COPY No.
     
 
This book is invariably to be kept locked up when not in use and is not to be taken outside the ship or establishment for which it it issued without the express permission of the Commanding Officer
 
     
     
     
 
C.B.  4051 (42)
 
   
     
 
 
 
"U 581"
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interrogation of Survivors
 
 
 
     
     
     
     
 
 
     
 
April, 1942
 
 
 
 
 
     
     
     
 
 
     
 
This report is not to be considered accurate in all respects, having been prepared before complete information was available.  It is therefore not to  be taken as historically correct.
 
     
     
     
     
     

 

 
 

   
 
     
     
     
     
     
     
   
     
     
     
     
 
SECRET
 
     
          This book is the property of His Majesty's Government.  
     
          It is intended for the use of the Officers generally, and may in certain cases be communicated to persons in His Majesty's Service below the rank of Commissioned Officer who may require to be acquainted with its contents in the course of their duties.    The Officers exercising this power will be held responsible that such information is imparted with due caution and reserve.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
 
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

 

     
     
 
CONFIDENTIAL
 
   
 
Attention is called to the penalties attaching to any infraction of the
 
Official Secrets Acts.
 
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
C.B.  4051 (42)
 
     
     
 
 
 
"U 581"
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interrogation of Survivors
 
 
 
     
     
     
     
 
 
     
 
April, 1942
 
 
 
 
 
     
     
     
 
     
     
     
     
  NAVAL INTELLIGENCE DIVISION,  
                   N.I.D. 01730/42.  
     
     
     

 

     
     
 
   
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
          The following report is compiled from information derived from prisoners of war.  The statements made cannot always be verified; they should therefore not be accepted as facts unless they are definitely stated to be confirmed by information from other sources.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

 

     
     
 
3
 
     
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
_______
 
 
 
         
Page
I.
  Introductory Remarks  
5
II.
  Crew of "U 581"  
5
III.
 
Early History of "U 581"
 
7
IV.
  First Cruise of "U 581"  
7
V.
  Last Cruise of "U 581"  
8
VI.
  Sinking of "U 581"  
9
VII.
  Other U-boats:  
 
(i)
  "U 46 "  
10
   
(ii)
  "U 56"  
10
   
(iii)
  "U 92"  
11
   
(iv)
  "U 106"  
11
   
(v)
  "U 109"  
11
   
(vi)
  "U 123"  
11
   
(vii)
  "U 126"  
12
   
(viii)
  "U 129"  
12
   
(ix)
  "U 203"  
12
   
(x)
  "U 555"  
12
   
(xi)
  "U 558"  
13
   
(xii)
  "U 568"  
13
   
(xiii)
  "U 571"  
13
   
(xiv)
  "U 576"  
13
   
(xv)
  "U 577"  
14
   
(xvi)
  "U 578"  
14
VIII.
  U-Boat Losses  
14
 
(i)
  "U 206"  
14
 
(ii)
  "U 567"  
14
 
(iii)
  "U 583"  
15
IX.
  U-Boat Bases  
15
 
(i)
  St. Nazaire  
15
 
(ii)
  Kirkenes  
16
X.
  Miscellaneous Vessels  
16
 
(i)
  Aircraft Tenders  
16
 
(ii)
  U-Boat Supply Ships  
17
XI.
 
Pay in the German Navy
 
17
 
     
 
APPENDICES
 
     
 
I.
  List of Crew of "U 581"  
20
   
(i)
  Survivors  
20
   
(ii)
  Casualties  
20
   
(iii)
  Escaped to Azores  
20
   
(iv)
  Total Crew  
20
II.
  Protest against Capture  
20
 
     
     
     
  (C44815)                                                                                                                              B*  
     
     

 

 
 
 
5
 
 
 
 
REPORT ON INTERROGATION  OF SURVIVORS  FROM "U 581,"
 
        A 500-TON U-BOAT SUNK AT 0807 ON 2nd FEBRUARY, 1942,
 
          OFF THE AZORES.  
______________________
 
 
 
I.  INTRODUCTORY REMARKS
 
     
          Forty-one survivors from "U 581" were landed in the United Kingdom on 7th March, 1942, 33 days after their capture on 2nd February, 1942.  
          Interrogation met with the usual unavoidable difficulties.  
          These prisoners had been brought from Gibraltar in the same ship as those from "U 93."  They had undergone a preliminary interrogation at Gibraltar and knew that they would be subjected to further examination on arrival in England.  
     
 
II.  CREW OF "U 581"
 
     
          It was apparent that relations between officers and men on board "U 581" were more strained than in any other U-Boat from which prisoners have been captured.  Criticism of their officers was constant among both petty officers and men and unpleasant disciplinary incidents seem frequently to have occurred.  It appears that the Commanding Officer was under the influence of the Engineer Officer, whose constant nagging and unnecessary strict discipline were a source of constant friction.  This state of affairs resulted in nearly all the surviving petty officers openly professing hearty relief at being taken prisoner and thus escaping from the necessity of paying further lip-service to officers whom they despised.  
          The Commanding Officer was Kapitänleutnant (Lieut-Commander) Werner Pfeifer, aged 29, who had joined the German Navy in 1933.  Born in Dresden on 2nd May, 1912, he had spent all his youth in Hanover, where he has attended college and afterwards studied to embark on a business career, which intention he had suddenly abandoned in favour of the navy.  He said he had three brothers, two of whom were serving in the German Army and the third had been interned in Sourabaya.  Whilst in Hanover, two of these brothers had been leading lights of the Deutscher Hockey Club.  Pfeifer had been transferred to the German Air Force for a short period while still a naval officer, but said that he preferred the navy, which he rejoined before the outbreak of war.  He was promoted Kapitänleutnant on 1st February, 1941.  Before joining the U-Boat service he had served for a while in minesweepers, having been attached to an organisation he described as "the well-known Sperrversuchskommando (Experimental Barrage Command)."  He said that he had already served in two other U-Boats, one of which, "U 56," a 250-ton boat, was now used for training in the Baltic.  In this boat he had had the misfortune to ram a motor vessel carrying a cargo of wood, which seriously damaged the U-Boat.  On this account he had been compelled to appear several times before the High Court of Justice at Hamburg to explain what had occurred.  When he last heard of it, the case was still sub judice.  In May, 1941, he had made a cruise in "U 93" as an officer under training.  
          He had been on the friendliest terms with his Engineer Officer before the war and there is little doubt that either willingly or perhaps subconsciously he allowed himself to come under the evil influence of this man.  Pfeifer gave the impression of being a casual type who had failed to take his U-Boat career very seriously.  Though probably glad to have his own command, he does not seem to have been particularly energetic or enthusiastic in the pursuit of enemy shipping.  It was said of him that on one occasion, when a British destroyer had been sighted, he had excused himself with the remark: "I've got to go to the lavatory for a moment," despite the entreaties of his junior officers to take offensive action.  When he returned the destroyer was not in a favourable position for attack.  Such lack of enthusiasm had a depressing effect on his crew, who were not slow to show  
     
  (C44815)                                                                                                                     B*2  
     
     

 

     
     
