U-480 - 2nd War Patrol

Translation by Jerry Mason with the help of Ken Dunn

Departed
Date
Arrived
Date
Days at Sea
Brest
3 August 1944
Trondheim
4 October 1944
63

 

Click the icon to download a KMZ file displaying the U-boat track, significant events and locations for this patrol.  You must have Google Earth loaded on your computer to view this file.  Download Google Earth here

 

Ships Attacked
Date
KTB Time
Position
Ship
Tons
Nationality
Convoy
21 Aug 44
11.40
50°15'N, 00°55'W
HMCS ALBERNI (K 103)
925
Canadian
22 Aug 44
16.06
50°09'N, 00°45'W
    HMS LOYALTY (J 217)
850
British
23 Aug 44
17.58
50°21'N, 00°55'W
FORT YALE
7,134
British
ETC-72
25 Aug 44
14.43
50°09'N, 00°45'W
ORMINSTER
5,712
British
FTM-74
     
 Total = 14,621
   
Note:  The positions in the table above and in the Google Earth patrol summary are derived from the KTB and in many cases do not match those set forth in authoritative references such as Jürgen Rohwer, Axis Submarine Successes of World War Two or the Uboat.net website.  The goal here is to present the picture relative to the U-boat and not the absolute position that the ship was attacked or sank.


 
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                K  r  i  e  g  s  t  a  g  e  b  u  c  h  
                ======================  
                                " U 480 "  
           
           
                           2nd War Patrol.  
           
           
        Commander:  Obltz.S.  F  ö  r  s  t  e  r  
           
        Beginning:  8. 7. 1944  
        Ending:  4.  10.  1944  
            
                            Distribution:  
           
     
Oberkommando der Kriegsmarine                                 Copy No. 1
Oberkommando der Kriegsmarine Copy No. 2
Oberkommando der Kriegsmarine 2.Sk1./B.d.U. Op. Copy No. 3
Kommandiernder Admiral der Unterseeboote Copy No. 4
Führer der Unterseeboote  West Copy No. 5
Führer der Unterseeboote   -Ausbildung- Copy No. 6
Kommando der 27. Unterseebootsflottille Copy No. 7
Kommando der 11. Unterseebootsflottille Copy No. 8
 
           
                            Enclosures:  
           
           
           
           
                                                  
           
           
           
           
           
           
        © U-boat Archive 2014  - all rights reserved  
Click the flag to view the above page from the original German KTB
 
- 3 -
 
           
           
           
           
    08. - 27.07.44 B  r e  s  t Shipyard period.  Overhauled the hydraulic system.  Installed of a new pressure-air WC and spring clutch for the port diesel.  Replaced the snorkel installation.  Overhauled the periscopes.  
 
    28.07.44   Shipyard testing.  
    29. - 30.07.44      
    30. - 31.07.44   Final adjustments and overhaul.  
    03.08.44   Fitted out.  
    03.08.44 B r  e  s  t    
    22.20 W 2, Sea 1, cloudy, Vis. good Left the U-boat bunker, departed on 2nd war patrol in accordance with Outbound Orders F.d.U. West Radio Message 1530/3/048.  
    22.34   Beginning of twilight.  
    22.45   Taken in convoy.  
    24.00 BF 5222    
      W 2, Sea 2, bright full moonlit night, fog, Vis. bad, 1022 mb Fog set in suddenly, visibility at times only 30 to 50 meters.  
           
    04.08.44 West of Brest    
    00.33   Ground mine cleared by escort.  
    00.50   Released from convoy.  
    01.05 BF 5221 Dived.  Proceeded submerged.  
    04.00 BF 5221    
    06.05   Beginning of twilight.  
    12.00 BF 5213 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:       19.1 nm  
                                       Submerged:     7.6 nm  
                                                            26.7 nm  
    14.56   Sound bearing strength 2.  Destroyer with "circular saw".   
        The destroyer employing circular saw ran past close by the boat on a southerly course.  During brief breaks in the use of the circular saw 3 destroyer bearings are distinguished.  Asdic locating.  
    15.30   Search group came about and ran off to the north.  
    16.00 BF 5211    
    19.18   Destroyer propellers and "circular saw" bearing 0°T.  From sound bearings the destroyer moved back and forth on a southwesterly course, at the same time, repeatedly stopping, switched off the circular saw and threw scare depth charges.  Later disappeared to the north.  
    20.00 BF 5211    
    22.37   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 BF 5133    
      W 1, Sea 1, Vis. good, full moon night, 1022 mb    
           
Sun and Moon Data 03.08.44
Sun and Moon Data 04.08.44
 
- 4 -
 
           
           
           
           
    05.08.44 West of Brest    
    00.00 - 03.00   Snorkeled (Brest LF), while so doing repeated destroyer sound bearings up to strength 3.  Continued snorkeling up to strength 2.  
    04.00 BF 2795    
    05.00   Circular saw destroyer bearing 90°T.  Ran on southwest course.  
    06.11   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 BF 2792    
    12.00 BF 2791 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   43.1 nm  
                                                            43.1 nm  
    16.00 BF 2764    
    16.15   Destroyer sound bearings 90°T.  Multiple consecutive set of 3 explosive sounds, rhythmical.   
      Suppose explosive location.    
        Destroyer stopped frequently and disappeared bearing 130°T.  
    20.00 BF 2761    
    22.39   Beginning of twilight.  
    23.28   Circular saw destroyer bearing 100°T, northerly course.  
    24.00 BF 2737    
           
    06.08.44 Western Channel    
    01.32 - 04.27   Snorkeled (Brest charging speed)  
    04.00 BF 2734    
      NW 1, Sea 1, fog    
    04.40   Destroyer sound bearing 130°T and quickly growing louder.  Allowed the boat to fall to the bottom.  
    05.10   Boat was overrun by the destroyer, which by then was using circular saw.  From sound bearings, the destroyer searched on long legs west-northeast.  
    06.07   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 BF 2498    
    08.24 - 10.57   2 destroyers searched on north-south courses.  
        1 circular saw.  Continuous Asdic and explosive location.  
        Went to depth A +20 meters.  
    12.00 BF 2499 At periscope depth.  
      NW 1, Sea 1, overcast, fog D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   49.8 nm  
                                                            49.8 nm  
    16.00 BF 2574    
    17.09   Destroyer bearing 0°T.  Asdic impulse, 6 scare depth charges.  
    20.00 BF 2575    
           
           
Sun and Moon Data 05.08.44
Sun and Moon Data 06.08.44
 
- 5 -
 
           
           
           
           
    07.08.44 West Channel    
    01.10 BF 2573 Snorkel Alarm for very bright searchlight bearing 30°T, the same in 90°T.  Could not distinguish whether it was an aircraft or a surface vessel.  
      Suppose a stopped surface vessel, because I had the impression that floodlight did not move. No sound bearing.  Went to depth A +10 meters.  
    02.57 - 05.12  

Continued snorkeling.

 
    04.00 BF 2573    
    06.05   Beginning of twilight.  
    06.22   After first being observed by sound the boat was overrun by 2 destroyers from SW on a course of approximately 30°.  The enemy's speed from RPM was 14 knots.  No saw, no Asdic.  
        Allowed the boat to fall to the bottom.  
    08.00 BF 2557    
    11.30 - 12.42   Continuous sound bearings of a vessel lying stopped, (auxiliary machinery) explosive location, Asdic.  Continued at depth A +10 meters completely undisturbed.  
         
         
    12.00 BF 2555 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   35.8 nm  
                                                            35.8 nm  
    16.00 BF 2555    
    18.50 BF 2555 Dived for a search group (3 destroyers) bearing 30°T which closed and overran the boat on a SW course.  Asdic impulses.  Continued on at depth 65 meters undisturbed.  
    20.00 BF 2556    
    22.33   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 BF 2561    
           
    08.08.44 Channel    
    01.28 - 04.16   Snorkeled  
    04.00 BF 2562    
      NW 1, Sea 0, 2/10, moonlight    
    05.57   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 BF 2563    
           
           
Sun and Moon Data 07.08.44
Sun and Moon Data 08.08.44
 
- 6 -
 
           
           
           
    continued from      
    08.08.44 Channel    
    08.15 - 11.00   Continuous sound bearings from 2 motor boats and 2 destroyers bearing 340-20°.  
         
        Continuous sound bearings in the NE sector, also multiple circular saws.  
    12.00 BF 2617 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   38.2 nm  
                                                            38.2 nm  
    13.34 BF 2618 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 75 meters.  
    19.50   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    20.00 BF 2618    
    22.27   Beginning of twilight.  
    23.05   Depth charge series, heard 50 depth charges.  
    24.00 BF 2624    
           
    09.08.44 Channel    
    01.10 Dead calm, cloudless, clear moonlit night At periscope depth.  
    01.15   Out maneuvered flashing light, possibly a drifting buoy.  
    02.10 - 04.43   Snorkeling.  
    04.00 BF 2626    
    04.52 BF 2626 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 70 meters.  
    05.54   Beginning of twilight.  
    09.53   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    12.00 BF 2631 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   39.1 nm  
                                                            39.1 nm  
    16.00 BF 2633    
    16.29 BF 2633 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 64 meters.  
    22.25   Beginning of twilight.  
    22.39   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    24.00 BF 3177    
           
    10.08.44 Channel    
    00.15 - 02.10   Sound bearing strength 3 bearing 330°, 340°, 350° and 20° on easterly course.  Occasional explosive location and Asdic impulses.  
         
         
    02.15   At periscope depth.  A light bearing 290°R, 20°T.  Range estimated at 3000 meters.  Recognized the light as a Morse code sending masthead lantern.  
        In the GHG only weak sound bearings from auxiliary machinery in the direction strength 1-2.  
        Went to depth 40 meters.  
           
           
Sun and Moon Data 08.08.44
Sun and Moon Data 09.08.44
Sun and Moon Data 10.08.44
 
- 7 -
 
           
           
           
    continued from      
    10.08.44 Channel    
    02.57   Began snorkeling, was frequently interrupted by sound bearings.  
    04.00 BF 3179    
    04.58 BF 3187 A Morse code sending masthead light bearing 305°R, 35°T.  
        Read "Six . . ."  Snorkeling discontinued.  Put the boat on the bottom, depth 61 meters.  
        Reached Outbound Orders objective square BF 3180  
      Because up to now I have no operations area assigned, I intend to go near the Isle of Wight to operate there.  
    05.50   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 BF 3187    
    10.50   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    12.00 BF 3187 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   39.8 nm  
                                                            39.8 nm  
    16.00 BF 3186    
    17.15 BF 3186 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 58 meters.  
    22.14   Beginning of twilight.  
    22.44   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    23.45   Began snorkeling.  
    24.00 BF 3194    
      Dark night, no periscope observations    
           
    11.05.44 Southwest of the Isle of Wight    
    02.15   Ended snorkeling.  
    04.00 BF 3193    
    05.50 BF 3271 Beginning of twilight.  Put the boat on the bottom, depth 40 meters.  
    09.40 SW 2, Sea 1, fog, Vis. 400 - 500 meters Convoy sound bearing strength 2-3.  South-North convoy.  At periscope depth nothing discernible.  
    10.40 BF 3193 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 42 meters.  
    12.00 BF 3193 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   44.1 nm  
                                                            44.1 nm  
    16.35 SW 2, Sea 1, overcast, very bad visibility, fog, Vis. about 800 meters Sound bearing 130°R, 60°T strength 2, several steamers, along with saw and Asdic  
      Went to periscope depth.  
        Destroyer bearing 5°R 255°T barely recognized in the haze.  
    17.09   Out of the fog bearing 345°R 255°T 2 "LCT Stack type" in line ahead formation bow right, target angle 90°, enemy course 345°, range 600 meters.  
           
           
           
Sun and Moon Data 10.08.44
Sun and Moon Data 11.08.44
 
- 8 -
 
           
           
           
    continued from      
    11.08.44 South of the Isle of Wight    
    18.01 BF 3193 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 42 meters.  
    20.00 BF 3193    
    22.10   Beginning of twilight.  
    22.44   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    24.00 BF 3193    
      SW 1, Sea 0-1, starry night, Vis. good, moonlit night    
           
    12.08.44 South of the Isle of Wight    
    00.34   Navigation fix:  St Catherine Point - 40-meter line.  
        Correction after a navigation fix:  275°, 8.8 nm.  
    02.47 - 03.45   Snorkeling.  While so doing continuous sound bearings strength 2.  
         
