. Note:  At 0738 on 31 October 1943 two torpedo hits were scored on one ship of convoy SL/138 MK/28 in position 46005'N - 20026'W.)  
     
          As U-575 continued on her course, another convoy was reported moving between Gibraltar and England.  After considerable trouble in finding it, U-575 made contact with the convoy's escort vessels somewhere northeast of the Azores.  She was now a member of GROUP SCHILL, consisting of about 30 U-boats patrolling in three groups at about 60 mile intervals.  U-575 belonged to the third division, the one stationed farthest north.  U-Poel and U-Struckmeier belonged to GROUP SCHILL as well as to GROUP SIEGFRIED; U-Henke belonged to GROUP SCHILL and possibly also to GROUP SIEGFRIED.  
     
          U-575 believed the destroyer search group with which she was now in contact to be stationed about 100 miles from the convoy itself.  She tried to get into firing position to attack the escort vessels, but it was a clear, bright night and she could not safely approach close enough to fire a torpedo.  U-575 was constantly radared, and released numerous R.D.B. over a period of four hours.  About two hours before dawn a Liberator appeared.  U-575 opened fire with all of her deck guns, and the plane turned and fled.  At dawn, U-575 submerged, realizing her inability to attack such a strong force.  (O.N.I. Note:  On 18 November 1943 convoy SL/139  
     
 
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  MKS30 was in position 39047' N. - 20012' W.)  
     
           U-575 now lost contact altogether with the convoy and was ordered back to base.  Prisoners believe that none of the U-boats in GROUP SCHILL achieved any success.  The U-boats that were left behind when GROUP SCHILL was disbanded were grouped under the name EISENHARDT.    
     
          On her way back to base, U-575 was accompanied by U-Struckmeier.  She sailed into St. Nazaire at about 1330 on Sunday, 5 December 1943.  The Executive Officer, Leutnant Giesewetter, now left the boat, and Leutnant Gramlow returned to take his place.  While at sea Oberfähnrich Mayer had been promoted to Leutnant, and retained his position as Second Watch Officer.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
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CHAPTER XV.  TENTH AND LAST PATROL OF U-575
 
     
          In the period of two and a half months preceding U-575's departure for her tenth and last patrol, complete overhaul and new installations were made.  The Diesel engines, being well worn out by this time were replaced with completely new engines.  A new type 37-mm. automatic gun was installed on Platform II, and the two twin 20-mm. guns were removed, completely overhauled and repaired, and remounted on Platform I.  The conning tower was somewhat altered, the air-raid shelters, which had been installed for the ninth patrol, being removed, and the narrower shape of the conning tower being restored.  A protracted spot for one man, on port side, was all that was retained in the way of shelter.  Wanz G-2 and Borkum were installed in the listening room, and the extensible Diesel intake and exhaust (Schnorchel) was fitted.  The HF/DF gear was installed in the listening room, as was also a second all-wave receiver for the exclusive use of the meteorologist.  Normal trials and tests were then made.  
     
          The purpose of this patrol was primarily to study weather conditions and make weather charts of an area northwest of the Azores.  An officer with silver stripes (rank equivalent to lieutenant junior grade) came aboard for this purpose.  For a description of his activities on board see Chapter III.  
     
          Officers for the tenth and final patrol were:  
     
                  Captain:  Oberleutnant Wolfgang Boehmer.  
     
                  Executive Officer:  Leutnant Helmut Gramlow.  
     
 
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                  Second Watch Officer:  Leutnant Harald Mayer.  
     
                  Engineer Officer:  Oberleutnant (Ing.) Gerhard Lob (Promoted 1 November 1943).  
     
                  Meteorologist:  Marinewetterdienstreferendar Willi Brogmus.  
     
          U-575 sailed from St. Nazaire at 1700 on 29 February 1944, escorted by two mine-destructor vessels.  No other U-boats accompanied her.  At dawn on 1 March 1944, U-575 made her first dive and the escort vessels turned back.  
     