 
6
     
  their dislike of returning to port with no pennants flying, whereas other U-Boats would usually fly several, one for each ship claimed sunk.  He was stated not even to have wished his crew a merry Christmas or a happy New Year.  In sharp contradistinction to some of the more popular commanding officers, he allowed no alcohol on board his boat.  
          Despite these criticisms, Pfeifer did not in conversation display any very unpleasant characteristics.  His main preoccupation was unquestionably the opinion which the German naval authorities would form of him as a result of the sinking of his U-Boat in somewhat unusual circumstances, a fear which seamed heightened by the realisation that one of his officers, Leutnant zur See (Sub-Lieutenant) Werner Siedeck, had apparently swum ashore to Portuguese territory at the time of "U 581's" sinking, and would perhaps be in a position to make a full report to Germany.  Pfeifer repeatedly requested to be permitted to meet his Engineer Officer, who, he said had taken the sinking equally to heart.  Pfeifer always kept his watch adjusted to German Summer Time, out of what he described as attachment to his old boat.  He had no decorations and was extremely anxious to be awarded the Iron Cross, 1st Class, which he thought he might have received after this cruise.  
          Oberleutnant zur See (Lieutenant) Heinrich Russ, aged 25, was 1st Lieutenant of "U 581,"  He was born on 13th February, 1917, in Potsdam and entered the German Navy in 1936.  For about a year and a half at the beginning of the war, he was like Pfeifer, a member of the German Air Force.  In this capacity he took part in operations in Norway and was also engaged on several flights near London at the time of the raids in the latter part of 1940, during which period he was awarded the Iron Cross, 1st Class.  He expressed a preference, however, for the U-Boat service and was allowed to return to the navy.  Russ was a pleasant-mannered, if slightly slow-witted young officer, who seems to have commanded more respect from other ranks in "U 581" than any of the others.  
          The evil genius of the boat was Oberleutnant (Ing.) (Engineer Lieutenant) Helmut Krummel.  Born on 8th October, 1910, he was aged 31.  He had studied to be an engineer in Berlin, where he had obtained the degree of Doctor of Engineering in 1934.  He said he had been a motorman on the Berlin Underground Railway for a short time, though this may have been merely in the course of his employment by the Allgemeine Elektrizitäts Gesellschaft (General Electric Company), with which firm he was then working.  In 1934 he was sent to Pillau for a short period of training with the German Navy and became a reserve officer in 1935, after which time he had some gunnery training with coastal batteries.  In the summer of 1937 he went to Swinemünde for a course in anti-aircraft defence with the rank of sub-lieutenant in the German Naval Reserve.  He was recalled to the navy on the outbreak of war and at the beginning of 1940, after criticising the speed at which training was effected, he volunteered for the U-Boat service.  If his manner under interrogation is any indication of his behaviour on board his unpopularity is not surprising.  Tales were recounted of how he had forbidden the crew to listen to any music, unless he personally issued orders to this effect.  Also, there was said not to be a single petty officer or man in "U 581" who had not received punishment at his hands.  On one occasion a chief petty officer had threatened Krummel with personal violence in the presence of other officers.  Officers from "U 93" described him as always trying to pick out the bad points in other people's characters and to ignore the good.  Pfeifer excused him by saying: "Krummel is a devil for work."  Some idea of the men's feelings towards him may be gauged from the fact that, when "U 581" had been sunk and her crew were swimming in the water, they called out to each other that they hoped he at least would be drowned.  Before "U 581" left Germany for St. Nazaire, Krummel made a short and much resented speech to his staff, in which he impressed upon them the need for hard work and attention to duty.  "If you don't like it," he concluded, "there are plenty of cells standing empty in St. Nazaire."  
          Little is known of the Sub-Lieutenant, Leutnant zur See Werner Siedeck, who is known to have swum ashore to the Azores.  He appears, however, to have been a popular officer.  It was said that he had served previously in the Merchant Navy.  
          Apart from the officers, only three men of "U 581's" crew were stated to have any previous U-Boat experience.  These were an engine-room chief petty officer, an engine-room petty officer, both with 13 cruises to their credit  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
7
     
  and consequently both wearing the Iron Cross, 2nd Class, and a petty officer who was making his seventh U-Boat cruise, who was similarly decorated.  The remaining chief and petty officers had had previous experience in surface vessels, some having served in destroyers and others in minesweepers.  
     
 
III.  EARLY HISTORY OF "U 581"
 
     
          "U 581" was a 500-ton U-Boat, type VII C, of the series "U 551" to "U 643," built by Blohm & Voss, Hamburg.  
          The crew were drafted to stand by the boat during her constructional period from the beginning of May, 1941, until she commissioned on Thursday, 31st July.  They remarked that this seemed a rather longer time for completion than usual.  
          On commissioning, "U 581" proceeded to Kiel, where her acceptance trials continued until early October.  She then proceeded to Danzig, where diving trials and a number of repairs were made.  During this time "U 581" was attached to the 5th U-Boat Flotilla.  Many French, Italian and Dutch workmen were employed at the Danzig yards and worked on board "U 581."  On the way back to Kiel "U 581" spent a day at Warnemünde.  
          On completion of trials, "U 581" spent some three to four weeks in dock at the Kriegsmarinewerft at Kiel, where several small repairs were found necessary.  These included the adjustment of a lubricating pump and the replacement of a cylinder head.  Bitter complaints were heard among the crew while in Kiel at their not being allowed to go on leave, despite the fact that their commanding officer used to go almost every night to his home in Plön, only returning to collect his rations.  "U 581" was not ready for sea until the middle of December, 1941.  
          The fact that her trials and exercises in the Baltic had lasted such a long time was ascribed to two main causes.  The first was that scarcely any of the crew, apart from a few senior petty officers and the officers, had had any U-Boat experience, and secondly, to the zeal of the engineer officer, who had insisted on every part of his engines being subjected to the most thorough tests.  He was especially anxious to test the oil fuel consumption in various sea conditions, and at the same time to overcome certain trouble experienced with the compressor and with the exhaust.  
          Special attention was also paid to practising crash dives.  One petty officer said that as many as 30 to 40 crash dives had been made on one day off Danzig.  The object of this was to enable them to reach a depth of 40 metres (131.23 ft.) in less than 30 seconds.  Finally, it was found possible to crash dive in 28 seconds.  
          In addition to the snorting white bull carried by all U-Boats of the Second Flotilla, "U 581" also wore as her badge a tasteful reproduction of two crab-lice.  This was chosen as the result of representations by her engineer officer who, together with many other members of "U 581's" complement, was much afflicted with crab-lice while on her trials in the Baltic.  
     
 
IV.  FIRST CRUISE OF "U 581"
 
     
          "U 581" sailed from Kiel on her first war cruise on the night of Saturday, 13th December, 1941.  She was escorted by one patrol boat, which is said to have remained with her as far as Kristiansand, where "U 581" spent some hours of darkness.  Just prior to her departure from Kiel, it was stated that "U 571," returned from the Arctic. and members of "U 581's" crew were under the impression that a large number of U-Boats were operating in these waters, but that they had had very little success.  
          On 19th December, 1941, as "U 581" was to the North-west of Eire, she sighted a freighter of some 5,000 tons, proceeding alone and pursuing a zig-zag course, heading for the North Channel.  Heavy seas were running and it was not thought that there was much chance of scoring a hit on the vessel, which was proceeding at a fairly high speed, but nevertheless it was decided to attack and at 1600 German Summer Time three bow torpedoes were fired in succession.  
     
  (C44815)                                                                                                                      B* 3  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
8
     
  All three missed their mark and, before "U 581" could get into position to launch another attack, the ship disappeared in the darkness.  "U 581" was stated to have entered the Atlantic by passing between the Shetlands and Faroes.  It was claimed that the position of all British minefields was known.  
          "U 581" arrived at St. Nazaire on Christmas Eve, 1941.  Just outside the harbour she met two other U-Boats, one of which was stated to have been "U.A." and the other a 750-tonner.  One of these was flying seven victory pennants, indicating the sinking of seven enemy ships.  
     
 
V.  LAST CRUISE OF "U 581"
 
 
(Times are German Summer Time; i.e., two hours in advance of G.M.T.)
 
