COPY No.
     
 
This book is invariably to be kept locked up when not in use and is not to be taken outside the ship or establishment for which it it issued without the express permission of the Commanding Officer
 
     
     
     
 
C.B.  4051 (21)
 
   
     
 
 
 
"U 76"
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interrogation of Survivors
 
 
 
     
     
     
     
 
 
     
 
May, 1941
 
 
 
 
 
     
     
     
 
 
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

 

 
 

   
 
     
     
     
     
     
     
   
     
     
     
     
 
SECRET
 
     
          This book is the property of His Majesty's Government.  
     
          It is intended for the use of the recipients only, and for communication to such Officers under them (not below the rank of Commissioned Officer) who may require to be acquainted with its contents in the course of their duties.  The Officers exercising this power will be held responsible that such information is imparted with due care and caution.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
 
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

 

     
     
     
   
   
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
C.B.  4051 (21)
 
     
     
 
 
 
"U 76"
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interrogation of Survivors
 
 
 
     
     
     
     
 
 
     
 
May, 1941
 
 
 
 
 
     
     
     
 
     
     
     
     
  NAVAL INTELLIGENCE DIVISION,  
  ADMIRALTY, S.W.1.  
     
  N.I.D. 08409/43.  
     
     
     

 

     
     
 
   
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
          The following report is compiled from information derived from prisoners of war.  The statements made cannot always be verified; they should therefore not be accepted as facts unless they are definitely stated to be confirmed by information from other sources.  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

 

     
     
 
3
 
     
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
_______
 
 
 
         
Page
I.
  Introductory Remarks  
5
II.
  Crew of "U 76"  
5
III.
 
Early History of "U 76"
 
6
IV.
  First and Last Cruise of "U 76"  
7
V.
  Sinking of "U-76"  
8
VI.
  Details of "U 76"  
10
 
(i)
  General Remarks  
10
   
(ii)
  Diesels  
10
   
(iii)
  Motors  
11
   
(iv)
  Speeds  
11
   
(v)
  Tanks  
11
   
(vi)
  Air Pressure  
11
   
(vii)
  Locker Arrangement in Bow Compartment of "U 76"  
11
   
(viii)
  Detector Gear  
12
   
(ix)
  Transmission of Orders  
12
   
(x)
  Device  
12
VIII.
  Other U-Boats:  
12
 
(i)
  "U 6"  
12
 
(ii)
  "U 10"  
12
 
(iii)
  "U 28"  
12
 
(iv)
  "U 34"  
12
 
(v)
  "U 37," "U 43,", "U 46," U 52," "U 56," "U 57," "U 58," "U 59," U 61" and "U 62"  
12
 
(vi)
  "U 65"  
12
 
(vii)
  "U 67"  
12
 
(viii)
  "U 68"  
12
 
(ix)
  "U 69"  
13
 
(x)
  "U 71"  
13
 
(xi)
  "U 72"  
13
   
(xii)
  "U 73"  
13
   
(xiii)
  "U 74"  
13
   
(xiv)
  "U 78"  
13
   
(xv)
  "U 79"  
13
   
(xvi)
  "U 93"  
13
   
(xvii)
  "U 94"  
13
   
(xviii)
  "U 96"  
14
   
(xix)
  "U 98"  
14
   
(xx)
  "U 103"  
14
   
(xxi)
  "U 104"  
15
   
(xxii)
  "U 105"  
15
   
(xxiii)
  "U 106"  
15
   
(xxiv)
  "U 107"  
15
   
(xxv)
  "U 108"  
15
   
(xxvi)
  "U 109"  
15
   
(xxvii)
  "U 110"  
15
   
(xxviii)
  "U 111"  
16
   
(xxix)
  "U 120" and "U 121"  
16
   
(xxx)
  "U 123"  
16
   
(xxxi)
  "U 124"  
16
   
(xxxii)
  "U 143"  
16
   
(xxxiii)
  "U 144"  
16
   
(xxxiv)
  H.M.S. "Seal"  
16
   
(xxxv)
  Dutch Submarines  
17
   
(xxxvi)
  Italian Submarines  
17
VIII.
  U-Boat Construction  
17
 
(i)
  General Remarks  
17
 
(ii)
  Vulkan Yard, Vegesack  
17
IX.
  U-Boat Losses  
18
 
(i)
  "U 57"  
18
 
(ii)
  Possible Losses  
18
 
(iii)
  "U 122"  
18
 
(iv)
  Unidentified U-Boat, possibly "U 59"  
18
 
(v)
  U-Boats Sunk by the German Air Force  
18
 
     
  (C41407)                                                                                                                             B*  
     
     

 

     
     
 
4
 
     
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS - continued.
 
_______
 
 
 
         
Page
X.
  Technical Remarks:  
 
(i)
  Torpedoes  
19
   
(ii)
  Detector Gear  
20
   
(iii)
  Saddle Tanks  
20
XI.
  General Remarks on U-Boats:  
 
(i)
  U-Boat Flotillas  
20
 
(ii)
  Co-operation with Aircraft  
20
 
(iii)
  Opinions on Tactics  
20
 
(iv)
  Patrol Areas  
20
 
(v)
  Astro-Navigation  
12
 
(vi)
  Sighting of Aircraft  
12
 
(vii)
  Bridge Watch  
12
 
(viii)
  Engine Room Watches  
12
 
(ix)
  W/T and Listening Gear Watches  
13
 
(x)
  U-Boat Officers  
13
 
(xi)
  Recruiting from Merchant Service  
13
   
(xii)
  U-Boat Training Courses  
13
   
(xiii)
  Victualling and Leave  
22
   
(xiv)
  Awards to U-Boat Personnel  
22
   
(xv)
  Life Belts  
22
   
(xvi)
  Vice-Admiral Dönitz  
22
   
(xvii)
  Passage of U-Boats through the Danube Canal  
22
VIII.
  U-Boat Bases  
 
(i)
  Wilhelmshaven  
22
 
(ii)
  Plön  
22
   
(iii)
  Danzig  
22
   
(iv)
  Pillau  
23
   
(v)
  Flensburg-Mürwik  
23
   
(vi)
  Rostock  
23
   
(vii)
  Vegesack  
23
   
(viii)
  Brest  
23
XIII.
  Depot and other Ships  
   
(i)
  "Wilhelm Bauer"  
23
   
(ii)
  "Welchsel"  
23
   
(iii)
  "Donnau"  
23
   
(iv)
  "Ubina"  
23
   
(v)
  "Strahl"  
23
IX.
  Miscellaneous Remarks:  
 
(i)
  Anti-Submarine Nets  
24
 
(ii)
  British Depth Charges  
24
 
(iii)
  British Submarines  
24
 
(iv)
  Promotion of Chief Petty Officers to Commissioned Rank  
24
 
(v)
  Reporting Service (Beobachtungsdienst or "B"-Dienst)  
24
   
(vi)
  Security  
24
   
(vii)
  Inter-marriage with Foreign Women  
25
   
(viii)
  Count Ciano  
25
 
     
 
 
 
APPENDIX I
 
 
        Translation of a broadcast in German for Germany on 2nd March, 1941, by Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Heinrich Lehmann-Willenbrock.
26
 
 
APPENDIX II
 
 
        Translation of a letter written in German by Steuermannsmaat Carl Becker of "U 76," on board H.M.S. "Arbutus," addressed to Frau Edith Becker, Wiesbaden, Wilhelmstrasse 81, dated Sunday, 6th April, 1941.
27
 
 
 
 
APPENDIX III
 
 
        List of crew of "U 76"
28
 
     
     

 

 
 
 
5
 
 
 
 
INTERROGATION  OF  SURVIVORS  OF "U 76, " SUNK AT ABOUT 0950
 
        ON SATURDAY, 5TH APRIL, 1941, IN POSITION APPROXIMATELY
 
          58° 32' N. AND 20° 15' W.  
______________________
 
 
 
I.  INTRODUCTORY REMARKS
 
     
          "U 76," a U-Boat of 500 tons displacement, belonging to the 7th U-Boat Flotilla, was sunk on the morning of 5th April, 1941.  
          Useful information was obtained during informal conversation in H.M. Ships with the rescued German officers and men; this fact, together with the good treatment accorded to the prisoners and the segregation observed, greatly assisted subsequent interrogation.  
     
 
II.  CREW OF "U 76"
 
     
          The most noticeable general characteristic of the complement of "U 76" was their marked lack of experience.  Although the petty officers had completed a number of instructional courses there were only a few who had been in U-Boats longer than a few months and had seen any active service.  
          A Quartermaster had served before the war as second officer of a small German passenger steamer plying to the West Indies, and had been called up as a reservist.  Although he had no U-Boat training or experience whatsoever, he was drafted to "U 76" for navigational duties.  He was an "Officer-candidate" ("Offiziersanwärter"), and although graded as a Chief Petty Officer, was treated by the officers to a large extent as one of themselves; he was expecting to receive his commission in a few months' time.  
          A larger proportion of the ratings had formerly belonged to the Hitler Youth organisation than had been noted in the cases of U-Boat crews captured at earlier dates.  
          The Engineer Officer and Sub-Lieutenant considered that the Captain was inefficient in many respects, and the ship's company were very critical of all the officers.  
          The Captain, Oberleutnant-zur-See (Lieutenant) Friedrich von Hippel, aged twenty-six years, gave the impression of being much younger and lacked presence and authority.  He was, however, quite pleasant to talk to, and had reasonable, if somewhat gauche, manners.  
          He joined the Navy in 1934, and transferred to U-Boats in 1937.  He took part in two war cruises, early in the war, in "U 37" under Korvettenkapitän (Commander) Werner Hartmann.  Chronic digestive disorders were given as an explanation of the period of comparative inactivity which followed, and which was terminated in the autumn by von Hippel's appointment to the command of "U 144," a 300-ton U-Boat then still under construction at the Deutsche Werke, Kiel; he remained in this U-Boat during her trials, but never went to sea in her on active service, as he was transferred to the command of "U 76" of 500 tons displacement.  The reason for this change of appointment was admitted to have been the necessity of utilising the services of officers of even slight experience to take command of the medium-sized U-Boats, as it was considered that the small U-Boats could be commanded by less experienced officers.  
          Von Hippel was married and spoke some English.  
          The First Lieutenant, Oberleutnant-zur-See (Lieutenant) Hans Joachim Hagemann, twenty-five years old, a native of the Ruhr district, wa a keen member of the "Wandervögel," (Hikers Club) from 1930 to 1933, and travelled extensively in Central Europe.  Later he joined the Hitler Youth organisation, and became the leader of quite a large group in Essen.  
          He joined the Navy in 1935, and, as a cadet in the cruiser "Emden," visited the Far East and the Mediterranean.  He had also been to Bulgaria and Turkey.   
          He has not been long in the U-Boat Service, and said that he had not seen active service in a U-Boat until this first and last cruise of "U 76."  He expressed  
     