          U-575 traveled on the surface from morning until evening of this first day.  Toward evening she submerged for a while, came again to the surface long enough to launch an R.D.S., then submerged again.  It was during the early morning hours of 2 March 1944 that U-575 for the first time raised her extensible Diesel intake and exhaust (Schnorchel) and proceeded on Diesels at periscope depth.  At dawn she submerged.  
     
          General practice on succeeding days was as follows:  U-575 proceeded through the Bay of Biscay submerged on her electric motors during daylight hours.  At dusk she came to periscope depth, raised her Schnorchel and proceeded in this fashion until about 2300.  She then surfaced for three or four hours to complete charging batteries.  When the batteries were full, she submerged.  (Further details given under Schnorchel in Chapter II.)    
     
          Each night during the time that U-575 was completely surface, one or two R.D.S. were assembled and set adrift.  The actual distance apart of the R.D.S. set out was estimated by two officers  
     
 
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  as roughly one every 35 to 40 miles.  R.D.B. were released only when a warning was received on the G.S.R.  This happened only once on the passage of the Bay of Biscay.  
     
          Late in the evening of 8 March 1944, while U-575 was submerged, propeller noises were heard on the hydrophones, and the Captain decided to surface and investigate.  Visibility was poor, so he took his boat down again.  Once more sounds were picked up to starboard.  U-575 surfaced and this time a large shadow was sighted bearing green 30 to 40 degrees.  Again U-575 submerged and continued listening, changing course and gradually moving closer to the origin of the sounds.  When U-575 surfaced, the bridge watch could see bearing 3500 relative a large ship, which they believed to be a carrier, escorted by two destroyers, one a considerable distance ahead and the other close astern.  The three ships turned to port and U-575 maneuvered into position ahead of them.  Before she could get into firing position, the leading destroyer turned towards her.  U-575 turned about and made ready to fire a T-5 at the pursuing destroyer.  Before long, however, the destroyer made off to join the other ships.  U-575 now followed, then attempted to get into firing position to attack the carrier; but the leading destroyer again turned towards her and continued to pursue her.  The captain decided that he must either sink the destroyer or be sunk himself.  He quickly fired a T-5 from the stern tube at a range of 3,000 meters.  After about 12 minutes, during which time U-575 remained on the surface, changing course more than once, an explosion was heard, which indicated that the destroyer had probably been hit.  This view was  
     
 
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  confirmed in the Captain's mind by the fact that he did not see the destroyer again.  
     
          Immediately after the explosion the second destroyer started firing star-shells and the U-boat picked up with her Naxos steady Radar transmissions lasting fully half an hour.  R.D.B. were released, and the Captain ordered the U-boat turned to starboard.  In the excitement the U-boat was turned to port, and suddenly the destroyer was seen close to and bearing down on the U-boat.  U-575 fired a second T-5, this time from tube 2 forward.  The destroyer may have picked up the torpedo with her hydrophones, one officer believes, for she stopped and later altered course.  The torpedo failed to hit.  U-575 had dived immediately after firing, and the officer's belief may be largely guesswork, however.  A little later, four or five badly placed depth-charges exploded, and the destroyer was heard circling overhead.  According to prisoners, the destroyer then dropped noise-buoys which made a whirring sound and retired to await the arrival of other escort vessels.  U-575 gradually left the whirring sounds behind and was undisturbed for a period possibly as long as two hours.  (O.N.I. Note:  The whirring noises were not caused by sonobuoys.)  
     
          Then for another two hours three or four vessels were heard scouting around overhead.  Then depth-charges started exploding.  The Captain took his boat to 140 meters at first, then, as the patterns began exploding ever closer to the boat, he went to 160 meters.  The lights were put out by the explosions again and again.  The hydrophones went out of order and had to be worked by hand.  
     
 
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  The batteries began to reach the exhaustion point, and the air in the boat was foul.  Trim became increasingly difficult to maintain.  Conditions within the boat gradually became more and more serious, although emergency repairs were made as fast as damage occurred.  Then, probably about 1930 on 9 March 1944, the attack abruptly ceased.  Prisoners declared that if one more well-placed pattern had been dropped, it would have been necessary to surface and abandon ship.  To the relief of the crew, the escort vessels now gave up the hunt and no more was heard from them.  U-575 remained submerged and made repairs.  
     