    04.00 BF 3192    
    05.51   Beginning of twilight.  
    06.05   Presented Radio Message 1809/11/866:  
        From F.d.U. West:  
        1.)  As a line of communication to Cherbourg has been identified, see Serial number 858, the operations area is extended up to the following limits:  in the east:  a line from "Selsey Bill" to BF 3655, in the west from the "Bill of Portland" to Cap de la Hague, borders are not fixed, but an indication.  
        2.)  "Hegewald"  is now positioned in the Channel operations area north of latitude 50°05'N, "Sieder" and "Palmgreen" are to the south of this latitude.  The Channel operations area north of latitude 50°05'N is to be occupied by "Saxons" and "Förster", south this latitude by "Bremen".  
    07.05 SW 1, Sea 0-1, overcast, fog, Vis. 500 meters At periscope depth.  
        I was not aware of the line of communication to Cherbourg mentioned in Radio Message 1809/11/866 as a result non receipt of Serial number 858.  Serial number 858 was not repeated on the daily conformation message.  
      In my judgment the delivery of this most important radio message should have taken into account that the Channel boats frequently rely on the daily confirmation message in order to conserve electricity and air according to the tactical situation,  [Messages] must be repeated for 48 hours.  
           
Sun and Moon Data 11.08.44
Sun and Moon Data 12.08.44
 
- 9 -
 
           
           
           
    continued from      
    12.08.44 South of the Isle of Wight    
      Actually "Diana" - is not, in my judgment, completely tailored to the tactical situation in the Channel.  Because the boats lack opportunities to receive news, armed forces reports, etc., there exists complete unawareness of the present general situation which changes suddenly during these great days.  Radio messages like the arrest of an Oberbürgermeister by an Air Force assistant and results of the elections in Calcutta raised only incredulity from the Commander and crew, likewise a "padding message".  
    07.33 BF 3192 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 53 meters.  
    08.00 BF 3192    
    09.56   After preceding strong sound bearings, 5 close depth charges.  
    10.15   After Asdic impulses 6 close depth charges.  
      Suspect scare depth charges, without the boat being detected, because the fireworks don't stop the entire day.  
    12.00 BF 3192 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   15.6 nm  
                                                            15.6 nm  
    16.00 BF 3192    
    16.03   Sound band bearing 70°T.  Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    16.38 SW 1, Sea 0-1, cloudy, Vis. good Vessel masts bearing 0°R, 65°T, bow left, target angle 110°.  Ahead an escort, set off about 2000 meters.  Behind it in double line ahead, 14 tank landing vessels "LCT" smokestack-type, about every 2nd vessel has a barrage balloon.  General course 345°, range 7500 meters.  
    16.40   Aircraft at about 1000 meters altitude bearing 80° on northern course.  Type not determined.  (wide fuselage)  
    16.58   Convoy out of sight to the north.  
    17.42   Vessels bearing 82 to 100°R also 82 to 100°T, range 8000 meters.  Barrage balloons.  Vessels belong to a convoy of 13 tank landing craft, "LCT" - type - in line ahead formation.  Bow left, target angle 60°, general course 340°.  Every boat deploys a barrage balloon. Therefore, these convoys are easy to detect even with the periscope barely extended.  For protection, again an escort ahead.     
    17.57   A large route marker buoy bearing 355°.  The float is similar to a big mooring line buoy.  On it a large sphere is attached, made of wire strands, with a powerful buoy light.  The whole thing is painted red.  I am positioned on the Portsmouth route, southeast of Wight.  
    19.30   A frigate bearing 70°R, 250°T, bow right, target angle 90°, range 6000 meters.  Frigate sweeps on zigzag courses ahead of a convoy bearing 170-190°T, in broad formation on northerly course converging on the boat.  Range 8000 meters.  
    19.35   Can make out 15 steamers, 3500 to 6000 GRT.  Double line abreast.  A Frigate as port escort.  Starboard escort several small motor boats, Very difficult to make out in the periscope.  
      Because the convoy is empty, refrained from attack.  Went to depth 40 meters.  
    19.50   Boat was overrun by the convoy.  
    20.00 BF 3192    
           
Sun and Moon Data 12.08.44
 
- 10 -
 
           
           
           
    continued from      
    12.08.44 South of the Isle of Wight    
    20.05   Went to periscope depth.  Convoy passes out of sight bearing 350°T.  
    22.08   Twilight begins  
    24.00 BF 3192    
           
    13.08.44 South of the Isle of Wight    
    00.48 SW 1, Sea 0-1, clear, dark night, no further periscope observations are possible Snorkeling in BF 3192 and BF 3195, St. Catherine Point Lighthouse shines as in peacetime full and half brightness for 5 minutes each.  
    04.00 BF 3192    
    04.10   From sound plot a convoy from the north to the south.  Steamer propellers.  
    05.53   Beginning of twilight.  
    06.30   Sound bearings from steamers bearing 320°T, slowly shifting to the south.  
    06.40   At periscope depth:  nothing seen.  
    06.44   Vessel bearing 127°T, type not determined, southerly course.  
    08.00 BF 3193    
      SW 1, Sea 0-1, clear, Vis. good    
    12.00 BF 3193 D a y' s  r u n:  
      Weather same as for 08.00 hours                                Surfaced:         -/-  
                                     Submerged:   23.9 nm  
                                                            23.9 nm  
        Proceeding submerged at depth 30 meters.  
    16.00 BF 3193 To periscope depth.  
      Weather same as for 08.00 hours In spite of repeated sound bearings up to strength 2 nothing is seen in the periscope.  Excellent sound conditions today.  
    20.00 BF 3271 To periscope depth.  
      SW 1, Sea 0-1    
    22.06   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 BF 3192    
           
    14.08.44 South of the Isle of Wight    
    00.22 - 03.15   Snorkeling in BF 3190.  While so doing several sound bearings from north south convoys.  Steamer propellers.  From sound observations the convoys pass the Isle of Wight very early in the night and up to now I have detected no north-south traffic in BF 92 and 93 during the day, I will go farther to the south.  
         
         
         
    04.00 BF 3195    
    05.06 BF 3198 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 72 meters.  Current is very strong here for 3 hours, despite being very heavy by the bow the boat drags heavily, with the rocky bottom existing here a true pain in the neck.  
      Suppose by this pounding heavy damage to the "Alberich skin."  
    05.57   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 BF 3198 Raised the boat from the bottom and taken to periscope depth.  Proceeding at periscope depth.  
      NE 3, Sea 2, blue sky, Vis. very good  
    10.20 BF 3198 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 68 meters.  
    12.00 BF 3198 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   26.1 nm  
                                                            26.1 nm  
           
Sun and Moon Data 12.08.44
Sun and Moon Data 13.08.44
Sun and Moon Data 14.08.44
 
- 11 -
 
           
           
           
    continued from      
    14.08.44 South of the Isle of Wight    
    13.10   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    13.30 BF 3198 At periscope depth:   Vessels bearing 16°R, 16°T and in 3°R, 3°T, warships bow right range 9000 meters, sharp target angle.  A destroyer bearing 255°R, 305°T, bow right, target angle 10°, range 7500 meters.  A destroyer bearing 254°R, 324°T, bow right, target angle 15°, range 7500 meters.  A destroyer bearing 236°R, 326°T bow right, target angle 10°, range 8500 meters.  All three run at slow speed and from sound bearings have deployed their saws, because these often start at low volume.  Stop temporarily.  Remain at periscope depth.  The first vessels observed disappear to the southeast.  The three vessels referred to as destroyers are frigates.  I observe them from periscope depth at range 1500 to2000 meters around me as they deploy their saws.  
    14.50   Frigates turn into line ahead, boat distance of approximately 1000 meters, and run off at slow speed to the southwest. Saws are deployed.  From periscope and sound observation::  up to range 5000 meters "circular saws" strength 5, drowned out the whole horizon.  Only decreasing strength at more than 5000 meters.  
    16.00 BF 3198 At periscope depth.  
      NE 4, Sea 3, clear sky, Vis. good Proceeding submerged at depth 40 meters.  
    20.00 BF 3274    
    22.04   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 BF 3274    
           
    15.08.44 North of Seine Bay    
    00.15 NE 4-5, Sea 4, no visibility in the periscope Began snorkeling.  
    01.44   Snorkeling ended because of a sound bearing.  
    04.00 BF 3274    
    05.04 - 05.45   Snorkeling continued.  
    05.57   Beginning of twilight.  
    06.13 BF 3274 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 58 meters.  
    08.00 BF 3275    
    10.48   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    11.00 NE 4, Sea 3, cloudy, Vis. good At periscope depth.  
    11.14   An "LST" with barrage balloon bearing 300°R, 30°T and another bearing 312°R, 42°T.  Bow right, target angle 60°, course 150°, slow speed.  Passed out of sight in the SE.  
    12.00 BF 3274 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   30.4 nm  
                                                            30.4 nm  
    12.41 BF 3278 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 61 meters.  
    15.12   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
           
           
Sun and Moon Data 14.08.44
Sun and Moon Data 15.08.44
 
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    continued from      
    15.08.44 North of Seine Bay    
    15.20   A two stack ship bearing 50°R, 140°T, bow left, target angle 40°, course 360°, range 10000 meters.  A two stack destroyer bearing 40°R, 130°T.  Bow left, target angle 50°, course 360°.  By sound RPM both running at 15 knots.  
    16.00 BF 3277    
      NE 5, Sea 4, cloudy, Vis. good    
    16.05   Destroyer and transport turn to the west to about 310° and pass out of sight to the NW.  
    16.15   4 "LCT" each with a barrage balloon bearing 279°T, 8000 meters.  
    17.30   An aircraft bearing 238°R, 68°T.  Course NW, altitude 1000 meters.  
    17.31   A corvette bearing 355°R, 85°T, bow left, target angle 90°, range 5000 meters.  Behind in line ahead formation 2 Liberty freighters each with a barrage balloon, range 5000 meters.  
    17.35   Proceeding submerged depth 30 meters.  
    17.55   Convoy sound bearing 150°T.  
    18.02   At periscope depth.  Escort bearing 25°R, 145°T, bow left, target angle 5, range 2000 meters, medium speed.  
        Went quickly to depth 20 meters.  
    18.07   Boat was overrun by escort, identified as a frigate by turbine sounds.  By sound RPM 15 knots.  
    18.13   At periscope depth:  Convoy bearing 355° to 5°R, 175° to, 185°T in wide formation, bow right, target angle between 2° and 20°, range 7000 meters.  About 15 freighters various sizes, mainly Liberty type.  Each freighter with a barrage balloon.  Triple line abeam, staggered, a corvette ahead to starboard as escort, aft of the convoy 2 frigates.  
    18.28   Positioned to starboard of the convoy.  
    18.30 BF 3278 2 paired single shots from tubes I and II on Liberty freighter and a 5000 GRT freighter.  Miss.  
      NE 5, Sea 4, cloudy, Vis. good  
      Data: Target speed 7 knots, target angle green 76°, and green 86°, range 2000 meters, speed of advance 11 knots, impact angle [also the difference between torpedo initial course and the line of advance of the Lut pattern] 100°, initial run length 3500 meters, depth 5 meters, MZ on.  
      Approach ran very smoothly, values were set correctly in the fire control computer, fire control was perfect.  Target velocity of 7 knots was chosen because convoy steamed against the fairly heavy seas and by sound RPM ran at 6 knots.  Miss unexplained.  Suspect too large a depth setting was selected.  
    18.35 BF 3278 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 51 meters.  Tube I and II reloaded. Boat and shot remained undetected.  
    19.00 - 21.00   By sound observation, brisk south-north traffic on the route from the invasion area on northerly courses for the buoy in BF 32782.  Continuous escort patrols.  (Turbine and piston propulsion)  Steady scare depth charges in large numbers.   Continuous small motor boat patrols.  Approximately one hour before every big convoy many scare depth charges are thrown by escorts steaming on the route.  Followed by racket buoys which emit a rattling, purring sound, some of these are apparently towed from escorts, some do not move and are likely set out.  
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
           
Sun and Moon Data 15.08.44
 
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    continued from      
    15.08.44 North of Seine Bay    
        This type of sound buoy makes any sound observation impossible, because they overshadow convoys.  Only in direct proximity to the convoy is sound observation suddenly again possible.  
        Motor landing craft operate continuously in north-south direction, as well as in south-north direction.  They are frequently led by 2 to 3 small, low, motorboats, difficult to make out in the periscope.  
    20.00 BF 3278    
    22.02   Beginning of twilight.  
    22.53   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    24.00 BF 3278    
           