     
          During the short time that "U 581" was in St. Nazaire before leaving on what proved to be her final cruise, no member of her crew except the commanding officer was granted any leave.  "U 581" finally put to sea on Saturday, 10th January, 1942.  
          Her orders were to proceed towards the coast of Newfoundland, taking 14 days to make the passage, and to spend 14 days patrolling that coast.  A further 14 days would be occupied in the journey home to St. Nazaire, after which it was anticipated that "U 581" would go into dry dock for overhaul.  
          On the very first day after she left St. Nazaire, "U 581" appears to have experienced trouble.  Practice dives were exercised.  A depth of 30 metres (98.42 ft.) was reached; but, as "U 581" was at that time not far off the French coast, she struck bottom and would seem to have damaged her rudder, for she did not respond to the wheel satisfactorily.  It was found that a proper response was gained when the starboard Diesel alone was run, but with the port Diesel alone there was no such reaction.  Henceforward due allowance had to be made for the damage thus inflicted.  
          On the night of 19th January, 1942, "U 581" was proceeding on the surface in a north-westerly direction approximately 200 miles west of Gibraltar when she sighted, at about 2300, what was believed to be a British corvette of some 800 tons steering towards Gibraltar.  The night was extremely dark and there was some rain.  The sea was calm.  It seemed to survivors from "U 581" that the ship had not sighted them, for they were able to approach to within about 600 yards before firing, first one, and then a salvo of two torpedoes at her.  The first one would appear to have missed, but one of the two second torpedoes struck the ship amidships and caused a huge cloud of smoke to rise from her.  The ship appeared to break in two and some 15 seconds later there was an underwater explosion which survivors from "U 581" imagined to be a depth-charge from the corvette.  No flames were to be seen.  Though it was claimed that "U 581" had searched the vicinity for some considerable period for survivors, she picked up none and saw no floating wreckage.  The Commanding Officer said that he had set his torpedoes to run at 30 knots and to hit their target 40 seconds after launching.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  This incident may account for the loss of the M/S Trawler "Rosemonde."  This ship sailed from Milford Haven on 13th January, 1942, outward bound for Gibraltar, and her loss, with no survivors, has been announced.)  
          Soon after sinking this ship "U 581" found herself in what she believed to be a main trade route and sighted a number of Spanish, Portuguese, French and Swiss vessels, the latter by night, when they were brilliantly illuminated.  
          "U 581's" original orders to proceed to the coast of Newfoundland were never in fact carried out, since a U-Boat, probably "U 402," under Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Freiherr von Forstner, reported that he had attacked and damaged a large British troop transport in the neighbourhood of Horta, Azores, into which port she had been forced to put for repairs.  He added at the same time that the troops were to be transferred to another vessel in that harbour.  The Admiral commanding U-boats accordingly instructed "U 581" to proceed to the region of the Azores and there to make contact with "U 402" preparatory to attacking the transport and her escort whenever she should leave port.  The signal from the Admiral commanding U-Boats stated that the transport was protected by a cruiser, an anti-submarine vessel and another large ship.  One  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
9
     
  survivor from "U 581" stated that there was a Portuguese sailor in Horta who worked as a German agent and it may have been from this source that the information was originally obtained.  Another prisoner was of the opinion that the information derived from an intercepted British signal.  
          "U 581" accordingly set course at full speed for the Azores, arriving in the neighbourhood of Horta on Saturday, 31st January, 1942.  Her first act on arriving was to enter the harbour of Horta that same night, while submerged.  She then surfaced and observed where the transport was lying.  This vessel is known from other sources to have been S.S. "Llanggibby Castle."  Survivors expressed great disappointment that their target was made fast on the other side of a stone pier, thus preventing them from firing a torpedo at her.  They said that, had the pier been of wood, they would have certainly attacked her there and then.  It was stated by one prisoner that "U 581" was at this time no more than 80 yards from the shore and could clearly see traffic passing up and down the roads.  She left port before daylight.  
          "U 581" spent the whole of the next day, Sunday, 1st February, 1942, at sea, taking care to keep well out of sight of land.  It was estimated that she was then some 12 to 15 miles distant from the coast.  
          At 0200 in the morning of Monday, 2nd February, Kapitänleutnant von Forstner's boat appeared and joined "U 581" off the entrance to Horta harbour.  Forstner challenged "U 581" who proceeded to give her recognition signal which was stated to have been X-D-J.  The two boats then drew alongside each other and the Commanding Officers discussed plans.  It was finally decided that Forstner's boat should patrol the northerly entrance to the Straits, while "U 581" should remain approximately where she was.  It was thus anticipated that the transport would have no chance of escaping action regardless of whether she left Horta in a northerly or southerly direction.  
          Some survivors said that "U 581" had been ordered to operate against this concentration of British shipping in conjunction with three other U-boats, but there is no confirmation of any boat other then "U 402" having operated with her.  
     
 
VI.  SINKING OF "U 581"
 
     
          "U 581" was in the Straits between the islands of Pico and Fayal in the early hours of 2nd February, 1942, steering a north-westerly course, when she became aware of the presence of one or more British destroyers and immediately dived.  She fired one torpedo from her stern tube at the nearer of the two destroyers, but is was admitted that it went wide of its mark.  It was not yet daylight, but the moon was full.  While "U 581" was submerged at a depth of about 80 metres (262.47 ft.) a rivet on the flange of her port after exhaust pipe gave way and water entered the engine room compartment.  Strenuous efforts were made to control the entry of water, but these were of no avail, owing to the pressure at this depth.  The entry of water aft not only made it very difficult to keep trim while submerged, but it also threatened to put the electric motors out of action.  
          An atmosphere of panic prevailed and "U 581" submerged to a depth of some 160 metres (524.94 ft.) involuntarily.  The Commanding Officer ordered the tanks to be blown and "U 581" rose to within some 20 metres (65.61 ft.) of the surface, when the sound of the destroyers' propellers overhead could be distinctly heard.  The Engineer Officer accordingly appealed to the Captain to submerge again as he was afraid they were going to collide with the attacking craft.  The Captain acceded to this request and the boat once more dived, somewhat out of control, to about 150 metres (492.13 ft.).  But this was too much for the Commanding Officer's nerves and he finally gave the order to surface.  
          During this time Pfeifer had been steering a course which he thought would bring them safely within Portuguese territorial waters and it seems that when he surfaced he was under the impression that he was within two and a half miles of the shore.  Other survivors, however, were by no means of this opinion and some of them stated that they were as much as six miles distant from the Portuguese coast at the time of their sinking.  
     
  (C44815)                                                                                                                      B* 4  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
10
     