  (C 41407)                                                                                                                     B*2  
     
     

 

     
     
 
6
     
  the opinion that German training and theory were so good, that practical experience was not absolutely essential.  Hagermann was quite pleasant and talkative except when service matters were mentioned.  He spoke English and French fairly well.  
          The Junior Officer, Leutnant zur See (Sub-Lieutenant) Hans Peter Klages, twenty-six years old, claimed that his father, Professor Dr. August Klages of Göttingen, had invented "Germisan" a germicide now manufactured by the Saccharine Factory of I.G. Farben in Magdeburg.  
          Klages joined the Navy in 1937, and had only recently transferred to U-Boats; he had been through short war-time U-Boat courses, but had never been on active service until the first and last cruise of "U 76."  
          Leutnant (Ing.) (Engineer Sub-Lieutenant) Karl Herber, thirty-eight years old, joined the Navy in 1922 as a rating and had seen a lot of the world from the lower deck.  He transferred to U-Boats in 1935, but left that branch of the service shortly before the war.  He returned to U-Boats, however, soon after the outbreak of war, but did not go to sea until "U 76's" one and only active service cruise.  
          Early in 1940 Herber was made an officer.  He was married.  
     
 
III.  EARLY HISTORY OF "U 76"
 
     
          "U 76" was laid down early in 1940, according to prisoners, the latest date suggested being May, 1940.  She was stated to have been built by the Vulkan Yard, Vegesack, near Bremen.  
          The first members of her crew, including the Engineer Officer and some Engine Room Petty Officers, were drafted to stand by the U-Boat under construction about the end of August or early in September, 1940, and further men joined during the following months.  During this time the crew of "U 76" lived in wooden sheds about 200 yards from the Vulkan Yard, but were not allowed to mix with the crews standing by other U-Boats under construction, nor were the men allowed to walk freely about the building yard.  They received instruction in the barracks from periods of construction of U-Boats.  The crew of "U 76" were not allowed to enter the Lürssen Yard at Vegesack, where E-Boats were under construction.  
          "U 76" was completed in December, 1940, most probably early in the month.  The Captain arrived to take command, and the U-Boat then went to Kiel shortly before Christmas, where she lay alongside the Tirpitzmole, together with another U-Boat.  
          She started on her trials in the Baltic, and went to Danzig, but then returned to Warnemünde before Christmas, and later continued her trials.  During the whole time at Danzig the U-Boat was frozen into the ice for a short time.  
          Prisoners said that "U 76" remained at Danzig for about a month, during which time the crew was allowed ashore.  
          She then went to Gotenhafen, but no shore leave was allowed at this port; diving trials were made during the daytime in the Danzig Deep, and the U-Boat returned to harbour in the evening.  The depth to which "U 76" dived during these trials was given as 120 metres (393 ft.). Prisoners said that they were at Gotenhafen for two weeks.  During the trials the hydrophones were damaged on one occasion, owing to some error on the part of the crew.  This occurred during a dive a shock being felt at a depth of 60 metres (196.8 ft.); the U-Boat then sank to 80 metres (262 ft.).  The periscope was smashed and water entered the boat.  It is known that "U 76" had to put into Rostock during her trials for repairs and alterations.  
          Early in March she was again delayed for a week by ice conditions at Warnemünde.  
          While in this port, since dancing was forbidden, the crew spent their leave ashore drinking in the cafés of the town.  
          "U 76" had not completed her trials when she was unexpectedly recalled to Kiel, where she arrived about Wednesday, 12th March, 1941.  
          A few days later she was ordered to leave on her first and last war cruise.  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
7
     
 
IV.  FIRST AND LAST CRUISE OF "U 76"
 
     
          "U 76" embarked torpedoes and stored at the Naval Dockyard at Kiel.  It was stated that she received eight electric and four air torpedoes.  The decision not to take two more torpedoes, which could have been carried in the housings on deck, was made by the Captain, who considered that the weather at this time of the year would almost certainly render impracticable the transfer of torpedoes from the containers on deck to the interior of the boat.  The cook said that these containers were filled with potatoes.  
          According to the diary of one of the crew, "U 76" left Kiel at 0945 (German time) on Wednesday, 19th March, 1941, and proceeded through the Kiel Canal.  
          It was established that "U 76" spent the night of 19th/20th March, 1941, at Brünsbüttel; she lay, so it was stated, in the Kiel Canal in or near the locks at Brünsbuttelkoog.  
          According to the diary of an engine room Petty Officer, "U 76" left Brünsbüttel at 1300 on Thursday, 20th March, 1941, and proceeded through the minefields.  The sea was slight.  
          At 0630 on Friday, 21st March, "U 76" submerged and lay on the bottom; the crew was informed of the objective of the cruise.  The diary stated that "U 76" was then on the eastern side of the North Sea.  
          At 1300 on the same day the U-Boat surfaced, but submerged again at 1400, the sea being described as heavy.  
          She again surfaced at 2030, and proceeded on the surface until 0300 on the following day, Saturday, 22nd March, 1941, when owing to heavy seas, she again dived.  Her position was given in the diary as being in the centre of the North Sea.  
          The diary mentioned above stated that "U 76" surfaced at 2000, and again proceeded on the surface, despite stormy weather, until 0620 on Sunday, 23rd March, when she submerged for the whole day, maintaining a depth of 40 metres (131.2 ft.) until the evening when she went down to 100 metres (328 ft.).  On this date she was described as being in the northern part of the North Sea.  
          At 2100 on that evening the U-Boat surfaced in position about 60° N. and 1° E.; this position is some miles east of the southern part of the Shetlands, and would indicate that "U 76" had intended to proceed north of the Shetlands, and not through the Fair Isle Channel.  
          The explosions of depth charges were heard in the distance.  
          An entry in this diary for Monday, 24th March, 1941, gave the U-Boat on that day as being near the Shetlands, and an entry on Thursday, 25th March, stated that "U 76" was eastward of the Shetlands, but had to proceed to Bergen on that day, owing to damage.  
          Prisoners stated that a defect occurred in the compressed air system in the Control Room; this was said to have been caused by a fractured bolt in a coupling between the high pressure and low pressure systems.  
          Another defect mentioned was bad welding near the exhaust, which was said to have become defective owing to exhaust pressure.  An E.R.A. stated that the cap over the exhaust would not function, so that water entered the U-Boat while submerged.  Trouble with the Diesels was also mentioned.  During discussion on the subject of defects, prisoners severely criticised the construction and hasty commissioning of new U-Boats.    
          While in Bergen the crew stayed at the Hotel Hospitz the Hotel Rosenkrantz, and in the "Strength through Joy" ship "Stella Polaris."  
          Prisoners stated that no other U-Boats were seen at Bergen.  
          After four days in Bergen "U 76" sailed at 0900 on Saturday, 29th March, 1941.  
          On the following day a British destroyer was sighted in some position near the Shetlands, and the U-Boat dived.  According to one of the diaries, the dive was a crash dive and the destroyer passed over the U-Boat.  "U 76" surfaced at 1115, but at 1200 the alarm was again sounded when smoke was sighted.  
          The diaries stated that on Monday, 31st March, 1941, "U 76" was north of the Faroes, and remained submerged during the morning, but proceeded on the surface during the afternoon.  
     
  (C41407)                                                                                                                         B**  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
8
     
          At 1830 there was an aircraft alarm, and the U-Boat dived to 60 m. (196.8 ft.); according to the diary, one bomb was dropped.  
          At 2145 "U 76" surfaced and proceeded during the night without submerging.  
          At 0858 on Tuesday, 1st april, 1941, a British convoy was sighted; prisoners stated that they had received information from the Vice-Admiral Commanding U-Boats about this convoy three days before they sighted it.  The first message gave the position, speed, and course of the convoy, and stated that it consisted of eight ships, escorted by two destroyers.  A day later this statement was corrected to nine ships escorted by four destroyers.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  The only convoys in this area on the date in question were O.B.303 consisting of 51 ships escorted by three destroyers, four corvettes and one anti-submarine trawler, course 310°, speed 8 knots, and H.X. 115, consisting of 27 ships escorted by four destroyers, three corvettes and two anti-submarine trawlers, course 141°, speed 8 knots.)  
          Prisoners said that they thought that other U-Boats were operating in the area, but they did not know their numbers.  
          A signal was made to the Vice-Admiral that contact with the convoy would be maintained.  Nevertheless, "U 76" did not maintain contact, possibly because she was forced to dive on sighting a ship, distant about 400 m. (437 yards), to whom she did not want to betray her presence.  
          The U-Boat fired a torpedo which, however, ran in a circle.  
          At 1745 the alarm was sounded again on sighting a solitary ship.  As this proved to be a trawler, the attack was abandoned.  
          During the night 1st/2nd April, 1941, a ship proceeding alone was sighted.  
          On Wednesday, 2nd April, "U 76" carried out tests in the morning, according to a diary, and spent the whole day on the surface, the weather being calm and sunny.  The diaries added that they were in the "whale area" and close to Iceland.  
          That night the U-Boat was again proceeding on the surface when she saw the lights of several ships, which were not thought to be worthy of attack.  
          At 0630 on Thursday, 3rd April, 1941, the crew went to action stations, and two torpedoes were fired from the surface; both these missed.  
          At 1145 on the same morning a heavily laden Finnish ship, estimated at 2,000 tons, was sunk, according to the diaries, one of which gave the ship's name as "Daphne."  
          The Boatswain's Mate thought that the ship was bigger than she proved to be, and estimated that she was at a distance of 1,400 m. (1,531 yards), whereas she proved to be only 1,000 m. (1,093 yards) away.  
          "U 76" then remained submerged until 1300, after which she proceeded on the surface.  At 1800 she submerged in order to reload her torpedo tubes, and then spent the night of 3rd/4th April on the surface.  
          At 1500 on Friday, 4th April, 1941, a ship proceeding independently was sighted and followed, despite very heavy seas.  "U 76" submerged, fired a torpedo at 2000, which, it was claimed, hit the ship amidships.  A torpedo rating said that this torpedo was fired from the stern tube.  
          The U-Boat then moved to the other side of the ship, and at 2035 fired another torpedo, this time from a bow tube, which also hit the target.  The ship was the British s.s. "Athenic."  
          The Germans stated that on Wednesday, 2nd April, 1941, they had intercepted a wireless message, sent by "Athenic," on the "medium wave length used by all Atlantic ships," which said"  "In such-and-such longitude, such-and-such latitude, a periscope sighted - "Athenic.'"  
          Note.  This signal was actually made at 0725 on 3rd April.  
          After firing their second torpedo the Germans submerged and made off, as they thought that their victim would probably have summoned destroyers to the scene.  
          "U 76" remained submerged until it was quite dark, but on surfacing she sighted a destroyer quite close and dived immediately.  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
9
     