    16.08.44 North of the Seine Bay    
    01.32 - 03.49   Snorkeling in BF 3277.  While so doing again numerous sound bearings.  
    04.00 BF 3277 Several sound bands (steamer convoys) from the north and south.  
      On the basis of this observation and, because up to now I have seen no steamer convoys in north-south direction during the day, this confirmed by sound bearings, I am convinced that the enemy has changed tactics, contrary to the experiences of the first Channel boats in laid down in Operations Order Channel No 2, and now, because he is informed of the presence of the submarines in this area, the valuable full steamer convoys travel at night and empty in the opposite direction by day.  From the large amount of the landing craft seen up to now and landing craft groups detected by sound bearings I conclude that the enemy moves the largest part of his supplies in them, in the belief that for submarines they would hardly be a worthwhile target.  
    04.05 BF 3277 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 53 meters.  
    05.59   Beginning of twilight.  
    06.04   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    08.00 BF 3278    
    08.18 BF 3278 At periscope depth.  
      SW 4, Sea 3, cloudy, Vis. medium Boat is positioned by the marker buoy in 32782.  On the bottom, depth 51 meters.  
        Boat was frequently overrun in both directions by destroyers and escorts, frequent scare depth charges, Asdic impulses.  
    12.00 BF 3278 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   22.6 nm  
                                                            22.6 nm  
    12.30   Raised the boat from the bottom, due to on-going escort bearings.  
    12.50   At periscope depth.  A frigate bearing 60°R, 330°T, bow left, target angle 40°, range 2000 meters, stopped.  A two stack destroyer bearing 340°R, 250°T, bow right, target angle 50°, range 2500 meters stopped.  Continuous Asdic impulses.   
    12.52   Frigate gets underway and turns toward the boat.  
    12.56   Went quickly to depth 40 meters.  
    13.00   Boat was overrun by the frigate, as I went deep  
           
Sun and Moon Data 15.08.44
Sun and Moon Data 16.08.44
 
- 14 -
 
           
           
           
    continued from      
    16.08.44 North of Seine Bay I turned to show a narrow silhouette.  Asdic impulses.  No depth charges.  
    13.06   The destroyer runs past aft of the boat and stops.  While so doing constant Asdic impulses.  Destroyer and frigate start and stop frequently.  Went to 45 meters (5 meters above the bottom) and ran off to the east with the current.  
      I did not attack, because I was convinced that the boat was not noticed and I only wanted my presence on the convoy route revealed by a shot on a steamer.  
    14.36 BF 3278 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 51 meters.  
    17.41   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    18.00 SW 4, Sea 3, cloudy, haze, Vis. bad At periscope depth.  
    19.42   Destroyer (2 stacks) bearing 262°R, 262°T. bow right, target angle 90°, course 350°, speed about 15 knots, range 3000 meters.  
    19.50   Lightening fighter, bearing 0°T, course 30°, altitude about 500 meters.  
    20.00 BF 3275    
    22.00   Presented Radio Message 2117/15/806:  "Channel Boats"  
        1.)  After completing Channel operations return to Norway.  
        2.)  Only boats which are not capable without additional fuel enter Bordeaux.  
        3.)  Boats to 1.) report return transit by short signal on crossing the longitude of BE 23 also that return transit is to Norway.  
        4.)  Boats to 2.) make normal return report.  
        5.)  Order remains unchanged for all boats passing the line "Scilly-Quessant" to switch to Coastal Circuit.  
    22.00   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 BF 3276    
           
    17.08.44 North of Seine Bay    
    00.33 - 02.30   Snorkeling.  
    03.35   Sound bearing.  Convoy at buoy route, course south.  
    04.00 BF 3275    
    04.35   By sound bearings boat was overrun by a north-south landing craft convoy.  
    05.03 BF 3275 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 52 meters.  
    06.00   Beginning of twilight.  
    06.30   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    07.00 BF 3275 At periscope depth.  
   

 

07.30

W 4, Sea 4, overcast, fog, Vis. 300 meters

 

BF 3275

The optics of the fixed eye periscope have partially failed.  Magnification change is no longer possible because the selector switch is blocked.  Setting "Small magnification" is not possible.  Observations can only take place with "Large magnification".  Also, the periscope is blurred, so that observation results in eye strain.  Put the boat on the bottom, depth 56 meters.  Attempts to repair periscope, however, are not possible, because in the removed part either a transfer target is torn, or has jumped from its guidance.  
    09.27   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    12.00 BF 3278 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   31.5 nm  
                                                            31.5 nm  
           
Sun and Moon Data 16.08.44
Sun and Moon Data 17.08.44
 
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    continued from      
    17.08.44 North of Seine Bay    
    13.00 - 16.50 W 3, Sea 2, overcast, Vis. good Proceeding at periscope depth.  Continuous heavy traffic of LCT-smokestack type, protected each time by a group of 2-3 motor boats.  
    15.50 BF 3277 6 minesweepers, range 7000 meters, running in line abreast formation, apparently with deployed gear to the north.  Continuous aircraft altitude about 1000 meters.  Transport aircraft type possibly "Skytrain" with fighter protection, course north.  About 150 aircraft observed.  
    16.00 BF 3277    
    16.56 BF 3277 Put the boat on the bottom due to heavy counter current.  
    18.15   Raised the boat from the bottom, went to periscope depth.  After a long observation I recognize a two-stack ship in the high extended periscope, bow left, target angle about 70°, enemy course 0°.  Ship runs at high speed on the buoy route to the north.  
    18.40   Sound band bearing 20°R to 5°R, 110°T to 95°T.  These sound bands appear in the GHG, on the initial bearing as circular saws and amplified noise over a wider sector.  
    19.00   Mastheads and bridges of a convoy, range 9000 meters, course north, on the buoy route.  
    20.00 BF 3278 Proceeding submerged at depth 30 meters.  
      W 2, Sea 1, overcast, Vis. good, light haze    
    21.57   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 BF 3276    
           
    18.08.44 North of Seine Bay    
    00.16   Begin snorkeling.  
    00.27 BF 3276 Snorkel alarm for 2 red lights which appear suddenly bearing 50°R, 140°T.  
      Suspect landing craft.    
        Went to depth 40 meters.  
    01.07 - 02.57   Snorkeling.  
      Intentions:  Go to the buoy route with the western current, to put boat on the bottom there and in the afternoon from 16.30 hours (this is the time of the heaviest traffic observed to date) stay at periscope depth at the position of the buoy by using higher speed against the current.  Attack on larger steamers intended.  
    04.00 BF 3276    
    05.58   Beginning of twilight.  
    06.53 BF 3278 Boat positioned (by sighting) one mile south, one mile west of buoy 32782.  
        Put the boat on the bottom, depth 53 meters.  
    08.00 BF 3278    
    12.00 BF 3278 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   30.9 nm  
                                                            30.9 nm  
    15.00   Boat was overrun by a south-north convoy.  
      Because the route is constantly patrolled for the entire day by escorts, motorboats and the like, the GHG is continually filled with bearings present all around the boat, an enumeration of  
           
Sun and Moon Data 17.08.44
Sun and Moon Data 18.08.44
 
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    continued from      
    18.08.44 North of Seine Bay    
      these separate bearings can only lead to confusion in the KTB because of their large numbers.  To understand the situation in the operations area it should be repeated:  rarely does a few minutes pass without more or less distant depth charge detonations.  Sound bearings around the boat are heard constantly. "Circular saws and racket buoys" complicate sound observation and frequently make tactical application practically impossible.   Near the route constant sound bearings of escorts, in addition very near seeming depth charge detonations. Very frequently MG or anti-aircraft weapons rattle, apparent escorts frequently firing their weapons, or perhaps fooling around.  Landing craft are everywhere, not only found on the route   For this reason timely detection of escorts is not possible during the day by sound observation.  At night, in contrast, relative peace rules in the operations area, so that then a sound observation is quite possible.  Also I have observed that in fog or reduced visibility weather that no "saws" are deployed also the general din is absent.  
    15.30   Raised the boat from the bottom, went to periscope depth, by the use of higher speed driving against the current, staying on the route by the bearing of the buoy.  
    18.58   Fast escort boats of the "Atherstone Class" bearing 40°R, 130°T, bow left, target angle 30°, range 3500 meters, course 340°.  
    19.03 BF 3278    
      W 1, Sea 0-1, cloudy, misty Reversal shot from tube III on escort boat.   
        Data:  target speed 15, target angle red 70°, depth 3, range 2000 meters.  
        After the shot escort boat quickly increases speed (by sound observation).  Miss.  
      Suspect miss caused by high enemy speed.  
    20.00 BF 3278    
    20.11   South-north convoy, two groups of 20 landing craft each passing the buoy.  Ahead and behind the convoy small low, gray motor boats, difficult to discern in the periscope.  
        Can see that these motorboats carry a machine gun on the forecastle, at the stern several depth charges.  These boats occasionally throw scare depth charges.  
    20.50 Because my expectation and hope a fat evening convoy was not fulfilled today, ran off and set off to snorkel with the current to the east.  Because I regard this kind of the tactic, however, as the only possible one to cope with the difficult current conditions, I intend to proceed tomorrow and always in future:  Essentially, in the afternoons proceeding against the current at periscope depth positioned near the route, also using higher speed.  
    20.54   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 BF 3284    
           
    19.08.44 North of Seine Bay    
    03.11 - 05.50   Snorkeling.  
    04.00 BF 3281    
    06.02   Beginning of twilight.  
    07.43   Boat is positioned by bearings from buoy BF 32732  
    08.30   Barrage balloons bearing 65°R, 335°T.  
    08.53   Barrage balloons belong to a north-south convoy, bow left, target angle 10°, enemy course 165°, range 10000 meters.  
           
Sun and Moon Data 18.08.44
Sun and Moon Data 19.08.44
 
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    continued from      
    19.08.44 North of Seine Bay Convoy consists of 10 steamers of about 4000 to 5000 GRT and 5 smaller steamers of about 2500 GRT.  Three columns.  Forward screen 2 escorts with saws deployed, port screen a corvette, starboard screen not determined, behind the convoy another 2 escorts.  This is the first north-south convoy that I have sighted.  
    08.55   Came to attack course.  
    09.00   Convoy turns to starboard to about 185°.  
    09.05   Plan to attack the center column of the convoy.  This is now about 48°R, 318°T, bow left, target angle 50°, range 2500 meters.  
    09.13 BF 3278 Fan from tubes I, II and IV, 3 T IIIa Lut, on 3 overlapping steamers (eastern and center of the 3rd column and western in the 4th column).  Aim point: center steamer about 5000 GRT.  Eastern steamer the same size, western about 2500.  All three steamers have deck cargo.  
      W 2, Sea 1, cloudy, Vis. good  
         
        Data:  Target speed 8 knots, target angle red 80°, range 2000 meters, Lut speed of advance red 11 knots, legs long, initial run 3000 meters, depth 5 meters, MZ on.  
    09.22   After 9 minutes, 20 seconds, torpedo detonation, no further sound observations possible, because the "saws" of the aft escorts drown out the GHG.  
    09.25 -09.27   Escorts throw 27 depth charges, saws remain deployed.  Asdic impulses.  At HF ran off to the east away from the vicinity of the shooting location.  
    10.07 BF 3279 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 53 meters.  
    10.40   In each instance several depth charges 270°T, also, constant escort sound bearings.  
    10.52    
    11.10 Evidently a search group is looking for the boat.  
    11.31      
    11.50      
    12.00 BF 3279 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   29.4 nm  
                                                            29.4 nm  
    12.00 - 14.00   Continuous depth charges and Asdic impulses.  
    14.03   Turbine sounds very close, 5 depth charges close by.  Boat was overrun by 2 vessels, close depth charges, immediately thereafter, saw was employed.  
      I believe that boat, lying on the bottom with today's very calm water surface, can be found, perhaps as a result of small air bubbles or amounts of oil.  The well placed depth charges further this reasoning.  Therefore, the boat is quickly raised from the bottom, just as a saw is again heard loudly in the boat, and run off diagonally against the current to the north-east.  Submerged at depth 5 meters above the bottom.  No diving planes used, depth control by ballast with the help of trimming by means of the crew.  
    14.10 -   Sound and depth charge pursuit by 3 U-boat hunting vessels.  As locating gear 2 normal Asdic and a similar device were recognized, however, the singing tone it struck was particularly noteworthy and resembled the high vibrant sound of a singing saw.  Impulses were in the same volume, but a little bit longer.  
    17.05    
         
         
         
    16.00 BF 3276    
    16.11   By means of 3 Bolds on a NNE-course a Bold wall was laid and afterwards ran off behind the wall to the east against the current.  Submerged depth, while so doing, was 5 meters above the bottom.  
           
           
Sun and Moon Data 19.08.44
 
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    continued from      
    19.08.44 North of Seine Bay    
    19.30   Distant propellers and depth charges.  
    20.00 BF 3274 Search group shaken off, propellers and depth charges to the west remained behind.  
    21.55   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 BF 3274    
           
    20.08.44 North of Seine Bay    
    00.44 BF 3274 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 82 meters.  
    02.20 - 03.55   Turbine propellers (1 vessel) and Asdic impulses nearby.  
    04.00 BF 3196    
    04.02   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    05.21 - 06.03   Snorkeling.  
    08.00 BF 3194    
    10.40 BF 3195 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 51 meters.  
    12.00 BF 3195 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   23.4 nm  
                                                            23.4 nm  
    12.29   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    14.03 NE 2, Sea 1, cloudy, Vis. good In the periscope:  bearing 45°R, 85°T. 2 groups of 10 landing craft each, Bow left, target angle 80°, enemy course 0°.  Range 10000 meters.  
    14.20   Behind the groups are 2 escort vessels each.  Northerly course.  
    16.00 BF 3192    
    17.42 BF 3192 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 42 meters.  
    20.00 BF 3192    
    21.51   Beginning of twilight.  
    22.40   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    22.58 - 23.47   Snorkeling.  
    24.00 BF 3271    
           
    21.08.44 North of Seine Bay    
    02.40 - 04.40   Snorkeled with the intention of revisiting the old hunting ground.  
         
    04.00 BF 3273    
    07.09 BF 3274 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 67 meters.  
    08.00 BF 3274    
    10.58   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    11.18 NE 5, Sea 4, overcast, Vis. medium At periscope depth.  
        A frigate bearing 5°R, 275°T, bow left, target angle 70°, enemy course 165°, range 1500 meters.  Ran at medium speed.  As a result of the very bad periscope, which is unusable at large magnification, in this rough sea I am forced to run with the periscope raised high.  Frigate runs off to the SE.  
    11.34   2 frigates bearing 65°R, 336°T, bow left, target angle 15°, enemy course 170°, range 3000 meters.  
    11.36   Frigates turned to port and approached me at target angle 0°.  
           