          Meanwhile, two British destroyers, H.M.S. "Croome" and H.M.S. "Westcott," had been investigating an asdic contact and were about to proceed when they sighted the U-Boat surfacing at close range.  "U 581" was then steering a course for Pico Island, though not making much way.  
          H.M.S. "Westcott's" Commanding Officer then ordered full speed ahead and made for the U-Boat with the intention of ramming.  This, however, she did not succeed in doing.  Pfeifer attributed her lack of success to the narrow beam presented by his boat to the attack, which was made from astern.  H.M.S. "Westcott" dropped ten depth charges on this run with shallow settings, while about 30 ft. on "U 581's" starboard beam, and these were admitted to have caused great damage in the boat.  H.M.S. "Westcott" then turned under full port wheel and renewed her attempt to ram, there being no question of opening fire, due to the proximity of H.M.S. "Croome" and possible damage to neutral territory.  On this second run "Westcott" and the U-Boat were closing at the rate of about 40 knots on almost opposite courses.  "U 581" altered to port; "Westcott" swerved to starboard, followed by full port wheel, causing "Westcott's" port bow to strike the U-Boat just abaft the conning tower.  The crew of the U-Boat had abandoned ship a matter of some five seconds before the impact.  No attempt was made to engage "Westcott" with gunfire.  H.M.S. "Westcott" now prepared to carry out a second ramming, but before this could be put into effect, "U 581's" bows rose clear of the water and she sank by the stern in over 400 fathoms.  
          Whilst the survivors were being picked up the position was accurately fixed; it proved to be 145° Horta Light, 11.75 miles (i.e., 3.1 miles from Pico Island).  
          It would appear that "U 581's" Commanding Officer gave the order to abandon ship soon after the first attempt to ram had been made and the Engineer Officer had accordingly opened all vents to accelerate the sinking.  Pfeifer estimated that there were some 50 tons of water in the boat at the time of her sinking and she was almost unmanageable.  He said that, when he abandoned ship, water was already entering through the conning tower hatch.  He also stated that the attacking destroyer fired two rounds at his craft in between the ramming actions.  
          The entire crew were wearing life-saving jackets when they jumped into the water, which they described as warm, and some of them were of the opinion that they could, given a favourable current, have succeeded in swimming ashore.  There was no evidence, however, of any of them except Siedeck wanting to escape capture.  On the contrary, it was frequently stated by non-commissioned ranks that they were only too pleased to be rid of their unpopular officers in this way.  
          H.M.S. "Croome" and H.M.S. "Westcott" rescued 41 out of a total complement of 46,  One of the officers, Leutnant zur See (Sub-Lieutenant) Werner Siedeck, managed to swim to Pico Island, doubtless much to the disgust of "U 581's" Commanding Officer and Engineer Officer, who displayed great apprehension lest he should report, not only the unpleasant atmosphere that always characterised :U 581," but also on the unsatisfactory handling of the boat during the whole of her last cruise.   
          The Commanding Officer of "U 581" lodged an official protest regarding what he claimed to be unlawful capture while in neutral waters.  This protest is reproduced in Appendix II of this report.  
     
 
VII.  OTHER U-BOATS
 
     
  (i)  "U 46"  
          Prisoners stated that "U 46," formerly commanded by Kapitänleutnant Endrass, had been taken over by Kapitänleutnant Peters, an instructor at the First U-Boat Training Establishment at Pillau.  This officer was said to be on the reserve and a U-Boat Captain in the last war.  As an instructor, U-Boat men held Peters in high esteem.  This is probably Kapitänleutnant Wilhelm Peters, who was in command of "U.A." in the last war.  He was born on 13th May, 1888.  
     
  (ii)  "U 56"  
          The Engineer Officer of "U 581" stated that on 1st October, 1940, he joined "U 56" at the U-Boat School at Gotenhafen.  Up to this date, "U 56" was said to have carried out ten cruises.  Late in 1940, however, it was decided that this  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
11
     
  U-Boat, together with other 250-tonners, should once more proceed on patrol in connection with the "Seelowe" operation (invasion of Great Britain) although they had already been detailed to the 22nd and 24th Training Flotillas.  In due course these U-Boats proceeded westwards through the Baltic from Pillau and Gotenhafen, but owing to the advanced season of the year, they encountered thick ice and were ordered to return to the bases whence they had sailed.  The Engineer Officer, who had remained behind at Gotenhafen, said that when "U 56" entered that harbour she had damaged her hydroplanes.  Since then it appears that "U 56" has been used solely as a training boat.  It was on board this boat that Kapitänleutnant Pfeifer of "U 581" underwent his training at either Gotenhafen or Pillau, together with his Engineer Officer, Oberleutnant (Ing.) Krummel.  
     
  (iii)  "U 92"  
          The First Lieutenant of "U 581" stated that he had been at the Torpedo School at Flensburg with Kapitänleutnant Behr and this officer was now in command of "U 92."  This 500-ton U-Boat is known to have been built at the Flenderwerke of Lubeck, as the fifth of the Type VII C series ("U 88" - "U 92").  She is thought to have left on her first patrol early in 1942.  
          Kapitänleutnant Behr is probably Heinz Günter Behr of the 1932 term.  
     
  (iv)  "U 106"  
          On 7th February, 1942, the German High Command announced that German U-Boats sank six enemy merchant ships with a total tonnage of 38,000 off the North American coast.  The U-Boat under the command of Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Rasch is stated to have specially distinguished herself.  It is believed that this officer is in command of "U 106."  
          On 28th February, 1942, Rasch stated in a broadcast that he had had five successes.  It was not explained when these had been achieved.  
     
  (v)  "U 109"  
          On the 10th March, 1942, Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Bleichrodt broadcast on his return from a cruise in the Western Atlantic.  He stated that his chief trouble had been fuel, but that he had been able to replenish this from another U-Boat which had expended her torpedoes.  Kapitänleutnant Bleichrodt is believed to be in command of "U 109."  
     
  (vi)  "U 123"  
          On 5th February, 1942, extracts from the diary of Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) hardegen were given by Calais Radio.  This officer is known to be in command of "U 123."  According to this diary, he sailed on an unknown date from a French port to operate on the west coast of Africa.  After sailing down the coast of Spain, he claimed to have sunk a cargo vessel by gunfire.  Later, on receipt of a signal from another U-Boat in the South Atlantic, giving the position of a convoy, Hardegen set course to join her.  The other U-Boat had already sunk three ships.  Hardegen proceeded to attack this convoy and claimed to have sunk two tankers and one merchant ship.  He later surfaced and followed the convoy, sinking an auxiliary cruiser at close range.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  It seems possible that this may refer to the attacks on Convoy S.L.87, which was attacked four times between 22nd and 24th September, 1941.  A total of seven ships were sunk, three of them in the last attack.  There was no auxiliary cruiser present.)  
          Hardegen's return from what was claimed to be a very successful cruise in United States waters was reported at length in a series of broadcasts between 14th and 21st February from Italian and German stations.  According to these reports, Hardegen penetrated into New York harbour and sank a tanker of 10,000 tons at the entrance.  Subsequently, nine further ships are claimed to have been sunk by him, the last two by gunfire.  The total tonnage claimed sunk on this cruise was 66,135.  The names of some of the ships claimed sunk were "Nurness" (9,577 tons), "Norlya" (9,500 tons) and "Cyclops," whose tonnage was not stated.  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
12
     
          On his return from this patrol, Hardegen was awarded the Knight Insignia of the Iron Cross, being described as the second commander of this U-Boat to receive it.  
          The former commanding officer of "U 123" was Kapitänleutnant Oscar Moehle, who was awarded the Knight Insignia of the Iron Cross on 28th February, 1941.  
     
  (vii)  "U 126"  
          A communiqué of the German High Command of 15th March, 1942, stated that a U-Boat under the command of Kapitänleutnant Bauer particularly distinguished herself in operations in West Indian waters.  It is thought possible that this may be "U 126," commanded by Kapitänleutnant Ernst Bauer.  
     
  (viii)  "U 129"  
          A statement issued by the official German News Agency on 12th March, 1942, said that a U-Boat under the command of Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Niko Clausen had particularly distinguished herself in operations in North and Central American waters.  Sinkings claimed in this region by German U-Boats totalled 17 enemy merchantmen, aggregating 109,000 tons in which were included a large escort vessel and a submarine chaser.  Kapitänleutnant Niko Clausen is believed to be in command of "U 129," a 740-ton boat attached to the Second Flotilla.  He was awarded the Knight Insignia of the Iron Cross on 14th March, 1942.  
     
  (ix)  "U 203"  
          On 11th February, 1942, the Frankfort-on-Main Radio announced that the U-Boat commanded by Mützelburg had returned to port.  This refers to Kapitänleutnant Rolf Mützelburg, known to be in command of "U 203," and a wearer of the Knight Insignia of the Iron Cross.  It was claimed that this boat had sunk a vessel believed to be carrying ammunition close to the American coast.  
     