 
V.  SINKING OF "U 76"
 
     
          At 1800 on Friday, 4th April, 1941, H.M.S. "Veteran" received "Athenic's" S O S and detached H.M.S. "Wolverine," who arrived in position of the attack at 2215 and carried out A/S and survivor search throughout the night, firing signal rockets to attract attention.  "Wolverine" sighted H.M.S. "Scarborough" and H.M.S. "Arbutus" at dawn and organised a search.  
          During the night "U 76" reloaded her torpedo tubes, and at 0430 on Saturday, 5th April, 1941, she surfaced again to charge her batteries and get fresh air, but had to submerge almost at once on sighting a destroyer.  
          At 0705 "U 76" again surfaced, but had to dive once more as a destroyer was again seen in sight.  
          The Germans heard the sounds of the British asdic operating, they thought, astern the U-Boat; they described the hunting vessel coming closer and closer until she seemed directly overhead.  "U 76" cook was told not to grind coffee, as the noise might be heard by the British.  
          At 0737, twenty minutes after "Wolverine" had ordered a sweep on course 260° at visibility distance, she gained good contact on the starboard side.  On running in to attack the recorder broke down, and only one depth charge was fired, in order not to confuse unduly the water in the target area.  
          According to prisoners "U 76" was at 70 m. (229 ft.).  
          This first depth charge, set to explode at 250 ft. put the depth gauge out of action and caused sundry broken instrument glasses, and other minor damage.  
          At 0745 "Arbutus" was ordered to close to assist.  
          At 0752 "Wolverine" dropped another single depth charge set at 500 ft.  
          Prisoners thought this attack was less effective.  
          At 0810 "Scarborough" was ordered to join and classify contact.  
          At 0815 "Wolverine" indicated target to "Arbutus," who confirmed the contact, extent of target 3°, but lost it on running in to attack.  
          At 0848 "Wolverine" again gained contact, and indicated it to"Scarborough," who attacked at 0920 with four depth charges set at 150 feet, and four at 300 feet.  
          It was stated by several men and confirmed fairly conclusively that "U 76" was at a depth of 80 m. (262 ft.) when this last attack was made.  
          The junior officer expressed the opinion that three of these depth charges might have been set at 80 m. (262 ft.), three at 90 m. (295 ft.), one at 95 m. (311.6 ft.), and one at about 100 m. (328 ft.).  He added that in such circumstances a U-Boat would be doomed.  
          The Engineer Officer thought that one of the depth charges must have exploded close to and level with the conning tower.  
          One depth charge which exploded close to the port side caused most of the damage.  Serious leaks started aft by a welded seam giving away, all the instruments were destroyed, a stanchion was bent, and most of the remaining lights were extinguished.  The U-Boat went down by the stern.  It was stated that no water entered the Control Room, of the Diesel compartment, but the Captain considered that the Diesels had been put out of action.  
          "U 76" was forced to the surface, and the crew scrambled out through the conning tower hatch.   
          When there were only five men left in the U-Boat the Captain gave the order to open the stern torpedo tube; it could not be ascertained whether this order was carried out.  The last to leave the U-Boat were the Sub-Lieutenant and the Engineer Officer.  
          "Scarborough" fired several rounds to discourage any attempt on the part of the Germans to man their guns, and "Arbutus" signalled "Am ramming," but hauled off as the U-Boat's crew were seen to be abandoning ship.  
 
        The entire complement was rescued with the exception of one rating.  The German Captain stated that this man died because he jumped into the sea before putting the mouth-piece of his escape apparatus into his mouth.  He allowed sea water to get into the breathing tube; this acted on the potash cartridge and produce potash lye; he then put the mouth-piece between his teeth, and breathed in acidular gasses from the apparatus; these burnt his lungs.
 
     
  (C41407)                                                                                                                    B**2  
     
     

 

     
     
 
10
     
          Prisoners stated that "U 76" was not scuttled, and that no scuttling charges had been fixed.  
          It was also stated that the secret cyphering machine (M. Schlussel) was smashed to pieces by the crew before surfacing.  
          According to the Captain there was an excess pressure inside the U-Boat when she surfaced for the last time.  
          The batteries were said to have been nearly discharged and "U 76" would have had to surface shortly to recharge.  
          An attempt to board "U 76" was made by "Arbutus," but water had risen to within 5 ft. of the conning tower hatch.  Chlorine gas from the batteries was also present.  The German Captain expressed surprise that no one had managed to get into the U-Boat, and added that the British would have found the contents of his writing table extremely interesting.  
          Survivors stated that "U 76" was bound for Lorient.  
     
 
VI.  DETAILS OF "U 76"
 
     
  (i)  General Remarks  
          "U 76" was said to be of the improved 500-ton type, to have been built at the Vulkan Werke, Vegesack, near Bremen, and to have had a displacement of 517 tons.  
          The following details of "U 76" were obtained from a notebook belonging to one of the Engine Room Petty Officers.  The tank capacities are given in the order in which they were written in the notebook, evidently from aft to the forward end of the boat.  
     
 
DETAILS OF "U 76"
 
 
Length 76 m. (249.3 ft.).
Diameter 4.8 m. (15.74 ft.).
Diameter of Pressure Hull 4.9 m. (16.07 ft.).
Watertight Compartment aft (Wasserd, Heck) 3.4 cu. m.
Ballast Tank (Tauchzelle I) 31.4 cu. m.
Trimming Tank aft (Trimmzelle) 3.5 cu. m.
Torpedo Tank I (Torp. Zelle I) 2.3 cu. m.
Distilled Water Tank aft (Dest. Wassert. H) 500 litres.
Motor Oil Storage Tank T I (Mot. Öl Vorrat T I) 3.3 cu. m.
Motor Oil Storage Tank T 2 (Mot. Öl Vorrat T 2) 3.2 cu. m.
Dirty Oil Tank (Schmutzöltank) 400 litres.
Motor lubricating oil drain tank Port (Mot, ÖL Sammel T. B.B.) 1 cu. m.
Motor lubricating oil drain tank Starboard (Mot, ÖL Sammel T. St.B.) 1 cu. m.
Oil Fuel Storage Tank (Treibölsammelt.) 430 litres.
Drinking Water tank I (Trinkwasserzelle I) 2.6 cu. m.
Dirty Water Tank I (Schmutzw, Zelle I) 760 litres.
Oil Fuel Tank I (Treibölbunker I) 32.5 cu. m.
Oil Fuel Tank 2 (Treibölbunker 2) 32.8 cu. m.
Ballast Tank 3 (Tauchzelle 3) 44.8 cu. m.
Drinking Water Tank 2 (Trinkw, Zelle 2) 500 litres.
Dirty Water Tank 2 (Schmutzw, Zelle 2) 500 litres.
Washing Water Tank (Waschw, Zelle) 430 litres.
Torpedo Tank 2 (Torp. Zelle 2) 6 cu. m.
Torpedo Tank 3 (Torp. Zelle 3) 6 cu. m.
Forward Trimming Tank (Trimmzelle v.) 3.6 cu. m.
Ballast Tank 5 (Tauchzelle 5) 26.4 cu. m.
Watertight Compartment Forward (Wasserd. Back) 8.4 cu. m.
Ballast Tank 2 each (Tauchbunker 2 je) 11.3 cu. m.
Compensating Tank each (Regelbunker je) 5 cu. m.
Compensating Tank each (Regelzelle je) 8.4 cu. m.
Ballast Tank 4 each (Tauchbunker 4 je) 13 cu. m.
 
     
  (ii)  Diesels  
          M.A.N. Diesels were installed in "U 76," and were stated to be as good as "Krupp" Diesels.  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
11
     
  (iii)  Motors  
         The motors, Brown Boberi type, were built at Mannheim, and developed 375 h.p. each.  
     
  (iv)  Speeds  
          "U 76's" utmost speed on the surface was stated to have been from 16 to 17 knots.  The engine revolutions per minute at emergency full speed (3XA.K.) were given as 380, but it was added that the engines never had exceeded 300 revolutions.  
          Engine revolutions, when proceeding submerged at economic speed, were stated to be 90, while at utmost speed they were given as 240.  
          The Chief Mechanician asserted that "U 76" could do 9 knots submerged with the periscope withdrawn.  
     
  (v)  Tanks  
          "U 76" was stated to have had saddle tanks which were used for oil fuel storage.  
     
  (vi)  Air Pressure  
          According to prisoners the usual air pressure in "U 76" was 25 kg. per sq.cm. (3,555 lbs./sq.in.). air pressure left.  The air bottles are in series, so that all empty themselves one after the other.  
     
  (vii)  Locker arrangement in Bow Compartment of "U 76"  
          A document taken from one of the survivors of "U 76" gave the arrangement of lockers in the bow compartment of this U-Boat.  A reproduction of this document is given below.  It will be seen that some of the lockers are allotted to two ratings who share the space between them.  
     
 
 
     
  (C41407)                                                                                                                      B**3  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
12
     
          In connection with the above diagram it is interesting to note that a portion of a locker made  of 3-ply wood and marked with two aluminum tallies: 122 Geschirrspind (Mess Trap Locker) was recovered, together with a quantity of clothing, by H.M. Trawler "Visenda" after an attack made by her on a U-Boat at 0825 on Sunday, 23rd March, 1941, in position 62° 37' N., 16° 47' W.  
          It would appear that this U-Boat, the number of which is at present unknown, had the same locker arrangement as "U 76" and her destruction may have been due to the depth charge attack having detonated a torpedo head in the bow compartment.  
     
  (viii)  Detector Gear  
          Detector gear (S-Gerät) was not fitted in "U 76."  
     