           
           
Sun and Moon Data 19.08.44
Sun and Moon Data 20.08.44
Sun and Moon Data 21.08.44
 
- 19 -
 
           
           
           
    continued from      
    21.08.44 North of Seine Bay Turned to the south for a defensive shot from tube V.  
    11.40 BF 3274    
      NE 5, Sea 4, overcast, misty, Vis. medium Reversal from tube V.  (T V)  
      Data:  target angle 0°, target speed = 12 knots, range = 1000 meters, depth 3 meters, steering "distant" [WS setting for approaching target].  
        Went to depth 30 meters.  
    11.41   After 1 minute 19 seconds torpedo impact and detonation.  
        Propellers that were heard at strength 5 up to now vanished.  Immediate heavy cracking and knocking audible by naked ear in the boat.  
    11.43   Very heavy cracking, then final rushing which could be heard by naked ear.  Frigate sinks, apparently this last crack was the sound of breaking up.  
      Because sinking is confirmed by sound observation, I leave the sinking location because of my bad periscope and because the danger of being detected by sound bearings by the frigate sighted at 11.18 hours is no longer high.  
        Went to depth 40 meters and ran off to the east with the current initially to get away from the shooting location.  With this rough sea I feel safe from sound pursuit.  
      Intention:  Later, after the current shifts, again back to the west and continuing to the west to snorkel.  
    12.00 BF 3275 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   28.3 nm  
    up to                                                       28.3 nm  
    16.00 BF 3272 Frequent sound bearings from fast beating propellers with active sonar impulses  
    20.00 BF 3193    
    20.21 BF 3193 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 64 meters.  
    21.49   Beginning of twilight.  
    22.53   Raised the boat from the bottom for program time [radio broadcast time].  
    23.48 BF 3196 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 68 meters.  
    24.00 BF 3196    
           
    22.08.44 North of Seine Bay    
    01.06   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    01.31 - 03.41   Snorkeled with the aim of going to the south to the buoyed route.  
    04.00 BF 3199    
    04.04   Put the boat on the bottom, depth 67 meters during opposing current.  
    06.01   Beginning of twilight.  
           
Sun and Moon Data 21.08.44
Sun and Moon Data 22.08.44
 
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    continued from      
    22.08.44 North of Seine Bay    
    08.00 BF 3199    
    08.47   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    12.00 BF 3278 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   28.4 nm  
                                                            28.4 nm  
    12.07 NE 3, Sea 2, overcast, foggy, Vis. about 2000 meters    
    12.34   Boat is positioned on the buoyed route.  Put boat on the bottom, depth 53 meters.  
    14.28   Sound bearing "saw" and "buzzer" also fast propellers bearing 150°T.  Asdic impulses.  
      Suspect convoy, because these signs usually point to it.  Raised the boat from the bottom and went to periscope depth.  
    15.00 NE 2, Sea 1, overcast, misty The visibility has improved and it is now about 5000 meters.  
      The fact that visibility has improved and escort vessels or a convoy and U-boat hunting vessels now employ "saws" and "buzzers" confirms again what has already been observed several times that "saws" are used mostly during the day with good visibility.  At night or in bad visibility weather they remain unused.  Then the enemy apparently feels safe believing that the boats are dependent on periscope observation.  However, this observation is applies only to the convoy traffic in the operations area.  During the advance and retreat in the Channel at night I found almost only "sawing" U-boat hunting vessels.  
    15.27   4 frigates emerge from the haze bearing 0°R, 90°R, target angle 70°, enemy course 340° in loose formation.  All 4 saw unmistakably and make a hellish racket.  Range = 4500 meters.  
      Apparently a search group, because Asdic impulses are heard constantly and very loudly.  
    15.52   A group of LCTs, bearing 174°R, 264°T, range 2500 meters, bow left, target angle 100°.  
    16.00 BF 3278    
    16.03   A frigate bearing 209°R, 119°T, bow left, target angle 40°, enemy course 340°, range 3000 meters.  
      Apparently a straggler from the search group.  
    16.06 BF 3278 Single shot from tube V (T V) on frigate.  
      NE 2, Sea 1, overcast, misty Data:  enemy speed 12 knots, target angle left 60°, range 2500 meters, depth 3 meters, steering "distant" [WS setting for approaching target].  
        After shooting went to depth 30 meters.  
    16.09   After 3 minutes 01 second, impact, torpedo detonation.  Immediate breaking, cracking, sinking sounds.  Quickly went to periscope depth.  
    16.12   At periscope depth:  In 150°R, 60°T a large white-gray steam and detonation cloud over the half sunken frigate.  It lies submerged by the stern up to the level just behind the stack with only the bow rising at less than about 20° angle of inclination from the water.  
           
           
           
Sun and Moon Data 22.08.44
 
- 21 -
 
           
           
           
    continued from      
    22.08.44 North of Seine Bay    
        Sank over the stern post.  
        In a periscope sweep, 2 landing craft bearing 290°R, 200°T, target angle 0°, range 200 meters.  Apparently not heard in the GHG because of strong drowning out by sinking sounds at the sinking location.    
        Quickly went to depth 40 meters and ran off to the west with the current.  
      Intention:  operate further north along the buoyed route tomorrow.  
    18.00 - 21.40   Multiple sound bearings from search vessels.  Asdic location, no depth charges.  
    20.00 BF 3198    
    20.50   Put the boat on the bottom, depth 61 meters.  
    21.46   Beginning of twilight.  
    22.42   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    24.00 BF 3198    
           
    23.08.44 South of the Isle of Wight    
    00.20 -      
    02.18   Snorkeling.  
    04.00 BF 3192    
    05.17 BF 3192 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 39 meters.  
    06.10   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 BF 3192    
    09.02   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    12.00 BF 3193 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   29.4 nm  
                                                            29.4 nm  
    13.34 NE 2, Sea 1, cloudy, Vis. good At periscope depth.  From a bearing on the Isle of Wight by which I recognized every detail very well, boat is positioned in BF 3271 on the buoyed route.  
      Intention:  Remain at periscope depth, stay on the buoyed route by constantly steaming against the current and await targets.  
        A two-stack ship bearing 345°R, 250°T, later recognized as a hospital ship, bow right, target angle 100°, enemy course 330°.  Constant operation of landing craft running in and out, mainly LCT- Smokestack type, 350 GRT.  
    15.25   4 vessels like R-boats, range 800 meters, on NW course.   
    15.40   6 vessels (4 corvettes, 1 frigate, 1 trawler) with Asdic working in double-line formation from the center of the route to the east.  The westernmost vessel passes at 500 meters.    
    16.00 BF 3271    
    17.03   Pole masts on the horizon bearing 68°R, 160°T, range 9000 meters.  
    17.10   Long drawn out heavy smoke bearing 65°R, 157°T.  
           
           
           
Sun and Moon Data 22.08.44
Sun and Moon Data 23.08.44
 
- 22 -
 
           
           
           
    continued from      
    23.08.44 North of the Seine Bay Pole masts belong to a steamer bearing 350°R, 160°T, target angle 20°, range 7000 meters, course 230°.  Can still make out 3 small masts in the vicinity.   
    17.22   Smoke belongs to a two-masted hospital ship, now bearing 0°R, 170°T.    
    17.31   Steamer bearing 0°R, 170°T.  Now bow left, target angle 30°, enemy course 320°.  Steamer is "War Emergency" type with 4 pole masts, 7000 GRT.  
    17.35   Steamer was being towed by two large tugs, on the port-side a corvette and 2 small motor boats, painted off-white, on the starboard side are 4 motor boats of the same type, moving in a group.  
    17.40   Hospital ship running at about 15 knots, has passed the tow to its starboard side and now passes me at 200 meters range.  
      If I had observed hospital ship more, I would have seen that it probably turned to the north shortly after passing the tow, as the route apparently runs that way here.  As well the small passing distance of the hospital ship to me.  I regarded this distance, however, as a consequence of the overtaking maneuver.  
    17.45   Turned to attack course, I retracted the periscope to allow the starboard screen of 4 motorboats to overrun me at periscope depth.  
    17.49   The 4 boats ran past immediately behind the boat.  
    17.50   On extending the periscope the steamer had turned towards me.  After the shot I saw the buoy to the south.  The tow has also turned at this buoy like the hospital ship before from 320° to approximately 355°.   Now steamer is bow right, target angle 5°.   At this point I probably underestimated the range in my bad periscope which allows only "large magnification" which underestimates distance.  I believed I was very close, because I could make out every detail on the steamer and on the tug, even the detail of the pattern of the tow wire.  Therefore, I want to break off, turn hard and then shoot from the port side, if necessary from a blunt position.  
        Quickly went to 20 meters and at high speed broke through, turned with starboard 15° to a parallel course (350°) and came to periscope depth.  
      With the relatively low enemy speed I still hoped to make the shot.  
    17.55   At periscope depth. The steamer bears 100°R, 100°T.  Range estimated at about 200 meters.  I recognized every detail again.  Could discern no damage, not even in upper deck, apparently only engine failure.  The steamer flew a British flag.   
      I really wanted to shoot because I believe that with the low speed of the enemy from 3-4 knots, the steamer will be put down despite the blunt target angle.  Therefore, I let myself sink and shot when I estimated the range was 500 to 600 meters.  
           
           
Sun and Moon Data 30.08.44
Sun and Moon Data 31.08.44
Sun and Moon Data 01.08.44
 
- 23 -
 
           
           
           
    continued from      
    23.08.44 North of the Seine Bay    
    17.58 BF 3271 Single shot from tube II (T IIIa Lut I)  
      NE 2, Sea 1, cloudy, Vis. medium Data:  enemy speed 5, target angle left 160°, range 600 meters, depth 3 meters, MZ on.  
        I entered no Lut data because the shot would have been delayed too long and by all appearances the prospect for a hit was large enough.  
    17.59   After 1 minute 9 seconds a hit aft 40 meters.   
        Off-white explosion and water column.  Large pieces flying through the air.  
        As the explosive cloud collapsed on itself, or dissipated, the stern of the ship was missing.  Steamer lay with the stern deep in the water and the bow high.  Sank quickly by the stern.   During this, crackling, cracking and breaking was heard in the boat with the naked ear and was very loudly audible.  
    18.01   Corvette of the port screen turned to port.  Will apparently make a large circle around to the supposed shooting location to strike.  I cannot make out the motor boats.  
    18.02   Went to depth 50 meters and diagonal to the current to run off to the southwest.  
    18.07   Corvette ran in and threw 5 depth charges, closely placed, light damage.  
        However, as a result of the noise of the sinking steamer a sound pursuit was impossible.  
    18.10   4 depth charges no longer so good.  
        Later about 15 depth charges, they are now harmless.  
      From this observation escort vessels can be expected to throw depth charges as quickly as possible in supposed firing location and only then begin to search later from this place.  
    18.21   Loud, last noises of the sinking steamer, then rushing, sliding and silence.  
    20.00 BF 3195    
    21.42   Beginning of twilight.  
    23.56 BF 3195 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 68 meters.  
    24.00 BF 3195    
           
    24.08.44 North of the Seine Bay    
    00.57   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    01.30   Began snorkeling.  
    02.04   Snorkel alarm for 2 red lights bearing 107°R, 17°T.  
      Suppose landing craft, because afterwards in the GHG sound band of "purring" landing craft engines are determined.  
    03.20   Began snorkeling.  
    04.00 BF 3198    
    04.09   Snorkel alarm for red and white lights.   
      Suspect landing craft once again.  
    06.06 BF 3198 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 70 meters.  
      Intention:  Because crew is quite exhausted and due to continual unusual knocking in the operations area quite under a strain will remain 1 whole day on the bottom to rest  
           