          (O.N.I. Note:  It is probable that H.M.S. STRIKER was the carrier sighted at the beginning of this attack, and that her escorts, H.M.S. BAYNTON (DE) and H.M.S. CLOVER (DE) were the vessels which dropped the depth charges.  On 9 March at 1035 two attacks were reported by these vessels in position 45024' N., 18009' W.  The torpedoed escort may very likely have been H.M.S. ASPHODEL, sunk at 0130 on 9 March 1944 in position 45024' N., 18009' W.)  
     
          No further incident took place until early on 13 March 1944.  Until then, U-575 continued on her course, surfaced at night, submerged by day.  When she crossed the twentieth meridian a report to this effect was radioed to control.  The Schnorchel was used only once in this period.  
     
          On 12 March 1944 at about 2100 U-575 came to the surface.  A shadow was seen, and U-575 moved off without being detected.  Another shadow, then later three more were sighted.  U-575 maneuvered  
     
 
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  toward them on the surface at flank speed.  At 0145 on 13 March 1944 a four-motored plane with searchlight suddenly appeared coming very low toward the U-boat.  An officer stated the it was so low that he thought it was a surface ship with a light showing.  The plane attacked, raking the U-boat with machine-gun fire.  Fire was returned by the bridge watch, who opened fire at 500 meters.  During this attack the 37-mm. gun was not used, as the plane was already too near when the nature of the attacker was recognized.  The Executive Officer thinks he may have shot this plane down with 20-mm. fire.  (Some prisoners discounted this as boasting; several others, however, claim to have heard something hit the water soon after, and think it may have been the plane, which had circled and returned to drop bombs.)  (O.N.I. Note:  This attack is believed to have been delivered by a Wellington Aircraft B-172 which reported firing on a U-boat at this time and in this approximate position.  This plane was not shot down, so far as could be ascertained.)  
     
          U-575 submerged immediately and heard no more from the plane.  No damage was apparent within the boat, but prisoners believe that a fuel tank had been punctured by the machine-gun fire and that U-575 left an oil trace from this time on.  The attack was reported to Control by "short signal."  
     
          About 0800, U-575 again surfaced.  Within a matter of seconds she found herself again under attack by a four-motored plane.  (O.N.I. Note:  This is believed to have been an Azores-based Flying Fortress, which reported an attack at 0805 on 13 March 1944.)  Again  
     
 
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Click here to view Plate G:  Last Patrol

     
 
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  U-575 engaged the plane with gun fire from her 20-mm. guns, and this time also with the 37-mm. gun.  Fire was opened at about 3,000 meters.  The U-boat maneuvered to present as small a target as possible, and the plane circled twice before being able to make its run-in.  The automatic feed mechanism of the 37-mm. gun jammed after only a few rounds were fired.  The gun crew continued to fire single shots until the U-boat dived.  The plane began its run-in from 90 degrees relative to the U-boat and dropped its bombs.  One fell possibly on the U-boat's starboard side, the other two off the port beam.  The U-boat was shaken by the bombs, but again no damage was visible.  The order to crash dive was given at the very moment that the plane flew overhead.  The U-boat submerged and no more was heard from the attacking plane.  She remained submerged until the end of the final attack, which began some six hours later.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
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CHAPTER XVI.  SINKING OF U-575
 
     
          At about 1400 on 13 March 1944, U-575 was proceeding submerged, when suddenly, without warning, two or three bombs dropped by aircraft exploded over the boat.  No damage was done, but the crew were puzzled as to how the U-boat had been located.  It was at this time that they began to suspect that they were leaving an oil-trace as a result of the aircraft attack suffered the previous night.  
     
          At about 1500, U-575 began to pick up propeller noises on her hydrophones.  Within an hour a depth-charge attack began.  The first patterns were not well-placed, but as the afternoon went on, the charges began falling closer and closer.  For some time no damage at all was done.  Only minor damages -- all easily repaired -- occurred until the last pattern of charges exploded.  During this time U-575's Captain took his boat to various depths, none of them unusually great.  
     