  (x)  "U 555"  
          Prisoners from "U 434" and "U 581" stated that an explosion had taken place on board "U 555," the boat commanded by Kapitänleutnant Dietrich Lohmann, during torpedo firing off Danzig in late September, 1941.  This U-Boat which was commissioned at the Blohm & Voss yards on 30th January, 1941, is known to have been attached to the 24th Training Flotilla at either Gotenhafen or Pillau in the early summer of that year.  The cause of the explosion, according to prisoners from "U 434," was said to be a backflash due to air pressure from a G VII A torpedo, which is the "air" torpedo of which a limited number are carried by U-Boats.  Prisoners from "U 581" stated that a new type of torpedo, still in its experimental stage, was the cause of the explosion.  This torpedo was said to contain some form of ammonia as a propellant.  
          The scene which took place on board "U 555" was well described by the First Lieutenant of "U 581" who was a friend of one of Lohmann's officers.  In order to douse the flame which preceded the explosion, Leutnant zur See Ernst-Günther Krenzien hurled him against the side of the bow compartment and broke his arm.  Krenzien had recently transferred from the German Air Force where he had served in Group 606, engaged in coastal reconnaissance.  
          The First Lieutenant of "U 555" together with the Torpedo Gunner's Mate and two other ratings were at the forward end of the bow compartment at the time of the explosion and, according to the prisoner's account, they were flattened against the side and killed instantaneously.  The two members of the crew who were in the control room and the remainder who were on deck at the time were unharmed.  The First Lieutenant of "U 581," who was at the time in Danzig with his boat, watched "U 555" enter harbour and at first feared that mutiny had broken out on board, for the U-Boat was flying no ensign and on the bridge stood Lohmann, alone, hatless and attired in a civilian jacket.  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
13
     
  (xi)  "U 558"  
          On 26th February, 1942, the German High Command announced that U-Boats had sunk seven ships of a strongly protected convoy in mid-Atlantic.  The total was said to aggregate 52,000 tons and to include two big tankers.  It was claimed that a further six ships, including one tanker, had been so seriously damaged that their loss could be presumed.  In this operation, Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Krech was stated specially to have distinguished himself.  This officer is believed to be in command of "U 558."  
          (N.I.D. Note.  It is probable that this convoy was O.N.67 which was attacked on the nights of 21st/22nd and 23rd/24th of February.  Six ships were torpedoed, of which one managed to reach harbour.)  
     
  (xii)  "U 568"  
          An officer from "U 434" stated that an explosion similar to that on board "U 555" had taken place in the U-Boat commanded by Kapitänleutnant Joachim Preuss, which is known to be "U 568."  He knew no further details.  "U 568" was commissioned on 1st May, 1941.  The date of the explosion on board "U 568" is almost certain to have been during the summer of 1941, since on 6th October of that year she is known to have received torpedoes at St. Nazaire before leaving on patrol.  Though formerly appointed to the 3rd Flotilla it appears that by October, 1941, this U-Boat had transferred to the 7th Flotilla.  
     
  (xiii)  "U 571"  
          It was stated that this 500-ton U-Boat, commissioned at the Blohm & Voss yards on 22nd May, 1941, and believed to be under the command of Kapitänleutnant Helmut Mohlmann, had returned to Kiel from the Arctic front early in December, 1941, just before the "U 581" left on her first patrol.  This U-Boat was said to have carried out several patrols while based on Kirkenes, but to have met with no success.  One of her tanks had been damaged as a result of an aircraft attack, which compelled her to return to Germany for repairs.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  This attack was presumably by a Russian aircraft and no details are known.)  
     
  (xiv)  "U 576"  
          Prisoners related the story of a U-Boat, commanded by an officer called Heinicke, possibly Korvettenkapitän Ernst-Gunther Heinicke, believed to be in command of "U 576," a 500-ton boat, commissioned at the Blohm & Voss yard on 26th June, 1941.  She was stated to have been lying at St. Nazaire during the period when "U 581" was there early in January, 1942.  While operating off Gibraltar Heinicke sighted a convoy forming up with most of the ships still at anchor.  When it was suggested by the Chief Quartermaster, a U-Boat man of many years' experience, that a perfect opportunity for immediate attack presented itself, Heinicke replied that he preferred to wait, as further ships would be forming up.  In due course, further ships did arrive, but with them came a strong escort of destroyers, so that immediate attack was considered inadvisable.  According to the narrator, Heinicke then followed the convoy all the way to England without once attempting to carry out an attack.  He did however report his activity to the Admiral Commanding U-Boats, Admiral Dönitz.  
          On returning to St. Nazaire, Heinicke was interviewed by Dönitz, to whom he reported with satisfaction that he had kept contact with the convoy all the way from Gibraltar to England.  Before long the First Lieutenant and Chief Quartermaster, who was acting as Third Lieutenant, were interviewed by Dönitz  They requested to be relieved, as they no longer wished to sail with Heinicke.  The whole story of their last patrol was then revealed and Heinicke was promptly relieved of his command.  
          There is no confirmation of this story, which may possibly be merely lower deck gossip.  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
14
     
  (xv)  "U 577"  
          "U 577," a 500-ton U-Boat which was commissioned at the Blohm & Voss yards on 3rd July, 1941, and is believed to be under the command of Kapitänleutnant Rolf Schauenburg, was stated to have been operating from Kirkenes and returned to Kiel for repairs, shortly before "U 581" left that port on 13th December, 1941.  
          While on the Arctic front, this U-Boat was stated to have suffered severe damage aft as the result of a depth charge attack and later to have stove in her bows when being rammed by a merchant vessel.  In prisoners' opinion it was remarkable that "U 577" ever managed to reach port.  
     
  (xvi)  "U 578"  
          "U 578," a 500-ton U-Boat under the command of Korvettenkapitän Rehwinkel, was commissioned at the Blohm & Voss yards on 19th July, 1941 and, according to prisoners, proceeded on her first cruise to Arctic waters, where she operated from Kirkenes.  During this cruise, "U 578" was said to have had a very lucky escape after being rammed by a destroyer.  When this U-Boat returned to Kiel for repairs, the crew of "U 581" were able to inspect the damage and noticed that the deck torpedo containers had been cut in half and that a hole had been torn in the compensating tank.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  The Russian Patrol Craft "Briz" claims to have rammed a U-Boat early on 25th November, 1941, in position 68° 07' N., and 39° 49' E.  No details are known but it is possible that either "U 577" or "U 578" were involved in this incident.)  
     
 
VII.  U-BOAT LOSSES
 
     
  (i)  "U 206"  
          Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Herbert Opitz was stated by his cousin Hans Opitz, prisoner of war from "U 93" to have been at St. Nazaire in December, 1941, in command of "U 206" and to have sailed for a cruise shortly before "U 93" left on 23rd December, 1941.  
          The obituary notice of Herbert Opitz appeared in the German Press on 25th March, 1942.  He had been awarded the Iron Cross, 1st and 2nd Class.  
     