  (ix)  Transmission of Orders  
          Contrary to previous statements by prisoners that the improved 500-ton U-Boat had microphones and loud-speakers for the transmission of orders, "U 76" does not appear to have been fitted with this gear.  When the crew were at action stations the orders were passed from man to man, and a specially detailed engine room rating was posted in the quarters of the Chief Petty Officer, and had to pass orders back to the engine room.  
     
  (x)  Device  
          A shield with an arrow pointing upwards was painted on the conning tower.  
     
 
VII.  OTHER U-BOATS
 
     
  (i)  "U 6"  
          It was stated that "U 6" was at Pillau during the summer of 1940.  
     
  (ii)  "U 10"  
          Several prisoners said that they had been trained in "U 10" at Pillau during the summer of 1940; the Captain was stated to have been Oberleutnant zur See Georg Peters.  
     
  (iii) "U 28"  
          The transfer of "U 28" to the U-Boat Training Flotilla was confirmed.  
     
  (iv)  "U 34"  
          It was confirmed that "U 34" had also been transferred to the U-Boat Training Flotilla.  
     
  (v)  "U 37," "U 43,", "U 46," U 52," "U 56," "U 57," "U 58," "U 59," U 61" and "U 62"  
          It was stated that "U 37," "U 43,", "U 46," U 52," "U 56," "U 57," "U 58," "U 59," U 61" and "U 62" were available for active service.  
          An engine room Petty Officer of "U 76" claimed to have carried out some repairs to "U 56" at Kiel; from an examination of details of this man's career, this work must have been done after July, 1940.  
          It was stated that "U 57," while under the command of Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Korth, had been sunk and subsequently raised.  
     
  (vi)  "U 65" (Series "U 64" - "U 68" - Deschimag Yard, Bremen)  
          "U 65" was stated to be the second U-Boat of the 750-ton boats of this series built by Deschimag, Bremen; this series was described as comprising "U 64" - "U 68."  It seems possible that some of the boats of this series whilst building were reconstructed and fitted with saddle tanks.  
     
  (vii)  "U 67"  
          It was implied that "U 67" had been recently completed, and was, or would shortly be, ready for active service.  
     
  (viii)  "U 68"  
          "U 68" seems, from a statement made by a prisoner of war, to have been reconstructed whilst still building as mentioned above, and was fitted with saddle tanks, similarly to the series "U 103" to "U 111" which were laid down at the same yard in 1939.  
     
  (ix)  "U 69"  
          "U 69" was said to be available for active service.  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
13
     
  (x)  "U 71"  
          According to the Captain of "U 76," "U 71" was expected to be available for active service shortly.  
     
  (xi)  "U 72"  
          "U 72" was stated to be effective.  
     
  (xii)  "U 73" (Series commencing with "U 73," Vulkan Yard, Vegesack)  
          Most prisoners agreed that "U 73" was the first of a series of 500-ton U-Boats being constructed by the Vulkan Werke at Vegesack.  It was added that she had completed her trials by the end of November or early in December, 1940, and that she was commanded by Kapitänleutnant Rosenbaum.  
          An officer survivor of "U 100," which left Germany on 9th March, 1941, stated that to his knowledge Rosenbaum had sunk up to that date about 30,000 tons of shipping.  
          The German High Command communiqué of 4th April, 1941, claimed that Rosenbaum had played an important part in the sinking by U-Boats of 88,000 tons of shipping, of which 58,000 tons, comprising ten ships, were sunk in one convoy.  
     
  (xiii)  "U 74"  
          Prisoners stated that "U 74" was the second U-Boat of this series to be completed; she was said to have finished her trials early in December, soon after "U 73," and to be commanded by Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Kentrat, an officer of the 1928 term, who had previously served in large surface ships and was a newcomer to the U-Boat branch, "U 74" being his first command.  
          Several prisoners described "U 74" as having had to return to Vegesack in December, 1940, for some alterations.  
          No claims have yet been made by the Germans on behalf of Kentrat.  
     
  (xiv)  "U 75"  
          "U 75," the third of this series, was said to have been completed at about the same time as "U 78" and also carried out trials at the same time.  
          It was implied that she was not yet available for active service.  
     
  (xv)  "U 77"  
          "U 77" was said not to have been completed yet.  
     
  (xvi)  "U 93" (Series "U 93" to "U 102" - Germania Yard, Kiel)  
          "U 93" was described as being a 500-ton U-Boat of the series "U 93" to "U 102," built by the Germania Yard at Kiel.  SHe was completed after "U 100," which was completed about the end of May, 1940.  
          It was stated that "U 93" was commanded by Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Claus Korth, who was known to have formerly commanded the 250-ton "U 57."  
          Prisoners stated that "U 93" sank 14,000 tons on her first cruise.  
          Survivors of "U 100" claimed to have seen "U 93" at Lorient about the end of September, 1940.  
          "U 93" was said to have left on her second cruise about the middle of October; this was described as being completely unsuccessful.  
          It was stated that "U 93" did not take part in the attack on the convoy HX 79 on the night of 19th/20th October, 1940.  Prisoners said that "U 93," on hearing the depth charge attacks on "U 100," made off and returned to Lorient, arriving there on 25th October, 1940.  
          Korth was known to have been in Lorient on 24th December, 1940.  
     
  (xvii)  "U 94"  
          The First Lieutenant of "U 76" said that the Captain of "U 94" was Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Herbert Kuppisch; this officer of the 1932 term has been serving in U-Boats since 1st January, 1936, and in 1938 had command of a 250-ton U-Boat of the 5th U-Boat Flotilla "Emsmann."  
          On 17th June, 1940, the German High Command communiqué claimed that the U-Boat commanded by Kuppisch had successfully attacked a British auxiliary cruiser of approximately 9,000 tons in the Moray Firth.  
     
  (C41407)                                                                                                                   B**4  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
14
     
          A day later Bremen broadcast further details, claiming that towards midnight on the date in question the British auxiliary cruiser, which was being convoyed by aircraft and patrol vessels, was hit astern by a torpedo; as the cruiser did not sink, the U-Boat returned about three hours later and fired a second torpedo which struck the auxiliary cruiser amidships.  In the meantime various British destroyers, U-Boat hunting craft, and aircraft had arrived on the scene and attacked the U-Boat with depth charges and bombs.  As the damaged ship was, however, still afloat, Kuppisch launched a third attack about two hours later, which resulted in the sinking of the British vessel.  By fine seamanship Kuppisch succeeded in navigating his U-Boat home safely after shaking off the enemy, who pursued him for hours.  
          Note.  These claims cannot be associated with any known attack.  
          No further claims have been made on behalf of Kuppisch since the above broadcast.  
     
  (xviii)  "U 96"  
          According to prisoners from "U 76," Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Heinrich Lehmann-Willenbrock was in command of "U 96."  She was said to have been completed after the end of May, 1940.  
          The German High Command communiqué of 14th December, 1940, claimed that Lehmann-Willenbrock had sunk on his most recent cruise 40,900 tons of shipping, part of which had been previously announced.  
          A German broadcast on 4th January, 1941, gave some details of the above claims, and stated that Lehmann-Willenbrock's U-Boat encountered bad weather throughout the cruise, and that, on 12th December, 1940, while struggling against a N.W. wind, she sighted a British convoy of at least sixteen ships.  At short range a torpedo was fired at the leading ship in the convoy; this ship was hit in the bow, and the convoy dispersed in panic.  In spite of the heavy weather the U-Boat then pursued her victims and hit the damaged ship with a second torpedo; the ship then sank.  An hour later an armed motor ship was also sunk, according to this broadcast, and then after eleven minutes another motor ship was also sunk; finally a 4,000-ton freighter was sunk.  The total of these four ships was given as 30,000 tons.  
          Another success alleged by this broadcast was the sinking of a British freighter "Western Thames."  The U-Boat was described as manoeuvering into position with difficulty and torpedoing the ship in the bows, after which "the crew took to the boats, the ship being left to drift," until sunk by another torpedo amidships.  
          The German broadcast added that it was learnt later that the Canadian Minister of Munitions was on board the ship which carried a cargo of "10,000 tons of munitions, and a number of bomber planes for England.  
          (N.I.D. Note.  The ship referred to was S.S. "Western Prince," torpedoed at 0640 G.M.T. on 14th December, 1940, in position 59° 32' N. and 17° 47' W.  The description of her cargo is a gross exaggeration of fact.)  
          After a period at his base, Lehmann-Willenbrock made another cruise in February, 1941, as on 25th February, 1941, the German High Command claimed that this officer had participated in the recent U-Boat successes to the extent of having sunk 55,600 tons of shipping, which brought his grand total to 125,850 tons of shipping sunk within a short time.  
          On 28th February, 1941, Lehmann-Willenbrock was decorated with the Knight Insignia of the Iron Cross, and it was stated that he was the twenty-fifth member of the U-Boat branch to receive this honour, and that he had so far sunk fourteen merchant ships totalling over 125,000 tons.  
          On 2nd March, 1941, he broadcast in German for Germany; a translation of this broadcast is included in this report as Appendix I.  
     
  (xix)  "U 98"  
          It was claimed that "U 98" was available for active service.  
     
  (xx)  "U 103" (Series "U 103" to "U 111" - Deschimag Yard, Bremen)  
          "U 103" belongs to the series of U-Boats laid down by Deschimag, Bremen, in 1939.  This series is believed to have a displacement of at least 750 tons.  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
15
     
  (xxi)  "U 104"  
          The First Lieutenant of "U 76" stated that "U 104" was commanded by Korvettenkapitän (Commander) Viktor Schütze.  Of the 1925 term, he is known to have been in the U-Boat service since 1935.  He appears to be an officer of considerable experience and influence in naval circles, and often to have been present during various U-Boat trials, as he is known to be experienced in details of construction.  Prisoners captured early in November, 1940, stated that Schütze then had a brand new U-Boat and that he was in the habit of attacking his victims at night.  
          According to the German press Schutze and his U-Boat were at a French base.   
          The German High Command communiqué of 4th December, 1940, stated that Schütze's U-Boat had sunk up to that date on her latest cruise six merchant ships totalling 31,500 tons, thereby bringing Schütze's grand total to 94,500 tons of shipping sunk.  
          This indicates that Schütze had sunk 63,000 tons of shipping on one or more earlier cruises.  
          A further official German claim on 10th December, 1940, added that Schütze had sunk two more merchant ships, thus increasing his total for that cruise to 45,000 tons.  
          On 16th December, 1940, Schütze was awarded the Knight Insignia of the Iron Cross, and it was officially stated that he had sunk twenty ships totalling 109,317 tons within a very short space of time.  
     