           
Sun and Moon Data 23.08.44
Sun and Moon Data 24.08.44
 
- 24 -
 
           
           
           
    continued from      
    24.08.44 North of the Seine Bay Tomorrow I want to go to get rid of my last two torpedoes again on the buoyed route.  
    06.12   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 BF 3198    
    12.00 BF 3198 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   34.4 nm  
                                                            34.4 nm  
    16.00 BF 3198    
    20.00 BF 3198    
    21.58   Beginning of twilight.  
    22.40   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    24.00 BF 3197    
           
    25.08.44 North of Seine Bay    
    01.23   Began snorkeling.  
    02.14   Tracers and a red-white light bearing 102°R, 192°T.  
        Sound sweep showed sound bearing from fast propellers strength 2.  
        After a short interruption snorkeled again.  
    03.49   Ended snorkeling.  
    04.00 BF 3198    
      Also it is clear to see from the sound band detected today, that the north-south steamer traffic runs at night.  
    04.15 BF 3198 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 59 meters.  
    06.14   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 BF 3198    
    09.57   Raised the boat from the bottom.  Proceeded submerged at depth 40 meters to the buoyed route.  
    12.00 BF 3199 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   16.1 nm  
                                                            16.1 nm  
    14.20   A rising sound band.  Steamer propellers, no saws.  A south-north convoy.  
    14.31   A steamer emerges sharply from the sound band.  Went to periscope depth.  
    14.36 BF 3278 Immediately on extending the periscope I detected a two-stack hospital ship bearing 40°R, 130°T, bow right, broad target angle, range about 5000 meters.  
      Dead calm, completely flat, oily sea, mist, sunshine, steamy, Vis. changing between 3500-5000 meters  
      With a periscope sweep:  single steamers bearing 320°R, 50°T and 330°R, 60°T - only just visible in the mist - bow left, range about 4000 meters  
        A large steamer with 4 pole masts of at least 7000 GRT bearing 355°R, 85°T.  Bow left target angle 40°, enemy course 305°, range 3500 meters.  GHG focused on this target.  Steamer was clearly made out at strength 4 and was easily observed.  From timing RPM ran at 8 knots.  
    14.43 BF 3278 Single shot from tube III (T V).  
      Dead calm, oily sea, mist, steamy    
           
Sun and Moon Data 24.08.44
Sun and Moon Data 25.08.44
 
- 25 -
 
           
           
           
    continued from      
    25.08.44 North of Seine Bay Single shot from tube III (T V)  on the freighter sighted last of 7000 GRT.  
      Mist, steamy, sunshine, Vis. up to 5000 meters Date:  target speed = 8 knots, target angle left 50°, range = 3000 meters, depth 3 meters, steering "distant" [WS setting for approaching target].  
        After the shot went to depth 30 meters.  
        In the meantime the steamer was clearly held in the GHG at strength 5.  
    14.47   Torpedo impact and an extremely large detonation after 4 minutes 2 seconds.  
      Believe that the reason for the loud detonation was a hit in the boiler room.  
        In the GHG propeller sounds immediately cease.  Immediately thereafter loud bulkhead cracking and breaking heard with the naked ear in the boat.  
    15.06   The final breaking and cracking.  Rushing, the steamer went to the deep.  
    15.08   After the previous matter, quickly rising sound bearing from turbine propellers, 7 depth charges, seemingly well placed, light damage.  
        Went to depth 45-48 meters and ran off with the easterly current.  Boat was pursued by 4 U-boat hunting vessels, 2 with piston engines, 2 turbine powered. 1 piston and 1 turbine powered U-boat hunter with Asdic.  1 turbine powered vessel seemed to specialize in throwing depth charges, in each case starting from 5 to 10 minutes after a pause, throws depth charge series and with the last depth charge deploys the "saw".  The last piston powered vessel apparently listened, was observed running at slow RPM. Especially good sound conditions prevail today.   
    16.00 BF 3279    
    20.00 BF 3276    
    21.40   Beginning of twilight.  
        Sound pursuit lasts until 22.00 hours.  During this, the boat always steered 5 meters above the bottom (with accumulating depth charge throws slightly bow heavy).  Gyro-compass transformer shut down.  Diving planes not used.  Depth keeping by using men of the crew.  The piston powered U-boat hunter with quite low RPM frequently lay (stopped) directly above the boat.  Then every little thing associated with him could be heard in the boat with the naked ear at strength 5.  At the same time, roaring Asdic impulses.  
      If boat has only a "noise damage" in such a situation, at all costs it must be determined and be very well cared for.  
        Then, 180° opposite, the "Specialized thrower", until then lying stopped, started and then threw in each case 5 to 6 depth charges.  Since only small failures occurred, I am convinced that the enemy did not hold the boat with Asdic, therefore, without range information, was only guided by sound bearings (and certainly very inaccurately because of the good condition of the boat).  
      Mostly I ascribe the boat's not being caught to the protection of "A l b e r i c h".  
           
           
Sun and Moon Data 25.08.44
 
- 26 -
 
           
           
           
    continued from      
    25.08.44 North of Seine Bay    
    18.25   A new U-boat hunting vessel with turbines joins the U-boat hunting group that works with a banging device.  These detections are similar to 3 rhythmic blows, as if someone hit a wooden board with a hammer three times in rapid succession, with a little less force each time.  
        With this the depth charge series were placed much better than before as the concerned U-boat hunter had not been with the club.  
    22.10   U-boat hunting group was shaken off.  
    23.52 BF 3196 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 56 meters.  
    24.00 BF 3196    
           
    26.08.44 North of the Seine Bay    
    01.13   Raised the boat from the bottom to snorkel.  
        However, this was not possible because the search group still remains in the vicinity (frequent sound bearings strength 3 and, in addition, Asdic).  
    01.50 BF 3274 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 57 meters.  
    03.25   Raised the boat from the bottom, to run off, because Asdic and sound bearings have become continually loud.  Ran to the west, because I intend to begin the return transit because of crew exhaustion.  
    03.30   Presented Radio Message 1437/25/888:  
        "Förster", "Sachse", "von Bremen", "Reff":  
        1.)  Immediately begin return transit to Norway.  Attention is called to Radio Message 2117/15.  
        2.)  Circuit remains Diana until arrival of new orders.  
    04.00 BF 3274    
    05.02   No further sound bearings, U-boat hunting group finally shaken off.  
    05.24 - 05.48   Snorkeled to renew the air, to be able to remain submerged long enough.  Still enough current available.  
    06.16   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 BF 3195    
    11.01 BF 3197 Put the boat on the bottom in the opposing current depth 80 meters.  
    12.00 BF 3197 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   26.8 nm  
                                                            26.8 nm  
    16.00 BF 3197    
    17.58   Raised the boat from the bottom.  Boat started the return transit to Norway.  
    20.00 BF 3189    
           
Sun and Moon Data 25.08.44
Sun and Moon Data 26.08.44
 
- 27 -
 
           
           
           
    continued from      
    26.08.44 North of Seine Bay    
    21.45   Beginning of twilight.  
    23.19   Began snorkeling.  Interrupted by a sound band quickly growing louder, a north-south convoy, east of the boat.  
    23.28   2 lighted buoys bearing 145°R, 55°T and 198°R, 108°T.  Estimated range 2 nm.  
      Believe that the lighted buoys belong to the Cherbourg route.  
    24.00 BF 3187    
           
    27.08.44 Channel    
    00.08 - 03.37   Snorkeling.  
    03.57 BF 3179 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 60 meters.  
    04.00 BF 3179    
    05.40   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    06.23   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 BF 3178    
    12.00 BF 2399 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   46.0 nm  
                                                            46.0 nm  
    12.02 BF 2399 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 63 meters.  
    16.00 BF 2399    
    18.17   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    20.00 BF 2398    
    21.44   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 BF 2631    
           
    28.08.44 Channel    
    00.30 BF 2631 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 69 meters.  
    01.43   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    02.01 - 03.46   Snorkeling, for the first time without sound bearings.  
    04.00 BF 2323 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 69 meters.  
    05.57   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    06.30   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 BF 2625    
    11.07 BF 2624 Put the boat on the bottom, depth 72 meters.  
    12.00 BF 2623 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   34.9 nm  
                                                            34.9 nm  
    16.00 BF 2624    
    17.58   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    20.00 BF 2619    
    21.46   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 BF 2617    
           
           
Sun and Moon Data 26.08.44
Sun and Moon Data 27.08.44
Sun and Moon Data 28.08.44
 
- 28 -
 
           
           
           
           
    29.08.44 Channel    
    02.10 - 04.13 No periscope observation Snorkeled.  
    04.00 BF 2641    
    06.33   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 BF 2563    
    12.00 BF 2561 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   38.2 nm  
                                                            38.2 nm  
    16.00 BF 2564    
    18.30   Destroyer search group by sound bearing came from the NE to the SW passed close to the boat.  Went to depth 65 meters.  
    20.00 BF 2556    
    21.47   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 BF 2555    
           
    30.08.44 Channel    
    02.07 - 04.30   Snorkeled.  
    04.00 BF 2557    
    08.00 BF 2549    
    12.00 BF 2571 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   42.2 nm  
                                                            42.2 nm  
    16.00 BF 2547 Navigation fix by soundings:  
        Correction after a navigation fix:  15°, 6.5 nm.  
    20.00 BF 2493    
    21.48   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 BF 2492    
           
    31.08.44 Channel    
    03.27 - 06.05   Snorkeled.  
    04.00 BF 2494    
    06.44   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 BF 2485    
    12.00 BF 2484 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   40.5 nm  
                                                            40.5 nm  
    16.00 BF 2487    
    20.00 BF 2479    
    21.50   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 BF 2478    
           
           
           
Sun and Moon Data 29.08.44
Sun and Moon Data 30.08.44
Sun and Moon Data 31.08.44
 
- 29 -
 
           
           
           
           
    01.09.44 Western Channel    
    01.40 - 04.29   Snorkeled.  
    04.00 BF 1699    
      SW 5, Sea 4, clear, full moon night    
    06.55   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 BF 1698    
    12.00 BF 1697 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   43.1 nm  
                                                            43.1 nm  
    16.00 BF 1689    
    20.00 BF 1688    
    21.50   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 BF 1687    
           
    02.09.44 South of Ireland    
    01.00   Presented Radio Message 0901/1/849:  
        On 3 September at 08.00 hours switch "Ireland" Circuit Förster, Reff, Sachse, von Bremen, Rodler, Brauel, Wehrkamp.  Until then - on Diana Circuit.  
    01.40 -      
    04.12   Snorkeled.  
    04.00 BF 1675    
      WSW 7, Sea 5-6, clear, Vis. good, moonlit night    
      In this weather the "Brest charging procedure" is not possible with the snorkel, because 1.) the boat with 1 diesel at 240 RPM cannot hold depth keeping standard, 2.) due to frequent undercutting, and the resulting very strong vacuum, battery acid is spilled and also the crew is physically stressed beyond all measure.  
      It was driven:    
      1 side diesel with added charging (320 RPM with 600 amperes of load in series). That snorkeling was at all possible in this weather, was due to the fact that the sea came from ahead.  The extensive snorkeling experience of the boat during the first patrol was especially important, and the good training associated with it directed by the Engineering Officer and thanks to the technical crew.  
    07.02   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 BF 1674    
    12.00 BF 1674 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   39.6 nm  
                                                            39.6 nm  
    16.00 BF 1596    
    20.00 BF 1596    
    21.52   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 BF 1592    
           
           
           
Sun and Moon Data 01.09.44
Sun and Moon Data 02.09.44
 
- 30 -
 
           
           
           
           
    03.09.44 South of Ireland    
    00.59 -04.00 BF 1583 Began snorkeling.  
      SW 2, Sea 3, clear moonlit night    
    07.00   Snorkeling ended  
    07.06   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 BF 1558 In accordance with Radio Message 0901/1/849 switched to "Ireland" Circuit.  
    12.00 BF 1557 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   36.1 nm  
                                                            36.1 nm  
    16.00 BF 1549    
    20.00 BF 1548    
    21.54   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 BF 1545    
           
    04.09.44 South of Ireland    
    02.30   Began snorkeling.  
    04.00 BF 1466    
      WSW 4, Sea 4, cloudy    
    07.10   Beginning of twilight.  Ended snorkeling.  
    08.00 BF 1453    
    12.00 BF 1453 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   51.2 nm  
                                                            51.2 nm  
    16.00 BF 1452    
    20.00 BF 1452    
    21.57   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 BF 1451    
           
    05.09.44 South of Ireland.    
    01.16   Began snorkeling.  
    04.00 BF 1427    
      WSW 5-6, Sea 5, Vis. good, moonlit night Navigation fix by soundings:  
        Correction after a navigation fix:  90°, 13.9 nm.  
    07.00   Ended snorkeling.  
    07.14   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 BF 1414    
    12.00 BF 1414 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   45.6 nm  
                                                            45.6 nm  
    16.00 BF 1414    
    20.00 BE 3636    
    21.59   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 BE 3636    
           
    06.09.44 Southwest of Ireland    
    01.30   Began snorkeling.  
    04.00 BE 3623 G a r b a g e  s h o t  from tube V performed for the first time.  
           