  (ii)  "U 567"  
          On 31st March, 1942, an official German communiqué announced that the U-Boat under the command of Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Endrass had not returned from a cruise and that the entire crew must be considered lost.   
          He is known to have been in command of "U 567."  
          Endrass was the most distinguished and most successful U-Boat commander operating.  He had been awarded the Oak Leaves to the Knight Insignia of the Iron Cross and was stated by an officer prisoner of war to be the only U-Boat officer still in command of an active service U-Boat in possession of this distinction.  
          He was born in 1911 and was thus 30 years of age.  He had been in the merchant service from 1928 until he entered the navy in 1935.  As a midshipman, he served in the Battleship "Deutschland" during the Spanish war.  He joined the U-Boat service before the outbreak of war and was First Lieutenant of "U 47" under Prien when he sank H.M.S. "Royal Oak" in Scapa Flow in October, 1939.  
          Endrass's first independent command was "U 46," a 500-ton U-Boat, to which he was appointed in June, 1940.  
          Twelve months later, in June, 1941, he was awarded the Oak Leaves to the Knight Insignia of the Iron Cross, having claimed to have sunk 200,000 tons of enemy shipping.  
          "U 46" was in the 7th U-Boat Flotilla, based on St. Nazaire, and in July, 1941, a letter written from a French port said that Popp and Endrass had furnished a very nice villa there.  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
15
     
          In September, 1941, Endrass figured in a news reel at Hamburg where he expected to have work to do.  He was then probably about to take over the command of "U 567" from Kapitänleutnant Fahr, who had commissioned this U-Boat on 24th April, 1941, at the Blohm & Voss Yard, Hamburg.  
          "U 567" belonged to the 7th U-Boat Flotilla, based on St. Nazaire.  Prisoners from "U 93" stated the "U 567" had taken part in the attack on the British Convoy H.G.76 between 16th and 19th December, 1941, and that she had been subjected to attack by 32 depth charges, sustaining considerable damage.  It seems probable that "U 567" did not succeed in returning to harbour and was sunk on or about 22nd December, 1941.  
          Oberleutnant zur See (Lieutenant) Konstantin von Puttkamer, of the 1936 term, was Endrass' 1st Lieutenant in "U 46."  It is not known whether he transferred to "U 567" with Endrass.  
     
  (iii)  "U 583"  
          Prisoners from "U 581" stated that "U 581" stated that "U 583" had been lost in the Baltic about the middle of October, 1941.  She is said to have been under the command of Kapitänleutnant Kraus.  Many rumours were spread in U-Boat circles regarding the fate of "U 583."  The most detailed account was given by a Petty Officer who joined "U 581" at Danzig on 1st October, 1941.  About a week after his arrival an incident occurred on board "U 583" which quoted by him and by several other prisoners as typical of the strained relations between officers and men in a number of U-Boats, mainly due to lack of respect for the capabilities of the officers.  
          Gunnery practices were being carried out and it seems that "U 583" was giving a poor account of herself.  Throughout the firing the 1st Lieutenant showed extreme impatience and ceaselessly harangued the gun's crew and the seamen on deck, with the result that in their exasperation the 1st Lieutenant was seized and thrown overboard.  
          A few days later "U 583" left for Kiel.  
          As a result of the above incident "U 583" became a great source of gossip among the Petty Officers and when "U 581" reached Kiel some time later, it was common knowledge there that "U 583" had been lost with all hands.  The manner of her loss was much discussed, some thought that she had been rammed by another U-Boat and one rating stated definitely that she had been rammed by "U 582" under the command of Kapitänleutnant Schulte.  
          There is no confirmation of this report, which must be accepted with the greatest reserve until verified from other sources.  
     
 
IX.  U-BOAT BASES
 
     
  (i)  St. Nazaire  
          It was stated that five U-Boat pens had been completed in the St. Nazaire shelters.  Each of these pens was described as being capable of accommodating two U-Boats lying alongside each other.  Three other pens were still in the early constructional stages prior to the application of cement and the Germans were still blasting the rock for the construction of further shelters.  
          Two additional shelters situated at the eastern end of the group were each designed for the accommodation of single boats and could be pumped dry and used as dry docks.  The height of the shelters was given as some 15 to 20 m. and it was added that a U-Boat could easily extend her periscopes while within them.  
          The roof, which was described as being 5 to 6 m. thick overhung 3 m. and there were two exits from the rear for going ashore.  The breadth of each pen was stated to be about three times the beam of a 500-ton U-Boat, while the length was given as 100 m. (328.09 ft.).  The thickness of the sides was about 3 m. (9.84 ft.).  The only steel doors fitted were said to be those on to the two pens which, provided dry dock facilities, the others being merely fitted with curtains to provide an effective "blackout" for night work within.  It was said to be customary for U-Boats in these pens to fuel from a small oiler which  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
16
     
  entered them and lay close at hand.  Torpedoes were generally embarked at the Quai Prise d'Eau where cranes were stationed.  Heating and fresh water connections were stated already to have been fitted in the shelters.  
          It was asserted that only Germans were employed in building the shelters, no Frenchmen being permitted in the vicinity.  
          The total numbers of U-Boats lying in St. Nazaire at the time of "U 581" leaving that port  (on 10th January, 1942) was stated to be between 10 and 20.  
          When survivors from "U 581" were informed of the damage to the lock gates inflicted in the British raid of 28th March, 1942, they commented that U-Boats would now presumably use the small lock gates, instead of the large.  
     
  (ii)  Kirkenes  
          The existence of a U-Boat base at Kirkenes was confirmed.  This was described as a very unpopular base with most U-Boat crews, owing to the extreme cold encountered.  Those stationed there were also said to have had very little to do to pass the time.  Several Blohm & Voss boats were stated to have operated from this base, mostly in the Arctic Ocean.  
     
 
X.  MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS
 
     
  (i)  Aircraft Tenders ("Flugzeugsicherungsschiffe")  
          The main purpose of these ships is stated to be the rescue of aircraft forced down at sea and for effecting minor repairs to them.  
          When an aircraft in distress is sighted it is customary to lower a mat on to which the aircraft could be manoeuvred with the assistance of a boat from the aircraft tender.  The aircraft could then be hoisted on board.  Only one aircraft can be accommodated at a time.  
      Armament  
          The armament of these tenders is stated to be:  
                  One twin 2.7 cm. H.A. gun forward;  
                  Three 2 cm. C.30 machine guns, one on either side abaft the funnel and one before the funnel.  
          No torpedo tubes are fitted, nor are mines or depth charges carried.  
          These tenders are stated to have a large radius of action, being constructed with extensive fuel tanks.  
          The engines are described as Diesels, operating two propellers.  Speed is stated to be from 12 to 15 knots.  
          They are specifically constructed with very shallow draught to enable them to approach close inshore for rescue purposes.  
          The complement is stated to be 45.  The crew wear a special uniform, coloured blue, with a gold braid swastika on the forearm and gold shoulder markings.  
          Before the war these ships were based on Kiel, Sassnitz and Pillau.  Three of them are now stated to be based on Norwegian ports, Oslo, Trondheim and Kristiansand.  It is known that two of these tenders, one the "Bernhard von Tschierschki," were in Bergen in April, 1940, at the time of the sinking of the "Königsberg."  
          In addition to the larger type of aircraft tender of 800 tons, it is stated that a smaller type has been constructed of which it is said about 50 have been completed.  The radius of action of these is said to be 20 miles.  They were used with great success during air operations around Sylt in 1940.  Latterly they have been transferred to the Netherlands.  These smaller tenders are called "Sicherungsboots" (salvage boats).  
          The armament is stated to be:  
                  Two 2 cm. M.G., C.30, mounted one on either side before the bridge on the fo'c'sle.  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
17
     
  (ii)  U-Boat Supply Ships ("V-Boats" or "Z-Boats")  
          A Petty Officer from "U 581" gave a detailed description of the new U-Boat supply ships which Germany is said to be building.  The name given to these craft is "Z-Boot" or "V-Boot"; the letter "Z" stands for "Zubringer" or "Zuführer," the letter "V" for "Versorgung," these German words being roughly translatable as "Supply."  He said that early in December, 1941, just before "U 581" left Kiel, he saw three of these new "Z-Boats" lying alongside the Deutsche Werke yard there.  One of them was manned and ready to put to sea and the other two were completed, but not manned.  Their displacement was variously estimated at 1,200 and 1,600 tons.  They were described as being specially built for supplying fuel, torpedoes and stores to U-Boats at sea.  For this purpose, they were fitted with very wide fuel tanks on either side and had broad decks.  He asserted that there had never been a case of an ordinary U-Boat being converted into a Z-Boat.  The Z-Boats, he added, had no torpedo tubes and were fitted with two 3.7 cm. guns.  An officer believed that the Seebeck yards at Bremerhaven and the Deschimag yards at Bremen had the contract for building these boats.  
     