  (xxii)  "U 105"  
          According to the First Lieutenant of "U 76," Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Schewe was in command of "U 105."  
          Prisoners who had formerly served in the battle cruiser "Gneisenau" stated that they saw "U 105" off the Azores about the middle of March, 1941.  
          On 22nd March, 1941, the German High Command communiqué stated that the U-Boats under the command of Kapitänleutnante (Lieutenant-Commanders) Oesten and Schewe had particularly distinguished themselves in the attack on a British convoy off the West Coast of Africa; the German claim added that U-Boats had sunk eleven ships totalling 77,000 tons by shadowing the convoy for several days and making repeated attacks.  
     
  (xxiii)  "U 106"  
          Prisoners from "Gneisenau" claimed that they saw "U 106" off the Azores about the middle of March, 1941.   
     
  (xxiv)  "U 107"  
          Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Scholtz was said to have command of "U 107."  This statement was not confirmed.  Scholtz is an officer of the 1927 term, and was formerly in command of the torpedo boat "Jaguar."  
     
  (xxv)  "U 108"  
          Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Hessier was stated to be in command of "U 108."  This officer of the 1927 term was formerly an officer in the training ship "Schlesien."  
     
  (xxvi)  "U 109"  
 
        The First Lieutenant of "U 76" stated that "U 109" was commanded by an officer named Fischer.  It is presumed that this refers to Korvettenkapitän Heinz Fischer, of the 1925 term, who transferred to U-Boats in 1935.  This highly experienced officer is known to have held several important appointments, and was believed to have been Commanding Officer of the U-Boat base at Lorient.
 
     
  (xxvii)  "U 110"  
          A Chief Petty Officer of "U 76" stated that he went on board "U 110" in January 1941 at Warnemünde where both U-Boats were delayed by ice conditions.  This man thought that the displacement of "U 110" was about 900 tons, and said that this U-Boat had saddle tanks and was armed with a 10.5 cm. (4 in.) gun  
     
     

 

     
     
 
16
     
  forward of the conning tower; he believed that "U 110" had five bow and two stern torpedo tubes, the fifth bow tube being placed centrally on a lower level than the other tubes.  It was said that she could carry about twenty torpedoes, of which four could be carried on beck, two being forward and two aft.  
          This U-Boat was described as being specially constructed for operating in the South Atlantic.  
          The complement was given as about four officers and forty-six men, and it was confirmed that Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Fritz-Julius Lemp was in command.  
          According to prisoners, Lemp has retained on the conning tower of "U 110" the badge of a terrier which he had always borne in "U 30."  
          (Note.  Since this report was written "U 110" has been sunk and the above details are correct, except that her tonnage is 750 tons and her complement four officers and 42 men.)  
     
  (xxviii)  "U 111"  
          According to the officers of "U 76," the Captain of "U 111" was Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Kleinschmidt.  This officer of the 1932 term was formerly a torpedo officer in the cruiser "Nürnberg."  
     
  (xxix)  "U 120" and "U 121"  
          It was stated that "U 120" and "U 121" were the first of a new series of large U-Boats of 750 tons or 900 tons displacement.  
     
  (xxx)  "U 123"  
          "U 123" was described as a fairly recently completed U-Boat of about 750 tons, which may already have carried out two or three cruises.  
     
  (xxxi)  "U 124"  
          Prisoners who had formerly served in the battle cruiser "Gneisenau" stated that they had seen "U 124" off the Azores about the middle of March, 1941.  
     
  (xxxii)  "U 143"  
          "U 143" was thought to have carried out trials in the Baltic in May, 1940, and was described as having a displacement of 300 tons.  
     
  (xxxiii)  "U 144"  
          A prisoner stated that he had joined "U 144" in October, 1940 at Kiel and that von Hippel was then in command.  This U-Boat was said to have been built by the Deutsche Werke in Kiel and to have a displacement of 300 tons, and to be equipped with external tanks; her armament was given as one 20 mm. A.A. gun forward and three bow torpedo tubes, but no stern tube; it was denied that she had any detector gear (S-Gerät).  
 
        According to this prisoner, trials were carried out in the Baltic during October, November and December, 1940, and Danzig and Gotenhafen were visited.  Mention was made of practice attacks on a convoy protected by the escort ship "Wilhelm Bauer," another U-Boat if unknown identity number taking part.
 
          Von Hippel left "U 144" early in December and no war cruises were carried out before Christmas, 1940.  
     
  (xxxiv)  H.M.S. "Seal"  
          Prisoners repeated criticisms of "Seal," described her as very primitive; she is known in Kiel as "Noah's Ark."  
          It was stated that her stern had been considerably altered.  
          "Seal" was said to have been to sea in German service three times, and to have been forced to return on each occasion owing to some damage or defect; a Petty Officer prisoner thought that her diving tanks were not tight, and that leakage of water into the tanks made it necessary to blow tanks every three hours.  
     
     

 

     
     
 
17
     
          The W/T installation was stated to be exceptionally good according to German standards.  A W/T Petty Officer said that he had been told that "Seal's" transmitting gear had a strength of three kilowatts, whereas the German battleships transmitted on a strength of only 800 watts.  This man added that that fact explained the excellent W/T performance of the British.  
          Another defect of this submarine was said to be the fact that in the event of loss of oil pressure, the torpedo caps could not be opened by hand.  
          Although accommodation was admitted to be much superior to that of U-Boats, the Germans thought "Seal" unwieldy, and too slow in diving.  
          Prisoners thought "Seal" would more probably be used for training than carrying out war cruises.  
     
  (xxxv)  Dutch Submarines  
          A prisoner, most of whose statements were proved correct, said that there were two or three Dutch submarine of about 600 tons at Kiel, where they were used to charge the batteries of the German U-Boats.  
     
  (xxxvi)  Italian Submarines  
          Prisoners said that some Italian submarines were used as weather reporting craft.  
     
 
VIII.  U-BOAT CONSTRUCTION
 
     
  (i)  General Remarks  
          Neither officers nor men of the U-Boats have any accurate knowledge of the rate of U-Boat construction.  Very much exaggerated reports are intentionally spread in Germany for the purpose of keeping up the morale of the people, and of U-Boat crews in particular.  Statements are made of U-Boat section being built at the Florisdoerfer Locomotiv Works in Vienna, at a factory in Breslau, at Halle, and at a large number of other industrial towns in the interior.  These statements should be treated with considerable reserve as there is no evidence that anything more than engines, electrical and other accessories are built anywhere except at the shipbuilding yards.  
          Most prisoners took it for granted that U-Boats were now being built in many yards at various places.  In addition to the usual U-Boat building yards such as the Germania Yard and the Deutsche Werke at Kiel, the Deschimag at Bremen,m and Blom & Voss at Hamburg, other yards mentioned were the Howaldt Werke at Kiel, and other unspecified yards at Hamburg, Wilhelmshaven, Danzig and Lübeck.  
          Blohm & Voss of Hamburg were thought to have an extensive programme for the building of U-Boats.  
          Prisoners said that no 250-ton U-Boats were being produced, but that a number of 300-ton U-Boats were being built by the Deutsche Werke at Kiel; it wa added that no other yard at Kiel was building this type.  
          The Howaldt Yard at Kiel wa said to have started building U-Boats about September, 1940; the first U-Boat, a 500-ton type, was seen almost completed early in February in this yard.  
          At Lübeck only one yard was stated to be thus employed.  
          It was denied that any U-Boats were being built at Gotenhafen or Cuxhaven.  
     
  (ii)  Vulkan Yard, Vegesack  
          Prisoners stated that the Vulkan Yard at Vegesack only started building U-Boats after the outbreak of war, and was believed to have received an order for a large number of U-Boats.  
          Only four of these were laid down and being built when the crew of "U 76" were appointed to stand by their U-Boat under construction, from the end of August to December, 1940.  
          These U-Boat were "U 73," "U 74," "U 75," and "U 76," on completion of which four more further boats, if space permitted, would be laid down, and their identity numbers would be somewhere between 112 and 200.  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
18
     
          Prisoners stated that there was only one slipway suitable for U-Boat construction at the Vulkan Yard, where four U-Boats were constructed at the same time.  
          Although it was admitted that considerable specialised experience in building U-Boats was required, no complaints were made regarding the construction of "U 76."  
     
 
IX.  U-BOAT LOSSES
 
     
  (i)  "U 57"  
          The First Lieutenant of "U 76" stated that "U 57," a 250-ton U-Boat, had been sunk while under the command of Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Claus Korth, but had been raised and was in service again.  This officer is known to have been in France, probably at Lorient, on 24th December, 1940; the former Engineer Officer of "U 57" was also in Lorient in February, 1941.  It therefore seems probable that the sinking of "U 57" occurred towards the end of 1940, and that at least some of the crew were rescued; previous reports to the effect that "U 57" was being used for training would indicate that she was sunk in the Baltic, probably off Pillau.  
     
  (ii)  Possible Losses  
          Officers of "U 76" enumerated U-Boats which they believed to have been sunk; many of these losses have been confirmed in the past and other more recently.  The alleged loss of "U 50" and "U 60" have not yet been confirmed, and should be treated with reserve.  
     
  (iii)  "U 122"  
          The Captain of "U 76" stated that Korvettenkapitän (Commander) Heinz Günther Looff was lost when "U 122" ran into a mine and sank.  It was stated previously that Looff had been missing since July, 1940, but the number of his U-Boat had not been established.  (See C.B.4051 (15), page 24.)  
     
  (iv)  Unidentified U-Boat. possibly "U 59"  
          A letter from Germany, dated 9th February, 1941, stated that Kapitänleutnant Harald Jürst and his entire crew had been lost.  The letter said that he had sent the boat to the bottom himself ("Er selbst hat das Boot in den Grund gebohrt.")  This may merely indicate that he had managed to send a W/T message to the effect that he had sunk his boat to prevent her falling into enemy hands.  
          Another letter written to a prisoner of war in Canada by Harald Jürst's sister living in Kiel and dated 29th January, 1941, said that Jürst had been in Kiel at the end of October and that "he has been travelling on business since the beginning of November and is not yet back."  
          It is conceivable that "U 59," or another boat under the command of Jürst, was sunk by H.M.S. "Rhododendron" on the 21st November, 1940, in 56° 30' N. and 14° 10' W.  
     