          Shortly after 1800, U-575 was at 180 meters, apparently bearing up well under her second prolonged depth-charge attack in one week.  Then suddenly a pattern of charges exploded so close to the U-boat that its effects were devastating.  The lights were blown out, all instruments were smashed, water was leaking through the port propeller-shaft, and the U-boat was well down by the stern.  The Captain felt -- unjustifiably, according to some of the more experienced ratings -- that all was lost and gave the order to blow tanks and run the motors at flank speed.  The U-boat was by now so far down by the stern that she responded only very slowly.  At last  
     
 
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  she began to rise very gradually.  The motors now began to heat up rapidly and, it was stated, began to burn.  When the U-boat had finally risen to a depth of about 80 meters, she suddenly shot up to the surface, breaking surface almost perpendicularly.  Immediately thereafter came the order from topside to abandon ship.  The crew were told to come out with their hands held up over their heads in token of surrender, as the destroyers had opened fire as soon as the U-boat surfaced.  Three planes were flying about and dropped five or six bombs, but were not using their guns.  All but about four of the crew came safely through the conning tower and jumped into the water.  The Engineer officer stayed behind intending to scuttle the U-boat.  All of the crew who took to the water had life-preservers.  No rafts or rubber-boats were taken overboard.  About twenty of the men were wounded and some were killed by gun fire in the brief time that they were on deck before taking to the water or while they were attempting to swim to safety.  U-575 stayed afloat for about ten minutes, then sank out of sight.  None of the survivors realized that rockets were used to sink their U-boat.  
     
          (O.N.I. Note:  See Chapter I for a description of the sinking from the Allied point of view.)  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
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APPENDIX A
 
     
          The following information has been obtained from a captured notebook of a rating from U-575.  While the notes covering U-boat wiring circuits apparently were taken at submarine school and may cover circuits on U-boats in general, the following translation is submitted for whatever value it may have.  
     
  CIRCUITS  
     
          I.  Propulsion motor, main rudder, hydroplane, electric torpedo rotary converter, heater switchboard I.  
     
          II.  Propulsion motor, main rudder, hydroplane circulating pump, heating 1, 2, 3, and 4.  Electric torpedo topping charge rotary converter.  
     
          III.  Engine room ventilator, auxiliary circulating pump, auxiliary lubricating oil pump, sea-water pre-heater, lubricating oil preheater, lubricating oil cleaner.  
     
          IV.  Main oil pressure pump, auxiliary oil pressure pump, auxiliary ballast and trim pump, galley range and oven, fresh water still, heating 5 and 6.  
     
          Va.  Bow plane, heating 15.  
     
          IVa.  Bow plane, heating 14.  
     
          Auxiliary switchboard I is fed from Battery I and the port main switchboard.  Leads from auxiliary switchboard I run to  
 
 
 
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  the radio and underwater telegraph switchboard, gryo and fire control rotary converter, lighting Circuit II, Circuits II, IV, air compressor 2.  
     
          Circuit III can be switched on to auxiliary switchboard II.  Auxiliary switchboard Ia; "spare pipe or Conduit (?)" - (Note:  Meaning unknown to O.N.I.).  
     
          Auxiliary switchboard II is fed from Battery II and the starboard main switchboard. Leads from auxiliary switchboard II run to "L" (Lighting (?))  I, III; "Bu M Gr" 1, (Lighting and motor circuit I) "Spare pipe or conduit (?)".  Circuit I Main Ballast pump, auxiliary Ballast trimming pump.  Circuit V and III.  III can be switched on to both auxiliary switchboards.  
     
  FUSES  
     
          Circuit I 100 amps; II 100 amps; III 260 amps, IV 125 amps, V 200 amps.  
     
          Lighting circuits I 25 amps, II 25 amps, III 10 amps, Bu M Gr (?) 1 (Lighting and Motor circuit 1) 15 amps.  Bu M Gr (?) 1a (Lighting and Motor circuit 1a) 20 amps.  
     