Sun and Moon Data 03.09.44
Sun and Moon Data 04.09.44
Sun and Moon Data 05.09.44
Sun and Moon Data 06.09.44
 
- 31 -
 
           
           
           
    continued from      
    06.09.44 Southwest of Ireland Up to now all wastes were pressed into milk boxes or cans which had been brought by means of tin snips to the shape of the milk boxes and expelled by tube VI.  However, meanwhile, an amount of coarser waste, like crate boards, bags with smashed jars and tin cans and the like had accumulated in the boat.  A lot of potash cartridges are made unnecessarily broad.  Up to now for weight reasons (with the low fuel consumption and the firing of 10 torpedoes the boat has become very light, so that, because I did not want to sacrifice the wash water stored in torpedo compensating tank 2, the negative tank was already completely full) no garbage shot had been performed.   
        Now the boat is in the weight condition to do this.  In three shots all the superfluous rubbish in the boat, including consumed potash cartridges were expelled.  From then on the boat was kept in an impeccably clean condition which after the tiring days in operations area was felt by the crew as very beneficial, and which I believe is very important in view of the health condition of the crew.  Not to mention the fact that the absence superfluous rubbish makes room for air.  
        From this point on the "rubbish shot" was repeated about 4 times per day.  Wastes and such were put in jerricans and boxes, these were bundled and then continually put in the tube, when this was full, it was ejected submerged without piston.  
    07.10   Ended snorkeling.  
    07.21   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 BE 3379    
    12.00 BE 3379 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   48.9 nm  
                                                            48.9 nm  
    16.00 BE 3378    
    20.00 BE 3378    
    22.01   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 BE 3374    
           
    07.09.44 Southwest of Ireland    
    01.02   To achieve a bigger day's run and to spare the battery, proceeded at the expense of a longer snorkeling time:  
        1 side 320 RPM pure diesel propulsion,  
        1 side 240 RPM pure charging.  
    04.00 BE 3294                                 W 3 Advantages:  fast progress, good depth keeping (particularly in a rough sea) substantial charging time, with only about 150 mb vacuum, not to xxxxxx of the engines as a result of xxxxxx exhaust gas pressure and not to xxxxxxxxx of the crew as a result of strong pressure fluctuation (xxxxxxx in a rough sea)  
           
           
           
Sun and Moon Data 06.09.44
Sun and Moon Data 07.09.44
 
- 32 -
 
           
           
           
    continued from      
    07.09.44 Southwest of Ireland    
    07.24   Beginning of twilight.  Ended snorkeling.  
    08.00 BE 3281    
    12.00 BE 3249 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   58.1 nm  
    16.00 BE 3248    
    20.00 BE 3247    
    22.67   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 BE 3169    
           
    08.09.44 Southwest of Ireland    
    01.27   Began snorkeling, also, for the first time radar observation by Borkum device.  
      I have deliberately allowed no Fu.M.B. to be turned on in the Channel and during the advance and departure, because I am convinced that observation from the snorkel antenna has more disadvantage than advantages.  When radars are detected they are almost invariably land radars, then the Fu.M.B. - service will only serve to disturb the crew.  Because Wanze failed observation by "Borkum".  
    04.00 BE 3162    
      NW 2, Sea 1, weak swell, cloudy, at times very bright moonshine, 1022 mb    
    07.00   Ended snorkeling.  
    07.31   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 BE 3134    
    12.00 BE 3123 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   55.6 nm  
                                                            55.6 nm  
    16.00 AM 7789    
    20.00 AM 7758    
    22.07   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 AM 7781    
           
    09.09.44 Southwest of Ireland    
    00.38   Began snorkeling.  
    04.00 AM 7754    
      NW 1, Sea 1, cloudy, Vis. good, 1027 mb    
    07.00   Ended snorkeling.  
    07.32   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 AM 7721    
    12.00 AM 7721 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   59.3 nm  
                                                            59.3 nm  
           
Sun and Moon Data 07.09.44
Sun and Moon Data 08.09.44
 
- 33 -
 
           
           
           
    continued from      
    09.09.44 Southwest of Ireland    
    16.00 AM 7487    
    20.00 AM 7484    
    22.09   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 AM 7481    
           
    10.09.44 West of Ireland    
    00.50   Began snorkeling.  
    04.00 AM 7454    
      S 1, Sea 0-1, cloudy, 1028 mb    
    07.18   Ended snorkeling.  
    07.34   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.25   "Saw" sound bearing 70°R, 35°T.  Running back and forth in a north-south direction.  
    09.16   2 other saws bearing 80°R, 45°T.  
        3 vessels are observed till 20.00 hours with changing strength, also frequent distant depth charges in this direction  
    12.00 AM 7177 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   59.4 nm  
                                                            59.4 nm  
    16.00 AL 9394    
    20.00 AL 9392 At periscope depth.  Sound bearings fade out in the northeast.  
      SSE 5, Sea 4, cloudy  
    22.11   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 AL 9386    
           
    11.09.44 West of Ireland    
    00.14   Began snorkeling.  
    04.00 AL 9329    
      SSE 5, Sea 4, cloudy, 1022 mb    
    07.00   Ended snorkeling.  
    07.38   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 AL 9321    
    12.00 AL 6979 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   72.1 nm  
                                                            72.1 nm  
        It is noted that the current consumption of the E-motors is the same at RPM = 85 as it is with RPM = 65.  85 RPM is the most economic drive setting.  Therefore, from now on we run with both motors at 85 RPM a very big advantage, because at this drive setting 2 nm per hour are made good.  
    16.00 AL 6972 At periscope depth.  
      S 5-6, Sea 4-5, overcast, Vis. 10 nm    
    20.00 AL 6948    
    22.14   Beginning of twilight.  
           
Sun and Moon Data 09.09.44
Sun and Moon Data 10.09.44
Sun and Moon Data 11.09.44
 
- 34 -
 
           
           
           
    continued from      
    11.09.44 West of Ireland    
    24.00 AL 6944    
           
    12.09.44 West of Ireland    
    01.14   Began snorkeling.  
      Intention: to fully load the battery, then surface for situation report and to bring anti-aircraft weapons into adjustment.  
    04.00 AL 6838    
    05.03   When attempting to surface, individual blow valve 3 port does not blow in spite previously placing all valves open.  Boat comes up with very strong list.  Immediately flooded again.  At depth 20 meters however, blow valve 3 port is opened and, after ballast tank is blown with high pressure air, finally flooded again.  
    05.11 AL 6835 Surfaced.  
      S 7, Sea 6, overcast, very dark night, Vis. 500 meters, 1018 mb Boat stinks bestially of decay and rot.  Boat is completely covered with phosphorescent particles.  Every step on the bridge stands out shining.  If one strokes his hand against the bridge plating, the hand track appears as a bright, shimmering light trace.  The upper deck, snorkel recess and all flooding slits phosphoresce very strongly.  
      Because of the heavy sea (bridge is constantly awash from astern seas) the men cannot hold on to the slippery wood, I cannot exchange or dismount the weapons.  Shields for the twins cannot be folded out.  Malfunctions cannot be repaired in the darkness, nor can the cause be determined, apparently the hinges are firmly rusted.  The 3.7 cm platform is not manned because of the sea state.  
      Because under these circumstances boat would have to proceed on the surface with inoperative weapons, I decide to dive to send my situation message and to plan to continue submerged transit with the use of the snorkel until favorable weather conditions free of rough sea, surfacing during the day or during a bright night for a short time in order to exchange, or dismount, the antiaircraft weapons to allow their repair in the boat.  I want to surface for the first time during the day because of the strong phosphorescence to be able to get a picture of the outward condition of the boat.  
    05.22   Sent Radio Message 0401/12/121:  
        From "Förster":  Traffic BF 3270 as in Operations Order 7 c.  Loaded steamer convoys only at night, empty by day.  Always many landing craft.  Strong surveillance.  Search groups, "explosive detection".  During depth charge pursuit 5 meters above the bottom.  "Alberich very well ".  17-days in the operations area.  Sank: 14000 GRT., two frigates, after Lut-triple detonation at 9 min, 20 seconds.  40 days submerged. Anton Lucie 68.  
    05.25   Dived.  
    07.45   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 AL 6834    
    12.00 AL 6589 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         1.5  
                                       Submerged:   58.3 nm  
                                                            59.8 nm  
           
           
Sun and Moon Data 11.09.44
Sun and Moon Data 12.09.44
 
- 35 -
 
           
           
           
    continued from      
    12.09.44 West of Ireland    
    12.30   Presented Radio Message "0946/12/123":  
        "Matuschka, Förster" in recognition of your excellent performance I award you the German Cross in Gold.  Ob.d. M. and B.d. U.  
    16.00 AL 6585    
    20.00 AL 6582    
    22.20   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 AL 6558    
           
    13.09.44 West of Ireland    
    00.44 - 03.46 S 6, Sea 5, very dark night, no visibility in the periscope, 1021 mb Snorkeled.  
         
    04.00 AL 6528    
    05.50   Sound bearing strength 1 bearing 235°R, 235°T, destroyer propellers.  Shifted fast via 180° to 130°T and disappeared there.  
    07.45   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 AL 6522    
    12.00 AL 6288 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   65.1 nm  
                                                            65.1 nm  
    16.00 AL 6282 At periscope depth.  
      NW 3, Sea 3, cloudy, Vis. 10 nm    
    20.00 AL 6258    
    22.17   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 AL 6252    
           
    14.09.44 Northwest of Ireland    
    00.54   Began snorkeling.  
    04.00 AL 6222    
      WNW 3, Sea 2, cloudy, 1018 mb    
    05.00   Ended snorkeling.  
    08.00 AL 3986    
    12.00 AL 3983 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   66.8 nm  
                                                            66.8 nm  
    16.00 AL 3956    
    20.00 AL 3953    
    22.16   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 AL 3926    
           
    15.09.44 West of the Herbrides    
    01.27   Began snorkeling.  
    04.00 AL 3789    
      SW 4, Sea 3, cloudy, 1021 mb    
           
           
           
Sun and Moon Data 12.09.44
Sun and Moon Data 13.09.44
Sun and Moon Data 14.09.44
Sun and Moon Data 15.09.44
 
- 36 -
 
           
           
           
    continued from      
    15.09.44 West of the Herbrides    
    05.45   Ended snorkeling.  
    07.43   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 AL 3783    
    12.00 AL 3756 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   63.2 nm  
                                                            63.2 nm  
    16.00 AL 3757 At periscope depth.  
      W 5, Sea 3, overcast, Vis. medium    
    20.00 AL 3726    
    22.15   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 AL 3723    
           
    16.09.44 West of the Herbrides    
    01.08   Began snorkeling.  
    04.00 AL 3586    
      W 5, Sea 4, 1016 mb    
    06.17   Snorkeling ended  
    07.43   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 AL 3564    
    12.00 AL 3538 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   66.1 nm  
                                                            66.1 nm  
    16.00 AL 3535    
      SSW 6, Sea 5, overcast, Vis. medium    
    16.43 - 16.49   Snorkeled to air the boat.  
    20.00 AL 3398    
    22.15   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 AL 3396    
           
    17.09.44 Northwest of the Herbrides    
    02.14   Began snorkeling.  
    04.00 AL 3447    
      SSW 6, Sea 5, overcast, 996 mb    
    06.45   Ended snorkeling.  
    07.40   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 AL 3442    
    12.00 AL 3419 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   62.4 nm  
                                                            62.4 nm  
    16.00 AL 3424    
    20.00 AL 3421    
           
Sun and Moon Data 15.09.44
Sun and Moon Data 16.09.44
Sun and Moon Data 17.09.44
 
- 37 -
 
           
           
           
    continued from      
    17.09.44 Northwest of the Herbrides    
    22.08   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 AL 3288    
           
    18.09.44 South of Iceland    
    01.51   Began snorkeling.  
    04.00 AL 3283    
      SSE 5, Sea 4, starry visibility, 1017 mb    
    06.57   Snorkel alarm for bright white aircraft searchlight bearing 10°R, 45°R.  
        Discontinued snorkeling.  
    07.32   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 AL 3266    
    12.00 AL 3263 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   62.2 nm  
                                                            62.2 nm  
    16.00 AM 1117    
      SE 7, Sea 6, overcast, Vis. bad    
    20.00 AM 1111    
    24.00 AE 8799    
           
    19.09.44 South of Iceland    
    01.49   Began snorkeling.  
    04.00 AE 8871    
      SE 6-7, Sea 5-6, no visibility in the periscope, 995 mb    
    04.48   Ended snorkeling.  
    07.28 Beginning of twilight.    
    08.00 AE 8848    
    12.00 AE 8846 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   56.9 nm  
                                                            56.9 nm  
    16.00 AE 8824    
      SW 6, Sea 5, 8/10, cloudy, Vis. good    
    20.00 AE 8824    
    21.55   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 AE 8822    
           
    20.09.44 South of Iceland    
    01.49   Began snorkeling.  
    04.00 AE 8589    
      WSW 6, Sea 5, overcast, 1017 mb    
    04.58   Ended snorkeling.  
    07.23   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 AE 8583    
    12.00 AE 8567 D a y' s  r u n:  
      WSW 6-7                                Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   55.7 nm  
                                                            55.7 nm  
    16.00 AE 8565    
           
Sun and Moon Data 17.09.44
Sun and Moon Data 18.09.44
Sun and Moon Data 19.09.44
Sun and Moon Data 20.09.44
 
- 38 -
 
           
           
           
    continued from      
    20.09.44 South of Iceland    
    20.00 AE 8562    
      WSW 6, Sea 5, Vis. bad    
    21.47   At periscope depth, twilight begins.  
    24.00 AE 8539    
           
    21.09.44 Iceland Passage    
    01.44   Began snorkeling.  
    04.00 AE 8611    
    05.31   Ended snorkeling.  
    07.19   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 AE 8376    
    12.00 AE 8373 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   62.0 nm  
                                                            62.0 nm  
    16.00 AE 8357 At periscope depth.  
      SW 7, Sea 6, overcast, misty, Vis. bad    
    20.00 AE 8352    
    21.44   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 AE 8328 Presented Radio Message "1449/21/119":  
        "On 22 September at 08.00 hours switch to Coastal Circuit "Olsen", "Meyer", "Lamby", "Lange", "Förster", "Reith", "Brauel", "Rasch".  
           