  (v)  U-Boats Sunk by the German Air Force  
          Prisoners stated that a number of U-Boats had been sunk by German aircraft which had mistaken them for British submarines; the number of losses incurred in this was was variously stated to be from three to six U-Boats.  
     
 
X.  TECHNICAL REMARKS
 
 
 
  (i)  Torpedoes  
          The Torpedo Petty Officer of "U 76" stated that his U-Boat was intended to carry fourteen torpedoes, of which ten would be electric and four would be air torpedoes; the latter, requiring little attention at sea, were stowed in the more inaccessible positions.  According to this prisoner, the 750-ton U-Boats can carry twenty-six torpedoes, of which ten are housed on deck.  This statement should be treated with reserve.  
          He said that torpedo parts are manufactured in many places in Germany and assembled in Kiel; he specially mentioned Dresden and added that the torpedoes were tested in the Elbe.  He had not heard of a shortage of the supply of torpedoes.  
     
     

 

     
     
 
19
     
          Another prisoner stated, but his remarks were not confirmed, that torpedoes were being produced by the Germania Yard and the Deutsche Werke, both at Kiel.  
          The Torpedo Petty Officer stated that torpedoes with magnetic pistols were no longer being used, but added that he thought it possible that magnetic pistols could be used on electric torpedoes, if the torpedoes were demagnitised; he also believed that in the future a kind of magnetic pistol might be used which would explode when it reached a demagnitised area such as a degaussed vessel; he thought that a similar principle might be applied to mines.  
          The older type of torpedoes were said to have bronze heard, while the new ones have heads of thin steel.  Prisoners knew of only one standard warhead, and professed never to have seen any special type, or any warhead with special markings.  
          The pistol was considered extremely secret and was the responsibility of the First Lieutenant, who acted as Torpedo Officer.  Prisoners thought it unlikely that the officer made any adjustment to the pistol on board.  
          The Torpedo Petty Officer and torpedo ratings of "U 76" had never heard of an incendiary warhead, nor of internal combustion engines being used as a means of propulsion.  
          These prisoners stated that the speed of the electric torpedo was 30 knots, which could not be varied; they gave the range as 5,000 metres (5,468 yards).  The air torpedo was said to have three speed settings, namely 30, 40 and 44 knots, and ranges varying from 17,000 or 18,000 metres at 30 knots to 6,000 metres at 44 knots; these performance figures are considered slightly high.  
          It was claimed that accuracy of aim could be relied upon up to a range of 10,000 metres.  
          Prisoners stated that the torpedo tubes have no opening enabling adjustments to be made whilst in the tube.  
          According to these prisoners the gyro was capable of being revved up to 11,000 rev./min. in 1/200th of a second and then accelerated to 20,000 rev./min.  Angle firing could be used, the maximum angle being 90°; the angle adjustment and firing being effected from the control room.  Prisoners stated that tests are being carried out which might make it possible for a U-Boat submerged below periscope depth to aim, but that at the present time this is not possible.  
          During trials exercise attacks on convoys were said to have been practised and torpedoes fired at ranges of about 1,000 metres (1,093 yards).  
          It was stated that torpedoes were never set to run less than two metres (2.4 yards) deep, but that they are very seldom set at this minimum depth, the more usual setting being 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7 metres.  The adjustment for depth is made just before the torpedo is fired.  
          A Chief Petty Officer stated that the heads of practice torpedoes contain a composition which, when acted on by seawater, emits an orange flare; this enables the course of the torpedo to be followed easily at night.  These flares are said to burn under water, although usually the torpedoes run on the surface during practices.  
          An officer prisoner stated that experiments were being carried out on a torpedo which would react to sound, so that after being fired in the direction of a ship it would be attracted to its target by the sounds made by the ship, which could therefore not save itself by changing course.  According to this prisoner, the "acoustic" torpedo might involve only a relatively slight alteration in the design of torpedoes as a whole, the normal method of propulsion being retained.  
     
  (ii)  Detector Gear (S-Gerät)  
          Prisoners said that detector gear (S-Gerät) had been installed in a few U-Boats only, of which "U 76" was not one.  This gear had hitherto proved unsatisfactory.  Two old torpedo boats, the "Strahl" and the "Hummer," were stated to be carrying out tests with detector gear.  
          Some German surface vessels have been fitted with a detector gear which, amongst other fittings, has a graduated disc, 25 cm. in diameter, a guide wheel with pointer, and which is used in combination with headphones.  Its effective  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
20
     
  range was given as 800 metres.  A prisoner stated that the German gear was only half as efficient as that used by the British Navy.  
     
  (iii)  Saddle Tanks  
          It was stated that the 500-ton U-Boats have saddle tanks.  
     
 
XI.  GENERAL REMARKS ON U-BOATS
 
     
  (i)  U-Boat Flotillas  
          The First Lieutenant of "U 99" stated that the former organisation of U-Boat flotillas bearing the names of famous U-Boat captains of the Great War had been superseded by an arrangement of numbered flotillas.  
          It seems that there are at present three flotillas consisting of about 30 U-Boats in each.  These are the 1st, 2nd and 7th flotillas.  
         It was stated that, up to the time when "U 88" left on her last cruise (22nd February, 1941), nearly all the active service U-Boats were based on Lorient, although only the 2nd U-Boat Flotilla was supposed to be based on that port.  It was also stated that other U-Boat bases were being established at Brest and St. Nazaire, each of which were to have a U-Boat flotilla.  
          The bases were to attend to the storing, refitting as far as practicable, and general administrative requirements of U-Boats and crews when in harbour.  
          The commanding officers of the flotillas were to deal only with administration, and not with operational or tactical matters.  
     
  (ii)  Co-operation with Aircraft  
          It was stated that Vizeadmiral Dönitz, commanding U-Boats, had had a quarrel with Field Marshal Goering over the use of Focke-Wulf Kondor flying boats which culminated in Goering refusing Dönitz the co-operation of any of "his" air force.  
          An appeal was made over Goering's head to Hitler, who placed the Kondor squadron, known as K.G. 40, under the command of Major Petersen, under Dönitz direct orders.  
          It appears that Goering then wanted to use the Kondors against the British in Africa, and asked Dönitz to release these aircraft.  On Dönitz refusing to comply, Hitler was rung up by telephone, and decided that Dönitz was to retain them, whereupon Goering retired to Karinhall in a huff.  
          Since then the co-operation between U-Boats and Kondors has greatly improved.  
          In addition to attacking shipping, the Kondors on reconnaissance send back to the Admiral reports regarding the position, movements and constitution of British convoys and details of escorts.  
          While discussing aircraft in general a Chief Petty Officer stated that he believed that reconnaissance aircraft were kept informed as to the whereabouts of operating U-Boats; these aircraft reported details of convoys and escorts, and U-Boats were obliged to attempt an attack.  
     
  (iii)  Opinions on Tactics  
          Kretschmer, of "U 99," expressed the opinion that a U-Boat should not attack a full tanker from a distance nearer than 600 metres (656 yards).  
          He also said that U-Boats should operate much further out in the Atlantic, and allow the German Air Force to deal with shipping nearer to the British Isles.  
          He criticised the electric motors of U-Boats on the score of excessive noise, and added that "U A," the U-Boat built for Turkey but taken over by Germany at the outbreak of war, was even noisier, as were also the Danish submarines.  
     
  (iv)  Patrol Areas  
          It was stated that each U-Boat has a definite operating area allocated to it and is not allowed to leave that area unless ordered to do so.  Permission to leave the area would be granted by the Vice-Admiral Commanding U-Boats only in exceptional circumstances, such as advantageous opportunity of attacking a convoy.  
          Officers of "U 76" indicated the usual western limit of the U-Boat operating area as approximately 30° W., extending slightly further north than 60° N.;  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
21
     
  the limit then curved north-eastwards towards Reykjavik, but it was added that U-Boats were allowed to go as far west as 47° W.  A number of U-Boats were said to have been operating in positions 30° W.  
     
  (v)  Astro-Navigation  
          It was stated by a Chief Quartermaster that astro-navigation was extensively used in U-Boats, and that they surfaced at dawn and at dusk while the horizon was still visible.  
     
  (vi)  Sighting of Aircraft  
          It was stated that U-Boats used their second periscope for sighting aircraft.  
     
  (vii)  Bridge Watch  
          Prisoners stated that when the U-Boat was on the surface the watch on the bridge consisted of one officer, one petty officer and two ratings.  
     
  (viii)  Engine-room Watches  
          The Chief Mechanician of "U 76" stated that there are two engine-room watches in U-Boats; each watch consists of three petty officers for the Diesels, four ratings for the electric motors, and three men in the control room.  
          The watches are from 0200 to 0800, 0800 to 1200, 1200 to 1600, 1600 to 200 and 200 to 0200 (German time).  
     
  (ix)  W/T and Listening Gear Watches  
          W/T and listening gear watches in U-Boats are performed by two petty officers and two ratings.  One of these four men is always on duty, keeping W/T watch when on the surface and listening watch when submerged.  The two Petty officers are responsible for entering all signals in the W/T logs and for making out any reports.  The two ratings act also as officer's servants, and help with meals.  
     
  (x)  U-Boat Officers  
          The First Lieutenant of "U 76" stated that relatively few of the officers who were senior U-Boat Captains at the outbreak of the war are still carrying out war cruises; he admitted that a high proportion of these had been killed or captured, and added that many others had given way beneath the strain of several years o hard, unremitting work before the war, followed by exacting and responsible duties in the early months of the war.  This officer said that from 1935 onwards the U-Boat branch had been relentlessly forced to train at extreme pressure.  
     
  (xi)  Recruiting from Merchant Service  
          The Quartermaster of "U 76," who had formerly served in the merchant service, stated that efforts were being made to draft from the merchant service to each U-Boat a man with experience of navigation.  Such men received little or no U-Boat training, were given petty officer's rank, and were to carry out navigating duties only.  After serving 18 months they were to be granted commissions.  
         This prisoner said that he had been on good terms with the officers of "U 76," who had treated him as an officer.  
     