          Main ballast pump.  200 amps; auxiliary ballast and trimming pump 125 amps.  
     
  LIGHT CIRCUITS  
     
          Light circuit I runs aft from auxiliary switchboard II from control room along the port side.  1 - control room, 1b - Petty Officer's quarters.  1a and 1a 2 - engine room; 1a 1 Propulsion motor/generator room.  
     
 
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          Light circuit II runs from switchboard II from the propulsion motor/generator room along the port side from aft forward:  2-propulsion motor/generator room; 2a________(O.N.I. Note:  End of notes.)  
     
  LOW PRESSURE AIR MANIFOLD  
     
          Regulating valve L.P. air manifold  
          Connection pressure reducer - blower (TYFON)  
          Torpedo L.P. air lines forward - L.P. air lines aft.  
          Pneumatic tool connection - hydroplane clutch.  
          Trimming air - small air lines.  
          Radio compass air - L.P. air connection  
                                          Intake Hull valve  
                                          Fresh water  
                                          Flooding  
                                          Regulating tank  
     
  DRAINING  
     
          Connected to L.P. air lines forward are:  water tight bow, pneumatic tool connection, Torpedo servicing.  
     
          Connected to L.P. air lines aft are: water tight stern, torpedo servicing, blowing hull valve of circulating pump, pneumatic tool connection in propulsion motor/generator room, Diesel clutch, pneumatic tool connection, grinding exhaust valves, hull valves of spare circulating pump (End of Notes.)  
     
         Attached are diagrams of lighting circuits and schematic diagram of motor circuits corresponding to those outlined.  
     
 
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          Also attached are four plates for Type VII C U-boats:  Ballast and trimming installations (6a), Drinking Water, Wash Water, and Sanitary system (21), Fresh Water still, voice tube system (22), and arrangement of Tanks and Tank Capacities (27a).  This material was also taken from the owner of the notebook, a rating from U-575, which was commissioned about a month after U-570, from which the sketch book on type VII C U-boats was prepared by the David W. Taylor Model Basin.  
     
          A comparison of the attached plates with the corresponding plate in the sketch books reveals some differences; it is believed that the plates covering these modifications may be of possible value.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
S E C R E T
 
     

Click here to proceed to the sketch book on type VII C U-boats prepared by the David W. Taylor Model Basin referred to above

Click here to proceed to Plan 6 - Switch diagram of the Electric System

Click here to proceed to Plan 6a - Trimming, Compensating and Drainage System

Click here to proceed to Plan 8 - Wiring diagram of the Lighting Circuits

Click here to proceed to Plan 21 - Trimming, Compensating and Drainage System

Click here to proceed to Plan 22 - Evaporating and Distilling System and Voice Tube System

Click here to proceed to Plan 27a - Arrangement of Compartments and Tanks and Tank Capacities

 

     
 
S E C R E T
 
   
 
APPENDIX B
 
     
                                                  CREW LIST OF U-575 AND U.S. EQUIVALENTS  
                                                  OF GERMAN NAVAL RANKS.  
     