    22.09.44 Rosengarten    
    01.03 - 03.07   Snorkeling.  
    04.00 AE 8331    
      SW 6, Sea 5, overcast, 997 mb    
    05.04 - 06.30   Snorkeling  
    07.19   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 AE 5995    
    12.00 AE 5992 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   60.0 nm  
                                                            60.0 nm  
    16.00 AE 5969    
    20.00 AE 6744    
    21.43   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 AE 6741 Navigation fix from depth soundings:  
        Correction after a navigation fix:  218°, 45 nm.  
           
    23.09.44 Rosengarten    
    01.10 - 03.55   Snorkeling.  
    04.00 AE 8333    
      WNW 3, Sea 3, long swells, 1000 mb    
    06.10 - 06.52   Snorkeling  
    07.15   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 AE 9111    
    12.00 AE 9112 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   57.0 nm  
                                                            57.0 nm  
    16.00 AE 9121    
    20.00 AE 9122 At periscope depth.  
      NNW 5, Sea 4, 8/10    
    21.25   Beginning of twilight.  
           
Sun and Moon Data 20.09.44
Sun and Moon Data 21.09.44
Sun and Moon Data 22.09.44
Sun and Moon Data 23.09.44
 
- 39 -
 
           
           
           
    continued from      
    23.09.44 Rosengarten    
    22.00   Presented Radio Message 1321/23/79:  
        From 11. U.-Flottille:  Return harbor Bergen for U-296 (Rausch), U-445 (Treuberg), U-480 (Förster), U-92 (Brauel).  
    24.00 AE 9123    
           
    24.09.44 Iceland Passage    
    00.45   Began snorkeling.  
    01.50 AE 9131    
        Sound bearing 310°R, 40°T.  Shifting slowly astern and disappearing in 240°R, 330°T.  Snorkeling interrupted, until bearing disappeared.  
    03.08 - 05.58   Snorkeling continued.  
    04.00 AE 9132    
      WNW 4, Sea 3, overcast, 1013 mb    
    07.09   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 AE 9211    
    12.00 AE 9213 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   62.1 nm  
                                                            62.1 nm  
    16.00 AE 9221    
    20.00 AE 9222    
      NW 3, Sea 2, long medium-high swell, 9/10    
    21.00 - 21.05   Snorkeling to air the boat.  
    22.00   Presented Radio Message 09.42/24/94:  
        "Return harbor for "Förster", Brauel, Rasch, Lehman-Willenbrock, Rademacher is Trondheim."  
    24.00 AE 9223    
           
    25.09.44 North of the Faroes    
    01.08   Began snorkeling.  
    04.00 AE 9233    
      NNW 3, Sea 2, long swell, overcast, Vis. bad    
    05.00   Ended snorkeling.  
    07.02   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 AE 9311    
    12.00 AE 9312 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   59.5 nm  
                                                            59.5 nm  
    16.00 AE 9321    
    20.00 AE 9322    
      NNW 3, Sea 3, long swells, overcast    
    24.00 AE 9323    
           
Sun and Moon Data 23.09.44
Sun and Moon Data 24.09.44
Sun and Moon Data 25.09.44
 
- 40 -
 
           
           
           
           
    26.09.44 European North Sea, Northeast of the Faroes    
    01.30   Began snorkeling.  
    04.00 AE 9332    
      W 5, Sea 5, cloudy, 991 mb    
    06.37   Ended snorkeling.  
    06.55   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 AF 7112    
    12.00 AF 7113 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   58.9 nm  
                                                            58.9 nm  
    20.57   Beginning of twilight.  
    23.00   Presented Radio Message 1146/26/23:  
        13. U.Flottille to "Förster", "Brauel", "Rasch", "Lehman-Willenbrock", "Rademacher":  Pickup point is GR 1. report 36 hours before arrival by short signal.  Transmission times for Radio Beacon Group 17 by appointment. Elektrasonne 1 position 58°37'32''N 5°37'49E  Frequency 319 kHz.  Sonne 20 position 69°17'29"N, 16°08'47E, 269 kHz.  Transmission time 03.00-03.30, 08.30-09.00, 14.00-14.30, 21.00-21.30 hours.  
    24.00 AF 7131    
           
    27.09.44 European North Sea between the Faroes and Norway    
    01.00   Began snorkeling.  
    04.00 AF 7153    
      NW 6, Sea 5, overcast, 986 mb    
    04.56   Ended snorkeling.  
    06.51   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 AF 7215    
      NW 6, Sea 5, overcast, Vis. bad, 984 mb    
    11.11   Snorkeled to air the boat.  
    12.00 AF 7224 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   62.9 nm  
                                                            62.9 nm  
    16.00 AF 7225    
    20.00 AF 7226    
    20.34   Beginning of twilight.  
    24.00 AF 7234    
           
Sun and Moon Data 26.09.44
Sun and Moon Data 27.09.44
 
- 41 -
 
           
           
           
           
    28.09.44 European North Sea between the Faroes and Norway    
    01.12   Began snorkeling.  
    04.00 AF 7314    
      NW 6-7, Sea 6, overcast, 987 mb    
    04.51   Ended snorkeling.  
    06.48   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 AF 7515    
    12.00 AF 7315 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   58.9 nm  
                                                            58.9 nm  
    16.00 AF 7328    
    16.30 NW 5, Sea 5, high swell, 9/10, overcast, Vis. fairly good Sound bearing (destroyer propellers) bearing 255°R, 349°T.  Shifted quickly ahead and disappeared on an easterly course bearing 290°R, 24°R.  Went to periscope depth.  Nothing made out.  Good sound conditions prevailed.  
    17.15   Submerged transit continued at depth 60 meters.  
    20.00 AF 7379    
    20.20   Beginning of twilight.  
    21.45 - 21.53   Snorkeled to air the boat.  
    23.36   Sound bearing from 2 vessels 310°R, 44°T.  Fast propellers, apparently turbine powered.  Shifted eastward and disappeared in 355°R, 90°T.  
    24.00 AF 7337    
           
    29.09.44 West of the Norwegian Coast    
    00.20   Both vessels dive with strength 1 again bearing 30°R, 124°T and 35°R, 129°T.  Shifting initially on westerly course astern and steamed back again to the east.  
        Vessels disappeared bearing 15°R, 110°T.  
      Suspect an up and down standing search group.  
    04.00 AF 7338    
      NW 5, Sea 5, medium-high swell, overcast, 1000 mb    
    06.34   Ended snorkeling.  
    06.42   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 AF 8817    
    12.00 AF 8118 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   52.6 nm  
                                                            52.6 nm  
           
Sun and Moon Data 28.09.44
Sun and Moon Data 29.09.44
 
- 42 -
 
           
           
           
    continued from      
    29.09.44 West of the Norwegian Coast    
    16.00 AF 8119 At periscope depth.  
      SSW 4, Sea 3, slight swell, overcast, misty, Vis. bad    
    20.00 AF 8128    
    20.06   Beginning of twilight.  
    20.43 - 23.00   Snorkeling.  
    24.00 AF 8137    
           
    30.09.44 West of the Norwegian Coast    
    01.03   Begin snorkeling.  
    04.00 AF 8241    
      SW 4, Sea 4, overcast, 997 mb    
    05.00   Snorkeling ended.  
      Because up to now still I have no sounding, I accepted a correction after a navigation fix in westerly direction.  This assumption is backed up by a signal beam of the Elektrasonne 1 which was received over the snorkel round antenna.  
      Intention:  On reaching the continental shelf by sounding surface and then report escort pickup point.  
    06.31   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 AF 8242    
    09.45   Sound bearing (fast propellers) 70°R, 170°T disappeared after 12 minutes in a westerly direction in 180°T.  
    12.00 AF 8243 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         -/-  
                                       Submerged:   66.2 nm  
                                                            66.2 nm  
    16.00 AF 8251    
      NW 6, Sea 5, overcast, misty, Vis. bad    
    20.00 AF 8252    
    20.05   Beginning of twilight.  
    20.55 - 22.32   Snorkeled..  
    22.48 - 22.58   Surfaced for bearings from Elektrasonne 1 and 20.  Bearings not detected.  
    24.00 AF 8261    
           
    01.10.44 West Norwegian Coast    
    00.37 - 02.22   Snorkeled, while so doing several "Borkum" detections strength 4, snorkeling broken off.  
    02.15   Boat reached the 200-meter line by sounding in AF 8242.  Correction after a navigation fix:  255°, 47 nm.  
           
Sun and Moon Data 29.09.44
Sun and Moon Data 30.09.44
Sun and Moon Data 01.10.44
 
- 43 -
 
           
           
           
    continued from      
    01.10.44 West Norwegian Coast    
      Because I had not counted on such a positive correction after a fix, I am forced to report 24 hours from escort pickup point.  
      Intentions:  at 06.00 hours on the snorkel antenna receiver and transmitter, then surface and to send by short signal.  
    06.00   No short wave reception, although other broadcasting stations are to be heard very well on round dipole.  
    06.56   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 AF 8251 On the snorkel round antenna gap picked and transmitter tuned.  
    08.02 AF 8251 Surfaced.  
      NW 6-7, Sea 6, overcast, 995 mb Sent Short Signal 0807/1:  
      Position 24 hours off escort pickup point.  
    08.10 AF 8251 Dived.  
    12.00 AF 8252 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:        0.5 nm  
                                       Submerged:   51.0 nm  
                                                            51.5 nm  
    16.00 AF 8252 Program time results in the fact that my short signal was not heard by the receiving station, in accordance with Radio Message 0522/1/16 this is due to disturbance in the propagation of long waves.  
      W 7, Sea 6, overcast, Vis. bad  
    20.00 AF 8252    
      WSW 8, Sea 7, overcast, 1004 mb    
    20.02 - 20.53   Snorkeling with the intention of, 1.)  Pumping air, 2.)  Over the round antenna pick the gap, then surface to send a message in which I report that 1.) navigation is very inaccurate, 2.)  N.B.N. are not on board, I must have the frequencies of the radio beacons for arrival, because I am in very heavy seas and otherwise I do not dare approach the coast.  
    21.00   Bearing receiver failed, resistors and capacitors burned out.  
    21.51   By sounding the boat reached the 100-meter line, suspect position is AF 8255.  
      AF 8255 Ended snorkeling. To repair the bearing receiver and conserve current, boat put on the bottom, depth 106 meters.  
    24.00 AF 8255    
           
    02.10.44 West Norwegian Coast    
    03.00  DSZ   Retarded clocks1 hour.  
    02.32 MEZ   Bearing gear in service.  
    02.35   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    03.00 AF 8255 Surfaced.  
        Sent Radio Message 0200/2/5:  "From Förster":  
        Position 15 hours off escort pickup point.  My short signal was not heard, navigation is very uncertain, NBN not on board.  Request all radio beacon information.  Missing 17, 87.  
        Radio message was not heard by communications center, although boat lay out of the water and sufficient aerial current was indicated.  
           
Sun and Moon Data 01.10.44
Sun and Moon Data 02.10.44
 
- 44 -
 
           
           
           
    continued from      
    02.10.44 West Norwegian Coast    
    03.17   Radio message sent again, since I absolutely need the beacon because I do not dare approach the coast in these heavy seas without a navigation fix.  
    03.40 AF 8255 Aircraft detection strength 2, then 3, dived.  
    05.37   Beginning of twilight.  
   