  (xii)  U-Boat Training Courses  
          Prisoners stated that, owing to the large numbers of men undergoing training, all subjects which could be learnt elsewhere are cut out of the U-Boat course; instruction in these subjects is then given elsewhere in various establishments, such as the naval schools in Wesermünde and Kiel.  
          Several engine room ratings and petty officers said that they had spent some time at the works of big electrical concerns, such as Siemens and the A.E.G. (Allgemeine Elektriczitäts Gesellschaft), where they studied electro-technique.  
          The Captain of "U 76" said that, in the training of all U-Boat personnel, great importance was attached to sport; he stated that two hours daily were devoted to games, and that boxing and baseball were included.  
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
22
     
          Korvettenkapitän (Commander) Wilhelm Rollmann, formerly in command of "U 34" is now at Gotenhafen.  A letter from him to a prisoner of war in Canada dated 2nd January, 1941, said that he was with Korvettenkapitän Ibbeken and that they were engaged in training officers for U-Boats, and that they had a large number of new recruits.  
     
  (xiii)  Victualling and Leave  
          It was again emphasised that U-Boat men get better food, more cigarettes and other rations, and also have more leave than men in other branches of the Navy.  Large quantities of beer are consumed, but spirits are carried for medicinal purposes only.  
     
  (xiv)  Awards to U-Boat Personnel  
          It was stated that 27 Knight Crosses to the Iron Cross had been awarded to members of the U-Boat service up to the end of March, 1940.  
     
  (xv)  Life-Belts  
          Prisoners stated that the life-belts issued to U-Boat personnel are efficient for 48 hours.  
     
  (xvi)  Vice-Admiral Dönitz  
          Vice-Admiral Dönitz, who commands the U-Boat branch of the Navy, was said to have much greater freedom of decision and action than the heads of other branches of the Navy.  
          As a U-Boat Captain of the Great War he enjoys considerable prestige and esteem, but was stated to suffer from chronic digestive troubles.  
     
  (xvii)  Passage of U-Boats through the Danube Canal  
          A German Air Force junior officer prisoner, who had been transferred from the Navy, expressed the opinion that small U-Boats of the 250-ton type could pass through the Danube Canal in spite of the difficulties caused by the locks.  
     
 
XII.  U-BOAT BASES
 
     
  (i)  Wilhelmshaven  
          A Petty Officer prisoner stated that considerable damage was done by air raids to residential areas, four rows of houses being completely wrecked in one district.  
          The Wilhelmshaven Post Office was said to have been destroyed during a mass attack.  
 
        Other prisoners admitted that half of the Tausend Mann barracks had been wrecked.
 
          U-Boat personnel was housed, according to prisoners, in the old Stationsgebäude; it was not known whether this was a temporary or a permanent arrangement.  
     
  (ii)  Plön  
          Prisoners stated that the Petty Officers' Training Establishment had been moved from Plön a long time ago, and that this place is now used as a centre where crews returning from cruises can recuperate when not on leave, and where crews for new U-Boats can be assembled before being drafted elsewhere.  
     
  (iii)  Danzig  
          When at Danzig U-Boats are not kept together in pens, but are moored separately in various parts of the harbour.  
     
     

 

     
     
 
23
     
  (iv)  Pillau  
          Most men at the U-Boat School at Pillau were said to live in the depôt ship "Robert Ley," which was moored alongside the mole.  
          The U-Boat School itself was described as being situated in the new part of the town, known as Pillau I, not far from the railway station.  
     
  (v)  Flensburg-Mürvik  
          The Naval Signal School at Flensburg-Mürvik was said to be a block of buildings surrounded by the Kaiser-Wilhelmstrasse, the Torpedostrasse, the Parkstrasse, and a fourth street.  
          It was stated that three companies of S.S. men (Nazi Storm Guards) were housed in the Naval School at Flensburg.  
     
  (vi)  Rostock  
          The U-Boat Administrative Officers at Rostock appear to be at the Gasthof Schlossgarten.  
     
  (vii)  Vegesack  
          It was stated that the anti-aircraft defences at Vegesack were extremely strong and ranged from guns of 2 cm. to 22 cm. calibre, including some French guns.  
          On one occasion the Vulkan Yard was hit by a bomb during an air raid, but only one crane was destroyed.  
          An intercepted letter to a prisoner of war in Canada dated 16th February, 1941, said that considerable damage had been done in the Vegesack Yards.  
     
 
XIII.  DEPÔT AND OTHER SHIPS
 
     
  (i)  "Wilhelm Bauer"  
          The U-Boat escort ship was said to have a displacement of about 3,000 tons or more, and to have twin gun mountings for 10.5 cm. guns, and a single gun mounting for 3.7 cm. gun, as well as two 20 mm. A.A. guns.  She was also described as carrying some depth charges, although she had no depth charge dropping gear.  The detector gear in this ship was stated to be the best the Germans had produced, but was admitted to be much inferior to the British gear  "Wilhelm Bauer" was also fitted with listening apparatus, but had no R.D/F.  
          About eight ships, mainly old torpedo boats, form a convoy for practice attacks by U-Boats on a convoy.  "Wilhelm Bauer" acts as the convoy escort, and tries to repel the attacks.  
     
  (ii)  "Wesschel"  
 
        It was stated that the "Weischel," a U-Boat depôt ship, was armed with two 20 mm. A.A. guns.  She was at Kiel until Christmas, 1940.
 
     
  (iii)  "Donau"  
          Formerly the depôt ship of the U-Boat Flotilla "Weddigen," the "Donau" is now the escort ship of the U-Boat Training Flotilla.  
     
  (iv)  "Ubina"  
          A ship named "Ubina" was stated to be in use as a U-Boat depôt ship.  Her position was given as opposite the Germania Yard.  
     
  (v)  "Strahl"  
          The "Strahl" was said to have been formerly a British merchant ship, but to belong now to the N.V.K. (Nachrichten Versuchs Kommando) or Signals Experimental Department.  
          She was described as being fitted with detector gear (S-Gerät), and to be in use as an anti-submarine vessel.  
          A prisoner who served in her until April, 1940, claimed that during the time he was on board she sank a British submarine of the "Undine" class in the North Sea.  
     
     

 

     
     
 
24
     
 
XIV.  MISCELLANEOUS REMARKS
 
     
  (i)  Anti-Submarine Nets  
          All prisoners professed to know nothing about anti-submarine nets, except one man who said that he had seen in a field near Brünsbüttel a net about 100 metres long by five or six metres broad; it was formed of metal cables "about as thick as a finger," and the meshes were about one foot square.  
     
  (ii)  British Depth Charges  
          The Officer under instruction captured from "U 99" said that he saw in the ship which rescued him a table showing the settings of depth charges, he noted that the settings were from fifty feet to three hundred and fifty feet.  
          He expressed the opinion that a depth charge set to explode at fifty feet took three seconds to reach that depth.  
     
  (iii)  British Submarines  
          An officer prisoner paid tribute to the excellent camouflage of British submarines in harbour; he said that no German reconnaissance had yet spotted a submarine in harbour.  
     
  (iv)  Promotion of Chief Petty Officers to Commissioned Rank  
          A Chief Petty Officer of a number of years' service stated that chief petty officers were entitled to automatic promotion to commissioned rank after twelve years' service as chief petty officers.  
          Several cases of more rapid promotion from the lower deck have been noted.  
     
  (v)  Reporting Service (Beobachtungsdienst or "B"-Dienst)  
          The German "B"-Dienst was described as the entire W/T reporting service, and as dealing with W/T reports from U-Boats, surface ships, aircraft, and also from agents and spies.  The interception of all British W/T traffic, S.O.S. messages and the monitoring of British radio broadcasts form part of the duties of this important service.  
          The headquarters of the "B"-Dienst are in Berlin.  Here all W/T signals are deciphered, including British naval coded and enciphered messages, according to the First Lieutenant of "U 99," who maintained that the Germans had an astonishing amount of information about British codes and ciphers.  In this connection he added that, owing to the possession of the keys to British ciphers, the Germans at the time of the Norwegian campaign knew the exact position and operating areas with great exactitude.  This officer admitted that on one occasion the Germans could not read British W/T signals for a period of four weeks, owing presumably to a change of ciphers.  
     
  (vi)  Security  
          During a discussion on the maintenance of secrecy, the Captain of "U 76" quoted a special order, said to have been issued by Hitler to the entire German Forces at the beginning of the war, to the effect that no man whatsoever must be allowed to share any knowledge not absolutely essential for the execution of his duty.  
          There are many indications that this doctrine, already very noticeable early in the war , is being more and more rigorously applied.  
 
        While at their bases U-Boat crews are issued with special passes to their own U-Boat, and proceed to their ship by a specified route, as they are not allowed to wander about freely in the dock area, nor are they admitted to any naval or military establishment.
 
          While standing by their U-Boat under construction at the Vulkan Yard, Vegesack, the crew of "U 76" were always marched to and from work in a body, and never allowed to arrive or leave singly.  During this period they were not allowed to mix with crews of other U-Boats.  
          No man is allowed to go aboard any ship but his own, nor is he ever permitted to mention the identity number of his U-Boat.  
     
     

 

     
     
 
25
     
          That all U-Boat personnel has been carefully warned and systematically drilled on the subject of security is proved by the identical answers received from many prisoners; the phrases "Soldateneid" (Soldier's of Sailor's oath) and "Schweigepflicht" (Duty to maintain silence) are repeated over and over again.   
          U-Boat men have been emphatically warned not to discuss in public or in private any service matter whatsoever, and the penalty for infringement may be death.  
          It has been established that the German High Command warned all naval personnel that every prisoner of war will come before a court martial after the war and will be required to clear himself of all suspicion of having divulged any information whatsoever.  This threat has proved a strong deterrent to men who might otherwise have been less cautious' all U-Boat personnel, including officers, live in some degree of fear of this future ordeal, some men being actually terrified as they think that they may find it difficult to establish their innocence.  They are all extremely suspicious of each other and attempt to justify their actions and conversations amongst themselves.  
          A marked difference has often been noted between prisoners who have formerly belonged to the Hitler Youth, and those who were never members of this organisation.  The Hitler Jugend products are much more security-conscious, obstinate to the point of truculence, more domineering, but also more afraid of any future consequences of voluntary or involuntary indiscretions, and consequently more difficult to interrogate.  
     
  (vii)  Intermarriage with Foreign Women  
          One of the more senior naval officers captured recently stated that the German authorities were encouraging and, to some extent subsidising, marriages between Germans and women of "suitable" foreign nations, such as the Norwegians.  The reason given was that such marriages would result in the friendly attitude of the families of the foreign wives, and, in the long run, larger pro-German sections would thus evolve in foreign communities.  
     