 
XI.  PAY IN THE GERMAN NAVY
 
     
          1.  The following information regarding pay in the German Navy has been supplied by a Petty Officer prisoner of war, and is considered accurate as regards the pay of Chief and Petty Officers and men.  
          Wartime pay in the German Navy is fundamentally the same in each department of the naval service.  Certain allowances are paid, in addition, to those serving in U-Boats and and to those on active service.  
          The basic pay consists of:  
                  (a)  "Grundgehalt" (basic pay).  
                  (b)  "Bordzulage" (ship's allowance).  
  This is paid into a bank account in Germany in the recipient's name and can be drawn upon either by him or by his dependents for all requirements at home.  A bank account must be kept, the payee being free to chose his own bank.  The ship's allowance is Rm. 0.40 per day, irrespective of rank.  
          2.  In addition to the basic pay the following allowances are made:  
                  (c)  "Wehrsold" (field allowance).  
                  (d)  "Frontzulage" (active service allowance).  
                  (e)  "Tauchzulage" (diving allowance).  
                  (f)  "Raumbeschränkungszulage" (hard laying allowance).  
                  (g)  Marriage allowance.  
                  (h)  "Trennungszulage" (separation allowance).  
                  (i)  Family allowance.  
          3.  "Wehrsold" (Field Allowance).  This allowance is paid every ten days in cash on board ship.  It is intended to served as "pocket money" and is not subject to any tax deduction.  
          4.  "Frontzulage" (Active Service Allowance).  Officers, Petty Officers and men serving in ships on active service are entitled to an active service allowance of Rm. 1 per day, irrespective of rank or where they are serving.  
          5.  "Tauchzulage" (Diving Allowance).  Diving allowance is paid to U-Boat crews in home waters.  It is only paid on account of each day when the U-Boat dives and only when the boat is operating from a home port, when no night is spent at sea.  When a U-Boat leaves for a war cruise or patrol in enemy waters the "Raumbeschränkungszulage" (hard-lying allowance) takes its place.  Both these allowances are the same and vary according to rank.  
          6.  "Raumbeschränkungszulage" (hard-lying allowance).  This allowance, which takes the place of the diving allowance, is paid to U-Boat crews for each day spent on a war cruise or patrol.  The amount varies according to rank.  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
18
     
          7.  Marriage Allowance.  Marriage allowances are paid according to the area in which the wife lives.  For this purpose, Germany is divided into three divisions,  known as "A," "B" and "C."  
                  Division "A" includes Berlin, Hamburg, Bremen and Kiel, and their suburbs.  
                  Division "B" includes all other towns of over 10,000 inhabitants.  
                  Division "C" includes all other areas.  
          If a man's wife lives in Division "A," the State pays two-thirds of her rent and all heating charges; if in Division "B," the State pays one-third of the rent and all heating charges; and if in Division "C," one-third of the rent and no allowance for heating.  
          8.  "Trennungszulage"  (Separation Allowance).  All married men in the German Navy receive a separation allowance of Rm. 4 per month, irrespective of rank.  To qualify for this allowance a man must show that his home is situated outside the area of the port in which he is stationed.  
          9.  Family Allowance.  This allowance consists of Rm. 20 per month for each child.  This allowance is the same for all ranks, officers, Chief and Petty Officers and men.  
          10.  Illegitimate Children.  An allowance of Rm. 35 per month is paid in respect of any illegitimate child born to a man of the German Navy.  
          If, however, the man marries the mother of the child, this allowance is withdrawn and he becomes eligible for the ordinary marriage and family allowances.  
          11.  The following table gives the pay and allowances received by Chief and Petty Officers and men of the German Navy.  
 
MONTHLY
 
 
Rating.
Basic pay.
Field Allowance.
Active Service Allowance.
Diving Allowance.
Ship's Allowance.
Total per month of 30 days.
Seamen
per month
per month
per day
per day
per day
 
Ordinary Seaman 2nd Class (Matrose).
Nil
Rm.30
Rm.1
Rm,1.50
Rm.0.40
Rm.72 plus diving money.
Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class (Matrosengefreiter).
Nil
Rm.30
Rm.1
Rm.1.50
Rm.0.40
Rm.72 plus diving money.
Able Seamen (Matrosenobergefreiter).
Rm.76
Rm.36
Rm.1
Rm.1.50
Rm.0.40
Rm.160 plus diving money.
Leading Seamen (Matrosenhauptgefreiter).
Rm.76  (if over 4 years service Rm.120)
Rm.42
Rm.1
Rm.2.50
Rm.0.40
Rm.204 plus diving money.
Boatswain's Mate, 2nd Class (Bootsmannsmaat).
Rm.120 (if over 4 years service Rm.140)
Rm.42
Rm.1
Rm.2.50
Rm.0.40
Rm.204 plus diving money.
Boatswain's Mate, 1st Class, (Oberbootsmannsmaat).
Rm.120
Rm.48
Rm.1
Rm.3.50
Rm.0.40
Rm.210 plus diving money.
Chief Boatswain's Mate, 2ns Class (Bootsmann)
Rm.160
Rm.48
Rm.1
Rm.3.50
Rm.0.40
Rm.250 plus diving money.
Chief Boatswain's Mate 1st Class (Oberbootsmann).
Rm.175
Rm.48
Rm.1
Rm.3.50
Rm.0.40
Rm.265 plus diving money.
 
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
19
     
          12.  Engine-room Ratings, Artificers and Telegraphists.  Members of the engine room staff draw "Maschinenzulage" (engine room allowance), Artificers draw "Mechanikerszulage" (Artificers' allowance) and Telegraphists a similar allowance.  This allowance is a little higher than, and takes the place of, "Bordzulage" ship's allowance).  This amounts to:  
 
Chief Petty Officers Rm. 0.75 per day.
Petty Officers Rm. 0.45 per day.
Men Rm. 0.40 per day.
 
          13.  Deductions from Basic Pay.  (a)  Messing Charges.  A deduction for messing of Rm. 15 per month is deducted from the basic pay of all ranks serving in ships on active service.  If based on a foreign port this deduction is reduced to Rm. 13.50 per month.  The messing is assessed at Rm. 45 per month, but only one-third of this is deducted.  
          (b)  Other deductions are:  
 
Deutsche Arbeitsfront (German Labour Front) subscription Rm. 2.40 per month
Insurance against illness Rm. 3.50 per month
Burial expenses insurance Rm. 2.50 per month
Total deductions from basic pay amount to Rm. 23.40 per month.
 