07.30

08.00

 

AF 8252

Presented Radio Message 0524/2/34:  Radio message 0200/2/b from Förster at 03.25 hours on Coastal Circuit strength 1 to 3 only partially received.  Content:  Position 15 hours from escort pickup point, my short signal was not heard.  Navigation very uncertain.  (22 characters missed) request all at (20 characters missing).  Am missing 1787.  Additionally main radio station: missing [radio messages] are not applicable for the boat.  Because the most important groups were missed, I am forced to send it again, because I have, however, only a little current and air I intend to do this only at night after the battery is charged as fully as possible (sea state).  
    10.40 AF 8255 Therefore: until program time boat put on the bottom, depth 120 meters.  Will wait and see what results from program time at 16.00 hours.  
    12.00 AF 8256 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:         1.5  
                                       Submerged:   31.7 nm  
                                                            33.2 nm  
    15.30   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    16.00 AF 8256 At periscope depth.  Land to the north, rocks and mountains.  However cannot recognize any objects to get a bearing from.  
      SW 4, Sea 4, cloudy  
    16.15   Presented Radio Message 1050/2/37:  
        "Förster".  Escort positioned 2 October 17.00 hours at GR 1.  Escort vessels send 2 hours after pickup time on 400 kHz. first 5 minutes every quarter hour code letter "X". Radio beacon group 17 transmits from 1200 to 1700 hours in accordance with NBN. - 13. U.Fl.-  
    17.10 AF 8252 Surfaced in order to be able to recognize land objects to be able to navigate.  
        All anti-aircraft weapons are in an unusable condition. Shields of the weapons are torn, blocking the twins [20 mm].  All are heavily moss covered, overgrown with algae and rotted.  The 3.7 cm is also in this condition.  
    17.20 AF 8252 Dived, because I do not want to remain on the surface with these weapons unless I am forced.  
    17.48 - 18.52   Snorkeled, to charge the battery and primarily for air.  
    18.50   Beginning of twilight.  
    19.10 SW 3, Sea 2, long medium-high swell, 1008 mb Surfaced to hear bearing signals from the escort vessels, then determine, whether or not to enter.  Bearing signals not received.  
    19.43   Outgoing Radio Message 1703/2/43:  From "Förster":  
        NBN not on board.  Frequency unknown, is urgently requested.  Will enter 24 hours later.  
    19.55 AF 8252 Dived.  
           
Sun and Moon Data 02.10.44
 
- 45 -
 
           
           
           
    continued from      
    02.10.44 West Norwegian Coast    
    21.55   Presented Radio Message 1955/2/40:  
        "U-480" from 13.U.Fl.  escort positioned 2 October 17.00 hours at GR 1.  
        Presented Radio Message 1555/2/41:  
        "Förster".  Escort positioned first at 19.00 hours at GR 1.  
        With speed so as to reach the entrance to Trondheim 3 October at 08.00 hours.  
      I decide, but only on the escort pickup point on 3 October, since I assume that the escort vessels already received entry orders based on my Radio Message 1703/2/43, in any case, though I am still on the march, they will turn back.  
    23.43   Began snorkeling.  
    24.00 AF 8253    
           
    03.10.44 West of Griphölen    
    03.01   Ended snorkeling.  
    03.10   Presented Radio Message 0028/3/46:  
        13. U.Flottille to "Förster".  
        Escort positioned 3 October 19.00 hours at GR 1.  Radio beacons operate on 3 October from 02.00-06.00 and from 14.00-16.00 hours, Scrinöy 312 kHz., Kennung LME, Grip 303.5 kHz. LMV, Buholmrasa 294.5 kHz., LMU.  
    03.42 AF 8252 Surfaced to take a navigation fix on the moon, inaccurate and unusable due to poor horizon.  
    04.00 AF 8252    
      ENE 5, Sea 4, overcast, 1004 mb    
    04.03   Dived.  
    05.00   Perfect sounding by repeatedly crossing the 200 and 100-meter line with snorkel and E-motor, proves that the boat is positioned correctly in square AF 8252.  
    05.38   Beginning of twilight.  
    08.00 AF 8253    
    12.00 AF 8261 D a y' s  r u n:  
                                       Surfaced:       10.2 nm  
                                       Submerged:   19.9 nm  
                                                            30.1 nm  
    15.00 AF 8262 Surfaced to make for GR 1.  
      ENE 4, Sea 5, cloudy, Vis. good , 1005 mb Direction finding of "Grip" and "Scrinöy" confirms navigation.  A short time later "Grip" lighthouse comes into view confirming navigation.  
    15.54 AF 8341 Boat reaches GR 1, dived, put the boat on the bottom, depth 120 meters.  
    18.15   Raised the boat from the bottom.  
    18.42   Beginning of twilight.  
    18.43 AF 8341 Surfaced.  Escort vessels lie abeam 300 meters to starboard of surfacing position.  Recognition signals exchanged.  
    20.00 ENE 5, Sea 2, clear, Vis. good, full moon night    
    24.00 Weather as for 20.00    
           
    04.10.44 Trondheim Fjord    
    07.30   Released by escort.  
    08.00 Trondheim Made fast U-boat bunker.  
           
           
Sun and Moon Data 02.10.44
Sun and Moon Data 03.10.44
Sun and Moon Data 04.10.44
 
- 46 -
 
           
           
           
           
        In conclusion, lessons learned are reported:
 
     
1.) Balancing boat routine.
                                        In an operations area like the Channel is precondition: Tighten discipline within the boat, completely limiting all superfluous activity to conserve air.
                                        2 meal times a day:  hot meal at 23.30 hours up to 02.00 hours (depending on snorkel time and depth keeping characteristics).  Cold meal at 12.00 hours, otherwise no meals.
                                        A small guard watch was always set, in the boat every light turned off except for 3 to 4 lamps for operation and bilge monitoring.
                                        Waste pressed into boxes and ejected through the "decoy launcher", later now and then also by a "garbage shot" from tube V kept the boat in perfectly clean condition at all times.  Food waste was ejected through the compressed air-WC.  Without the WC, such a patrol would hardly be possible.
   
2.) Snorkeling Lessons Learned.
                                        On the basis of previous snorkel the experiences, which the crew has, as well as good snorkel discipline the snorkel ran perfectly and without difficulties at all times.  Personnel difficulties due to excessive strain on the engine personnel did not occur, despite the decrease in the Technical Division by 1 E stoker, 1 diesel stoker and 1 control room leading seaman (current Flotilla Orders), since with the normal submerged transit only small watch was set.   Malfunctions and failures were repaired quickly and safely by the staff.
                                        Snorkeling conducted in the operations area was the Brest charging condition (driving diesel 240 RPM, charging diesel 400 RPM.   2000 Amperes battery charging.) average loading time 2 to 2-1/2 hours.  The disadvantage is the large vacuum in the boat which averaged 150 to 180 mb.  Even with short undercutting the float valve on again coming free [of the water] tended to stick, so that several times snorkeling had to be interrupted.  The reason for the sticking can be found in the large vacuum, which presses against the valve seat so firmly that the weight of the float is no longer sufficient to cause an opening on coming free.  This sticking was only observed in a
 
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
 
- 47 -
 
           
           
           
           
     
  glassy sea, in heavy seas the sticking no longer occurred; probably because then the sea striking against the float causes it to open.
                                        Also the large vacuum resulted in carrying away the battery acid.  On 2 September the boat snorkeled in a head sea, sea state 5-6, with Brest charging condition.  The boat settled very badly and often cut under.  After measuring the batteries one hour after snorkeling began the acid-level of the cells had fallen about 15 to 20 mm.  Snorkeling was interrupted.  After one hour the old acid level was restored in most cells again or reduced by approximately 5 mm.  The acid was for the most part siphoned and ran back again into the cells.  The acid wells were all completely filled with acid.
                                        Depth keeping presented no problems in the operations area, because completely calm weather ruled.  Most unfavorable are short seas and next to that seas from ahead, then boat is difficult to hold and makes large depth fluctuations. With higher driving speed the boat lies quieter.  Experience during this patrol shows that the snorkel speed must not be limited to one or two driving conditions but must be driven in each case by the prevailing conditions.  Therefore, after starting the return transit, as long as the situation permitted, to conserve the battery and to avoid a large vacuum, particularly in rough seas, only charged with normal load, equals 1 600 Ampere.  The driving diesel ran at 240, 270 or 320 RPM according to sea state.
  Experienced Speed Levels:
 
Driving Diesel Charging Diesel Charging per battery
240 RPM 400 RPM 2000 Ampere/hour  --
270 RPM 350 RPM 1600 Ampere/hour  --
320 RPM 240 RPM   800 Ampere/hour  //
320 RPM - - - -   500 Ampere/hour  //
      integrated charging
                                        The charging of the battery could be always be completed until the battery was full.  The lowest acid level measured in the operations was specific gravity 1.1 at 35 mm and about 30 degrees Centigrade = 6000 ampere hour remaining capacity.  To conserve current, lighting and driving current were sharply limited.
 
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
 
- 48 -
 
           
           
           
           
     
                                        The lowest pressure state was 145 atmospheres. The Ju-compressor proved provisionally reliable.  A medium-thread coupling was used to attach a flexible metal tube (steam tube) to the exhaust line drain of the Ju-compressor and routed under the floor plates of the E-motor room to behind the port diesel, at the height of the supercharger nozzle.  The Ju-compressor ran flawlessly for the entire patrol (67.40 operating hours) and permitted great freedom in the air consumption with reduced inflation time (trimming and exhausting smaller amounts [of water] by air, thereby saving current and [causing] no loud sounds.) As a result, the Diesel Room was lightly smoked up by the Ju-compressor only aft under the ceiling.  At the [diesel engine] control station and in the E-motor room the air was untainted.  During round listening or snorkel alarm phasing out the diesel last was enough to suck out the remaining smoke.  While snorkeling with one diesel the smoke cloud is too big.
                                        The potash cartridge supply (of 550 pieces) taken on this patrol was too low.  The measured CO2 - content ranged on average from about 2.8 to 3% in the fore ship, 2.5 to 2.8% in the after ship.  The strain on the crew does not need to be needlessly increased here by false economy measures, daily consumption in the operations area should be calculated at 16 to 20 pieces per day.  In no case was Oxygen apparatus added.
                                        To satisfy the need for the greatest cruising speed with reasonable power consumption during submerged transit, current consumption for both E-motors depending on RPM was noted which led to the following result: (see curve charts Kriegstagebuch section Machinery).
                                        The lowest current consumption of the E-motors is at 65 RPM, however it is the same at 80 RPM, at 85 RPM it is about 100 to 110 ampere hours.  From the values determined during the UAK period for the submerged mile, at 65 RPM the boat makes 1.5 knots; in contrast, at 85 RPM the boat makes 2 knots, i.e. with a speed increase of 20 RPM (which only has an additional current consumption noted of about 35 ampere hours) the boat does 0.5 knots more speed.  For this reason, 85 RPM with both E-motors was run from 11 September for submerged transit.
                                        In the operations area it was showed that the boat lies best on the bottom 5 to 7 degrees down by the bow and with 300 to 500 liters negative buoyancy.  It is to be expected that by putting the boat on the bottom
   
   
   
   
 
           
           
           
           
 
- 49 -
 
           
           
           
           
     
  by day in the sometimes very strong current which dragged the boat over the bottom with a loud racket that the "Alberich skin" would be heavily damaged, particularly in the foredeck.
 
           
           
       
C  o  m  p  l  e  t  e  d  :
 
       
 
       
4 October 1944
 
       
 
       
Oberleutnant zur See
 
       
and Commander
 
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           

Appendices to U-480's KTB - click on the text at left to proceed to the documents
Radio Track chart covering entire war patrol
   
Sketch A Combat sketch for 15 August 1944
Sketch B Combat sketch for 18 August 1944
Sketch C Combat sketch for 19 August 1944
Sketch D Combat sketch for 21 August 1944
Sketch E Combat sketch for 22 August 1944
Sketch F Combat sketch for 23 August 1944

 
 
 

Commentary of the Befehlshabers der Unterseeboote

on the K.T.B. of "U-480" (Förster) from 8 July - 4 October 1944.

 

                Excellent 2nd war patrol by the Commander, the great demands made of the boat and crew were rewarded by the bestowing of the Knight's Cross.
                On the advance and return transits was aware of surveillance and went out of his way.  In the operations area considered attack chances only on valuable targets, was tenacious, the periscope was used decisively despite being only partially serviceable.  All sinking's resulted from perfect listening or visual observation.  The extremely strong appearance of the defense, the continual sound bearings of every kind did not deter commander in the pursuit of the target and were impressive.
                Skillful, exact navigation under the most difficult conditions, well run snorkel operations, tightly led inner boat organization, supplement the impeccable picture of this patrol.
 
Accredited success: 2 frigates sunk
  2 steamers with a total of 14,000 GRT sunk
  1 steamer 5000 GRT hit
 
 
 

For the Befehlshaber der Unterseeboote

 
- The Chief of Operations -
        
                         
 
 
 
 


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