  (viii)  Count Ciano  
          The Captain of "U 99" described Ciano as "the deadliest snake."  
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
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APPENDIX I
 
 
 
     
          (Translation of a broadcast in German for Germany on 2nd March, 1941, by Kapitänleutnant (Lieutenant-Commander) Heinrich Lehmann-Willenbrock.)  
     
 
Commentator: "After the awarding of the Knight Insignia of the Iron Cross to Kapitänleutnant Lehmann-Willenbrock our reporter had an opportunity to speak personally with the U-Boat Commander about his last war cruise."
Question: "Kapitan Lehmann; the 55,000 tons which you sank on your last cruise were all from one convoy, were they not?"
Lehmann: "Some we caught independently and some we sank in convoy."
Question: "There were also tankers among them?"
Lehmann: "There were two single (or detached) tankers.  One was of 8,000 tons; it was the ('Kenya'), a beautiful, new, modern British tanker which we attacked on the surface -er- which I attacked by day when submerged.  One torpedo, which struck amidships, was enough.  Is the heavy sea which was running the ship soon broke up.  We then surfaced and sank the two halves with our gun.  (The gunner?), who only seldom is able to use his weapon to advantage in a U-Boat, fired quite a number of rounds, and then she -er- the two halves sank one after the other."
Question: "It was after this that you got your convoy?"
Lehmann: "Yes it was early on a glorious, sunny day- it was already light-when we sighted the smoke plumes.  We then launched ourselves upon this (one word omitted).  We didn't know which to take first.  Just as I was saying 'We'll attack that one,' the Chief Q.M. or the Torpedo Officer cried: 'No she's not big enough, she's only a modest 5,000.  We want something better' - and in this manner we drifted slowly into the convoy, and actually I got the auxiliary cruiser first.  The auxiliary cruiser is, in point of fact, also an armed merchant ship, but with this difference:  she flies a flag from the gaff - an English war flag - we could also see clearly a large number of the crew on the passenger accommodation superstructure.  Then she had guns mounted fore and aft, and a certain amount of (armoured plating?) . . . and as we aimed at her we knew at once that it would be useless unless she had two torpedoes at the same time.  As the two torpedoes struck there was an explosion from the magazine, or whatever it was.  In any case there was a tremendous crash and the papers fluttered off the table in our boat . . . in a short time she went up in the air - more than that - she broke her back and in about nine minutes she was gone."
Question: "So that was the way you got your 55,000 tons on that cruise, and all in all it's now_______?"
Lehmann: "Now I've got 125,000 tons and some more besides."
Commentator: "In the tremendous events through which we are living, and which the world follows with bated breath, we are apt to forget too easily, and too quickly.  This is intelligible, for each day brings something fresh . . .
 
     
 
(End.)
 
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
 

 

     
     
 
27
     
 
APPENDIX II
 
 
 
     
          (Translation of a letter written in German by Steuermannsmaat Carl Becker of "U 76," on board H.M.S. "Arbutus," addressed to Frau Edith Becker, Wiesbaden, Wilhelnstrasse 81, dated Sunday, 6th April, 1941.)  
     
          "I am now a prisoner of war on board a British U-Boat patrol vessel.  I will tell you what has happened.  We were proceeding in the Atlantic, searching for merchant ships, the weather was bad, strength of the wind 6-7.  Shortly after 12 noon on Friday we sighted a ship and proceeded at utmost speed through the mountainous sea in order to overhaul her.  Towards evening we got into a favourable position and sank the ship with one torpedo.  Thereupon, we proceeded away submerged, because we calculated that this ship had summoned a destroyer.  As soon as it was dark we surfaced, but hardly had we achieved this when we saw a destroyer quite close to us.  We immediately submerged.  She had not noticed us.  After a few hours we surfaced again, for we required air and our batteries were also almost exhausted.  We proceeded for about one minute on the surface, when a destroyer came up again.  You can imagine what we felt like.  So again we had to submerge.  
          "In a short time it would become daylight and we should be very fortunate to escape.  Had our batteries been fully charged, it would perhaps have been possible.  Astern of us the whole time was the sound of the destroyer's searching apparatus - tsst - so it continued for quite a long time and then she was above us and dropped three depth charges, which caused comparatively little damage.  Then she proceeded away and we breathed again, but after about forty minutes we heard the noise of the propellers of two destroyers and again this tsst, tsst, which went through and through us, and it is quite definite that they would find us.  Then things began to happen.  
          "Three depth charges on us.  The boat shook all over.  Ten minutes later there was a hailstorm of depth charges.  Everything in the boat was shattered, the depth gauge moved like blazes.  The boat assumed a vertical position and all was over.  I had my escape apparatus and crawled up the ladder to the conning tower hatch.  Then came the order "Abandon ship."  I was on deck at once.  So was the Captain.  Two destroyers and one patrol vessel were lying a few hundred metres from us.  As we came up on deck, the destroyer opened fire with her machine-gun.  However, no one was hit and they immediately ceased fire when we jumped into the water.  They probably thought that we intended to man our gun.  Most of the crew were swimming about behind the Captain.  I made for the patrol vessel, which tried to fish me out of the water, but on account of the heavy seas, this vessel did not succeed, nor did a second attempt.  In the meantime, I had been swimming in the icy cold water for half an hour and I noticed that our boat was still afloat.  So I turned round and after much struggling succeeded in getting on board again.  
          "In order to put up some defence, I tried to reach the gun, but they immediately opened fire on me with their machine-gun, but only a few rounds.  The Captain of the patrol vessel told me that they had at first thought that I intended to open fire with our gun.  Then I suddenly was washed overboard again.  Then the patrol vessel came alongside, so close that I could jump across.  Very good seamanship on the part of the Captain!  
          "I was immediately taken down below into the engine-room, where it was pleasantly warm.  Someone helped me off with my wet clothes and rubbed me down with a towel.  I was almost stiff with cold.  Then someone brought me a thick overcoat and one of the officers took me into his cabin, gave me a good drink of rum and a blanket.  Then I had to hand over my personal belongings, and I was given something to eat.  They are all very friendly here and ready to help.  The Lieutenant gave me some of his gear and a pair of slippers.  
          "Shortly before dinner, the ship stopped, and I was told that they had sighted two boats with shipwrecked sailors.  When they came on board I discovered  that they were from our ship.  Now we sat together in peace.  I am feeding with the officers and sleeping on a sofa in the mess.  The food is excellent.  I was given cigarettes and the wound in my hand was dressed.  After the midday meal I slept for two hours, then I was given coffee and cake.  In the evening again there was something warm to eat.  After that, I felt so poorly that I was sick - all the salt water which I had swallowed was the cause of this.  Then I sat up with the officers until 10 p.m.  Three of them are from the merchant navy. . . . .  
          "Early this morning we got ham and eggs to eat and before that porridge and milk.  After breakfast they gave me a Gillette razor so that I could make myself respectable.  I can move about quite freely, except that I am not allowed on the bridge.  Just now I am sitting beside an officer in the wardroom.  
          "I do not know what has happened to the rest of our crew; some of then may have been picked up by a destroyer, also the Captain.  I have barely escaped with my life and all my possessions are at the bottom of the Atlantic.  I had hoped to have gone on leave in four to five weeks, but now that is all changed.  Perhaps it is all for the best and who knows whether I should have been saved on the next occasion.  
                                                                                   Yours,  
                                                                                             CARL."    
 
 

 

     
     
 
28
 
     
 
APPENDIX III
 
 
 
     
 
LIST OF SURVIVORS OF "U 76"
 
     
 
Name.
Rank.
English Equivalent.
Age
von Hippel, Friedrich Oberleutnant-zur-See Lieutenant 26
Hagemann, Hans Joachim Oberleutnant-zur-See Lieutenant 25
Klages, Hans-Peter Leutnant-zur-See Sub-Lieutenant 26
Herber, Karl Leutnant (Ing.) Engineer Sub-Lieutenant 38
Hehl, Robert Obermaschinist Chief Mechanician, 1st Class 26
Schlinker, Karl Heinz Obermaschinist Chief Mechanician, 1st Class 27
Hackbarth, Otto Obersteuermann Chief Q.M., 1st Class 28
Dahms, Walter Bootsmann Chief Bo'sun's Mate, 2nd Class 25
Schnell, Ludwig Stabsmachinist Staff Chief Mechanician, 2nd Class 32
Sander, Werner Bootsmaat Bo'sun's Mate, 2nd Class 26
Koch, Wilhelm Bootsmaat Bo'sun's Mate, 2nd Class 25
Seifert, Friedrich Maschinenmaat Mechanician, 2nd Class 25
Jürgens, Johann Maschinenmaat Mechanician, 2nd Class 24
Pufle, Werner Maschinenmaat Mechanician, 2nd Class 21
Engelhardt, Karl Maschinenmaat Mechanician, 2nd Class 24
Becker, Carl Steuermannsmaat Q.M., 2nd Class 28
Körner, Kurt Mechanikersmaat P.O. Artificer, 2nd Class 22
Möller, Arthur Funkmaat P.O. Telegraphist, 2nd Class 26
König, Hans Funkmaat P.O. Telegraphist, 2nd Class 22
Möller, August Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman 25
Witte, Heinz Matrosenobergefreiter Able Seaman 22
Fricke, Horst Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class 20
Köke, Walter Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class 22
Machat, Johann Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class 21
Lübeck, Friedrich Karl Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class 22
Küpperbusch, Hans Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class 20
Kofler, Ernst Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class 23
Kau, Leo Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class 21
Horn, Fritz Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class 20
Barg, Alfred Maschinenobergefreiter Stoker, 1st Class 22
Hose, Heinz Funkobergefreiter Telegraphist 21
Lilcarsch, Gustav Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class 20
Logermann, Friedrich Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class 22
Schmidt, Georg Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class 22
Briem, Heinrich Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class 21
Trzepacz, Heinz Matrosengefreiter Ordinary Seaman, 1st Class 20
Rauscher, Heinz Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class 20
Miotk, Kurt Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class 20
Acker, Gustav Mechanikergefreiter Artificer, 2nd Class 21
Grote, Edgar Mechanikergefreiter Artificer, 2nd Class 21
Weber, Ludwig Mechanikergefreiter Artificer, 2nd Class 20
Bruse, Günther Funkgefreiter Ordinary Telegraphist, 1st Class 22
 
     
 
        The following did not survive:
 
     
 
Jackle, Maschinengefreiter Stoker, 2nd Class
 
     
          Total crew:  
 
 
  4
Officers
 
15
Petty Officers
 
24
Men
Total
43
 
 
     
     
  (C41407)    B9      5/41  
     
     

 


 

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