 
  Name Rank USN Equivalent Age
         
    Kapitan z. S. Captain  
    Fregattenkapitän Commander  
    Korvettenkapitän Lieutenant Commander  
    Kapitänleutnant Lieutenant  
  Boehmer, Wolfgang Oberleutnant z. S. Lieutenant (j.g.) 23
  Gramlow, Helmut Leutnant z. S. (First Watch Officer Ensign 20
  Mayer, Harald Leutnant z. S. (Second Watch Officer) Ensign 20
  Brogmus, Willi Marinewetterdienstreferandar Meteorologist 24
* Lob, Gerhard Oberleutnant (Ing.) Lieutenant (j.g.) Engineering Duties only 21
  Wackerl, Micheal Obersteuermann Warrant Quartermaster 28
  Heubach, Hans Obermaschinist Machinist 29
* Bucholz, Heinrich Obermaschinist Machinist 28
  Stössel, Wilhelm Oberbootsmaat Boatswain's Mate 2cl 29
  Rabe, Fritz Oberbootsmaat Boatswain's Mate 2cl 24
  Hölzel, Rudolph Bootsmaat Coxswain 23
* Landtsch, Heinrich Oberfunkmaat Radioman 3cl 24
  Theobald, Herbert Funkmaat Radioman 3cl 22
  Frauendorf, Horst Sanitatsobermaat Pharmacist's Mate 2cl 21
* Heide, Heinrich Obermaschinenmaat Machinist's Mate 2cl 23
  Schneider, Hermann Obermaschinenmaat Machinist's Mate 2cl 27
* Peters, Hannes Obermaschinenmaat Machinist's Mate 2cl 24
* Seidel, Heinrich Maschinenmaat Fireman 1cl 23
* aus dem Siepen, Heinz Maschinenmaat Fireman 1cl 22
  Schmidt, Gerhardt Maschinenmaat Fireman 1cl 20
  Asmussen, Harry Mechanikermaat Torpedoman's Mate 3cl 23
  Rucker, Johann Mechanikermaat (Apprentice) Torpedoman's Mate 3cl 22
* Becker, Heinz Mechanikerobergefreiter Seaman 1cl 21
  Schreck, Günther Mechanikerobergefreiter Seaman 1cl 23
  Pries, Ernst Mechanikergefreiter Seaman 2cl 20
  Caspers, Hubert Matrosenobergefreiter Seaman 1cl 20
  Reusch, Karl Matrosenobergefreiter Seaman 1cl 23
  Bock, Helmut Matrosengefreiter Seaman 2cl 19
  Kröger, Karl Heinz Funkobergefreiter Seaman 1cl 21
  Wachowius, Fritz Funkobergefreiter Seaman 1cl 19
  Wenzel, Wilhelm Matrosenobergefreiter Seaman 1cl 20
  Prax, Oswald Matrosenobergefreiter Seaman 1cl 21
  Hausmann, Friedrich Matrose I. Apprentice Seaman 21
  Richter, Heinrich Maschinenobergefreiter Fireman 2cl 20
  Büttner, Siegfried Maschinenobergefreiter Fireman 2cl 20
 
     
 
S E C R E T
 
     

 

     
 
S E C R E T
 
   
 
  Name Rank USN Equivalent Age
         
* Pfeil, Herbert Matrosenobergefreiter Seaman 1cl 21
* Kirschner, Ernst Matrosenobergefreiter Seaman 1cl 20
  Dolata, Walter Matrosenobergefreiter Seaman 1cl 21
* Beckmann, Hans Maschinenobergefreiter Fireman 2cl 20
  Schmidt, Helmut Maschinenobergefreiter Fireman 2cl 23
* Luck, Kurt Maschinenobergefreiter Fireman 2cl 23
* Schafer, Rudolph Maschinenobergefreiter Fireman 2cl 19
  Kastner, Andreas Maschinenobergefreiter Fireman 2cl 20
* Wiesner, Heinrich Maschinenobergefreiter Fireman 2cl 22
  Bethke, Hans Matrose II Apprentice Seaman 20
  Göttel, Hans Matrosenobergefreiter Seaman 1cl 20
  Karstens, Artur Matrose IV Apprentice Seaman 21
* Kaiser, Werner Maschinenobergefreiter Fireman 2cl 20
  Scheffler, Horst Maschinengefreiter Fireman 3cl 23
* Wassermann, Horst Maschinengefreiter Fireman 3cl 19
* Rosell, Anton Matrosengefreiter Seaman 2cl 20
  Römer, Helmut Maschinenobergefreiter Fireman 2cl 22
  Instenberg, Bruno Matrose I Apprentice Seaman 20
  Szeiki, Stephan Matrosenobergefreiter Seaman 1cl 20
 
     
  *  Denotes casualties.  
     
  z. S. (zur See) denotes a line officer.  
  Ing. denotes Engineering Duties only.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
S E C R E T
 
     

 


 

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