          14.  Income Tax.  No income tax is charged on pay received in the navy, if it can be shown that the man has no other source of income.  This has caused many men to close down their businesses for the duration of the war.  If a man considers that it it financially more to his advantage to maintain his business while serving in the navy he may do so.  In this case he receives no basic pay and the emoluments received are limited to the various allowances.  
          15.  Officer's Pay.  Information regarding the pay of officers is not so complete as in the case of Chief and Petty Officers and men.  
          They all receive a basic pay in addition to the various allowances.  
          Midshipmen rank for pay purposes as Boatswain's Mates, 1st Class (Oberbootsmannsmaate).  
                  (i)  Kapitan zur See (Captain).  A Kapitan zur See receives a monthly basic pay of Rm. 600.  His field allowance is Rm. 156 per month.  His basic salary is increased if he is married.  
                  (ii)  Korvettenkapitän (Commander).  A Korvettenkapitän receives a monthly basic pay of Rm. 520, with a proportionate increase if married, and a field allowance of Rm. 144 per month.  
                  (iii)  Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander).  A Kapitänleutnant receives a monthly basic pay of Rm. 450, proportionately increased if married, and a field allowance of Rm. 132 per month.  
                  (iv)  Oberleutnant zur See (Lieutenant).  An oberleutnant zur See receives a monthly basic pay of Rm. 270, Rm. 330 if married.  His field allowance is Rm. 81 per month.  
                  (v)  Leutnant zur See (Sub-Lieutenant).  A leutnant zur See receives a monthly basic pay of Rm. 180, increased to Rm. 240 if married.  His field allowance is Rm. 72 per month.  
          16.  Income Tax Deductions from Officers' Pay.  In the case of a married officer without children a 10 per cent. deduction is made from his basic pay on account of income tax.  No deduction is made in the case of a married officer with one or more children.  
          A deduction of 20 per cent. is made from the basic pay of all single officers.  
          All allowances are paid tax free.  
          17.  General Opinion on Naval Pay.  The impression is gained that officers in the German Navy consider their pay adequate and are content to live principally on their field allowances when afloat and allow the remainder to be banked at home.  
          Among the men, however, a number of complaints have been heard regarding the inadequacy of their pay.  They profess mystification at the operations of the Paymaster Branch, and seem unconcerned as to how their total pay is calculated.  Their main concern is that their bank account should constantly increase and that the pay should arrive punctually when due.  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
20
 
     
 
APPENDIX I
 
 
 
     
 
List of Crew of "U 581"
 
     
  (i)  Survivors  
     
 
Name.
Rank.
English Equivalent.
Born.
Pfeifer, Werner Kapitänleutnant Lieut.-Commander
2.05.12
Russ, Heinrich Oberleutnant zur See Lieutenant
13.02.17
Krummel, Helmut Oberleutnant (Ing.) der Reserve Eng. Lieutenant (German Naval Reserve)
8.10.10
Pohl, Wolfgang Willi Conrad Fähnrich zur See Midshipman
19.12.22
Trachbrod, Fritz Johannes Fähnrich zur See Midshipman
31.01.23
Kooprdt, Freidrich Obermaschinist Ch. Mechanician, 1st Class
13.04.15
Wienand, Wilhelm Obermaschinist Ch. Mechanician, 1st Class
24.01.14
Kochendörfer, Walter Obermaschinist Ch. Mechanician, 1st Class
6.08.14
Ackermann, Peter Obersteuermann Ch. Quartermaster, 1st Class
27.03.15
Bellgardt, Otto Bootsmannsmaat Boatswain's Mate, 1st Class
22.11.19
Bests, Bernhard Bootsmannsmaat Boatswain's Mate, 1st Class
30.10.19
Bock, Fritz Maschinenmaat Mechanician, 2nd Class
3.04.19
Pankau, Gerhard Maschinenmaat Mechanician, 2nd Class
6.11.19
Luhmann, August Maschinenmaat Mechanician, 2nd Class
11.04.18
Mollenhauer, Robert Maschinenmaat Mechanician, 2nd Class
1.07.17
Modrack, Heinrich Maschinenmaat Mechanician, 2nd Class
6.01.19
Niendorf, Alfred Maschinenmaat Mechanician, 2nd Class
26.08.19
Korn, Clemens Funkmaat P.O. Telegraphist, 2nd Class
8.05.19
Meinert, Heinz Funkmaat P.O. Telegraphist, 2nd Class
11.10.18
Flörecke, Günter Mechanikersmaat P.O. Artificer, 2nd Class
12.10.19
Schulze, Gerhard Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman
1.04.19
Brunotte, Friedrich Mechanikerobergefreiter Artificer, 1st Class
26.02.21
Gelzhäuser, walter Matrosengefreiter Ord. Seaman, 1st Class
28.12.21
Judek, Gerhardt Matrosengefreiter Ord. Seaman, 1st Class
19.02.21
Werding, Mathias Matrosengefreiter Ord. Seaman, 1st Class
9.11.22
Schoppmeier, Theo Matrosengefreiter Ord. Seaman, 1st Class
2.11.22
Stier, Alfred Matrosengefreiter Ord. Seaman, 1st Class
21.02.22
Buhmann, Georg Matrosengefreiter Ord. Seaman, 1st Class
25.10.21
Deichmann, Ferdinand Matrosengefreiter Ord. Seaman, 1st Class
7.10.23
Meyer, Kurt Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
21.03.20
Below, Arthur Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
4.06.21
Engel, Max Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
2.04.20
Heckert, Herbert Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
1.08.22
Feiler, Gerhard Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
3.01.22
Cerbe, Friedrich Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
12.07.21
Klein, Johann Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
18.11.22
Degenhardt, Kurt Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
5.02.22
Lampa, Alois Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
13.07.21
Osterhage, Ernst Funkgefreiter Ord. Telegraphist, 1st Class
2.11.22
Freek, Gerhard Mechanikergefreiter Artificer, 2nd Class
8.04.21
Wehner, Heinz Matrose Stoker, 3rd Class
18.02.22
 
     
 
Officers
5
Chief and Petty Officers
15
Men
21
Total
41
 
     
     
     
     
     

 

     
     
 
21
 
     
 
Name.
Rank.
English Equivalent.
Born.
(ii)  Casualties      
Hammermeister, Helmouth Bootsmannsmaat Boatswain's Mate, 2nd Class  
Klarmuth, Matrosengefreiter Ord. Seaman, 1st Class  
Kass, Funkgefreiter Ord. Telegraphist, 1st Class  
Kreisz, Matrose Ord. Seaman, 2nd Class  
 
     
 
Officers
Nil
Chief and Petty Officers
1
Men
3
Total
4
 
     
  (iii)  Escaped to Azores  
     
 
Siedeck, Werner Leutnant zur See Sub-Lieutenant  
 
     
  (iv)  Total Crew  
 
Officers
6
Chief and Petty Officers
16
Men
24
Total
46
 
     
 
 
     
 
APPENDIX II
 
 
 
     
 
Protest Against Capture
 
          The following protest written in English by the Commanding Officer of "U 581," Kapitänleutnant (Lieut.Commander) Werner Pfeifer, was lodged against his capture by H.M.S. "Westcott" on 2nd February, 1942.  The original wording has been retained:  
     
 
PROTEST AGAINST CAPTURE
 
     
          1.  When being followed up, boat get gradually water without influence of the enemy.  The consequence was to rise to the surface as soon as possible.  The boat was in distress of sea.  
          2.  According to our navigation (controlled by taking the bearings on the coast) boat was four miles off the coast before the persecution; afterwards boat was steering east course for some time, later on when coming to the conclusion to emerge about ten minutes seventy degrees.  After emerging boat was steering seventy degrees.  The stream was setting N.N.E.  
          3.  The boat would have been ready within the laydown 24 hours in a neutral port.  
          4.  In spite of the possibility to shoot, boats  
                  (1)  did not launch torpedoes,  
                  (2)  made no use of the gun,  
  because it was in the neutral zone.  
          5.  After having seen that the boat should be rammed in by the destroyer or should be covered with depth charges I commanded:  "All men off the boat."  
          6.  The depth charges did not disturb the boat hardly because it was on the surface.  I myself gave the orders to sink the boat.  It was flooded by the chief engineer, who left the sinking boat with me.  
          7.  Of course of above protest we beg for delivering in a neutral country.  
     
                                                                                     (Signed)  
                                                                                            PFEIFER,  
                                                                                                 Kapitänleutnant.  
     
     
     
  (C44815)      425       8/42                                                                                                    C  
     
     

 


 

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